A ConciseDictionary of Old Icelandic

Fonts by Monokrom

Original content by Geir T. Zoëga

HTML encoding by Tim Stridmann

CSS styling by Håkon Wium Lie

PDF formatting by Prince

Published by Oxford University Press
1910

A

a, a negative suffix to verbs, not; era útmakligt, at it is not unmeet that.

abbadis (pl. -ar), f. abbess.

abbast (), v. ref. to be angry, to quarrel (a. við e-n, upp á e-n).

abbindi (= afbindi), n. constipation.

aðal, n. nature, disposition.

aðal- in compds., chief, head, principal; -akkeri, n. sheet-anchor; -ból, n. manor; -borinn, pp. of noble birth, = óðal-borinn; -festr, f. see alaðsfestr; -fylking, f. the main body of troops, centre; -haf, n. the high sea; -henda, f. = alhenda; -hending, f. full or perfect rhyme, as góð: blóð (opposed to ‘skothending’); -hendr, a. (verse) with perfect rhymes; -kelda, f. chief well; -kirkja, f. chief part of a church, opp. to ‘forkirkja’; -liga, adv. completely, quite; -merki, n. chief banner; -ritning, f. chief writing; -skáli, m. the main hall, opp. to ‘forskáli, forhús’; -tré, n. trunk of a tree; -troll, n. downright ogre; -túlkr, m. chief spokesman.

aðild, f. chief defendantship or prosecutorship.

aðildarmaðr, m. = aðili.

aðili (-ja, -jar, later -a, -ar), m. chief defendant (varnaraðili) or prosecutor (sóknaraðili, sakaraðili).

af, prep. w. dat. I. Of place: (1) off, from; G. hljóp af hesti sínum, G. jumped off his horse; ganga af mótinu, to go away from the meeting; Flosi kastaði af sér skikkjunni, threw off his cloak; Gizzur gekk af útsuðri at gerðinu, from the south-west; hann hafði leyst af sér skúa sína, he had taken off his shoes; Steinarr vildi slíta hann af sér, throw him off; tók Gísli þá af sér vápnin, took off his arms; bréf af Magnúsi konungi, a letter from king Magnus; land af landi, from one land to the other; hverr af öðrum, one after another, in succession; vil ek þú vinnir af þér skuldina, work off the debt; muntu enga sætt af mér fá, no peace at my hand; rísa af dauða, to rise from the dead; vakna af draumi, to awaken from a dream; lúka upp af hrossi, to open a gate from off a horse; vindr stóð af landi, the wind blew from the land; (2) out of; verða tekinn af heimi, to be taken out of the world; gruflar hón af læknum, she scrambles out of the brook; Otradalr var mjök af vegi, far out of the way. Connected with út; föstudaginn fór út herrinn af borginni, marched out of the town. II. Of time; past, beyond: af ómaga-aldri, able to support oneself, of age; ek em nú af léttasta skeiði, no longer in the prime of life; þá er sjau vikur eru af sumri, when seven weeks of summer are past; var mikit af nótt, much of the night was past. III. In various other relations: (1) þiggja lið af e-m, to receive help from one; hafa umboð af e-m, to be another’s deputy; vera góðs (ills) maklegr af e-m, to deserve good (bad) of one; féll þar lið mart af Eyvindi, many of Eyvind’s men fell there; þá eru þeir útlagir ok af goðorði sínu, have forfeited their ‘goðorð’; þá skalt þú af allri fjárheimtunni, forfeit all the claim; ek skal stefna þér af konunni, summon thee to give up; (2) off, of; höggva fót, hönd, af e-m, to cut off one’s foot, hand; vil ek, at þú takir slíkt sem þér líkar af varningi, whatever you like of the stores; þar lá forkr einn ok brotit af endanum, with the point broken off; absol., beit hann höndina af, bit the hand off; fauk af höfuðit, the head flew off; (3) of, among; hinn efniligasti maðr af ungum mönnum, the most promising of the young men; (4) with; hláða, (ferma) skip af e-u, to load (freight) a ship with; fylla heiminn af sínu kyni, to fill the world with his offspring; (5) of (= ór which is more frequent); húsit var gert af timbr stokkum, was built of trunks of trees; (6) fig., eigi vita menn hvat af honum er orðit, what has become of him; hvat hefir þú gert af Gunnari, what hast thou done with Gunnar?; (7) denoting parentage, descent, origin; ok eru af þeim komnir Gilsbekkingar, are descended from them; kominn af Trójumönnum, descended from the Trojans; (8) by, of (after passive); ek em sendr hingat af Starkaði, sent hither by; ástsæll af landsmónnum, beloved of; (9) on account of, by reason of, by; úbygðr at frosti ok kulda, because of frost and cold; ómáli af áverkum, speechless from wounds; af ástæld hans, by his popularity; af því, therefore; af hví, wherefor why; af því at, because; (10) by means of, by; framfœra e-n af verkum sínum, by means of his own labour; af sínu fé, by one’s own means; absol., hann fekk af hina mestu sœmd, derived great honour from it; (11) with adjectives, in regard to; mildr af fé, liberal of money; góðr af griðum, merciful; fastr af drykk, close (stingy) in regard to drink; (12) used absol. with a verb, off away; hann bað hann þá róa af fjörðinn, to row the firth off; ok er þeir höfðu af fjörðung, when they had covered one forth of the way; sofa af nóttina, to sleep the night away.

afar, adv., used as an intensive before an adj. or another adv., very, exceedingly (a. auðigr, a. breiðr, a. vel, a. illa).

afarkosta-laust, adv. on fair terms.

afar-kostr, m. hard terms; -ligr, a. immense, huge; -menni, n. an outstanding man; -orð, n. overbearing word; -úðigr, a. overbearing; -yrði, n. pl. proud speech.

af-auðit, pp. n., e-m verðr afauðit um e-t, one has bad luck (fails) in a thing; -blómga (), v. to deprive of flowers; fig., afblómga frægð e-s, to detract from one’s fame; -boð, n. threats, high words; -bragð, n. paragon (afbragð annarra manna); in genitive as a prefix to nouns, surpassing, excellent (afbragðs vænleikr, afbragðs maðr).

afbragðligr, a. surpassing.

afbrigð, n. deviation, transgression.

afbrigðar-tré, n. tree of transgression.

af-brigði, n. (1) alteration; (2) = -brigð; -brot, n. offence, transgressi on; -brugðning, f. deviation; -brúðigr, a. jealous; -brýða (-dda, -ddr), v. to be jealous; -brýði, n. jealousy.

afburðar, gen. from ‘afburðr’, used as an intensive before adjectives and adverbs, very, exceedingly (a. digr, a. vænn, a. sterkliga, a. vel).

afburðar-maðr, m. man of mark; -samr, a. given to distinguish oneself; -skip, n. first-rate ship.

af-burðr, m. superiority; kvað honum eigi annat vænna til afburðar, to get the better of it; ok vilda ek, at hón yrði eigi með minnum afburðum, less glorious; -dalr, m. a remote, an out-oj-the-way, valley; -deilingr, m. part, portion, share; -dráttr, m. (1) diminution, deduction; (2) subtraction; -drif, n. pl. destiny, fate (líkligr til stórra afdrifa); -drykkja, f. = ofdrykkja; -dœma (-da, -dr), v. (1) to take away from one by judicial decision (afdœma e-n e-u); (2) to prohibit; -eggja (), v. to dissuade; -eigna (), v. to dispossess (afeigna e-m e-t); -eista (), v. to castrate; -erfa (-ða, -ðr), v. to disinherit; -eyringr, m. one whose ears have been cut off; -fall, n. diminution, abatement; selja e-t með afföllum, to sell at a discount.

affara-, gen. pl. from ‘afför’, departure; hence affara-dagr, m. the last day of a feast; -dagr jóla, Twelth Night; affara-kveld, n. the last evening of a feast.

af-feðrast (), v. to degenerate; -ferma (-da, -dr), v. to unload (afferma skip); -fletta (-tta, -ttr), v. to strip (affletta e-n e-u); -flutningr, m. (1) depreciation; (2) dissuasion; -flytja (see flytja), v. (1) to disparage (afflytja fyrir e-m); (2) to represent as unadvisable; -fœra, v. to misrepresent; -gamall, a. very old, decrepit; -ganga, f. (1) digression; (2) deviation from the right course (afganga guðs laga); -gangr, m. (1) surplus; hafa hey með afgöngum, to spare; afgangs, left over, remaining; (2) decease, death; -gelja, f. chattering; -gipt, f. indulgence, absolution.

afgiptar-bréf, n. letter of indulgence.

af-gjarn, a. eager to be off (afgjarnt er öfundarfé); -gjöf, f. tribute; -glapa (), v. to disturb an assembly or public meeting; -glapan, f. disturbance (þings afglapan); -glapi, m. fool, simpleton; -greizla, f. payment, contribution.

afgöngu-dagr, m. = affara-dagr.

af-gøra (-ða, -ðr), v. to do amiss, do wrong (ek hefi engan hlut afgørt við þik); -gørð, f. transgression, offence; -hallr, a. having a downward slope; -haugr, m. side-mound; -hefð, f. withholding, anothet’s property; -helgast (), refl. to become unholy, to be profaned; -hellir, m. side-cave; -henda (-nda, -ndr), v. (1) to hand over; (2) to pay (afhenda skuld); -hendis, adv. off one’s hand; -hendr, a. out of one’s hand; segja e-n (sér) afhendan, to give one up; -hent, a. n. unfit (e-m er e-t afhent); -heyrandi, pr. p. out of hearing; absent, opp. to ‘áheyrandi’; -heyris, adv. out of hearing, opp. to ‘áheyris’; -hlaup, n. surplus; -hlutr, m. share of a thing; -hlýðast (-dd), v. refl. to disobey; -hrapi, m. impoverishment; -hroð, n. damage, loss; gjalda mikit afhroð, to sustain a heavy loss; gera mikit afhroð, to make great havoc; -huga, a. indecl. having turned one’s mind from; verða afhuga e-u, to mind no more; -hugaðr, a. = -huga (-hugaðr við e-t); -hugast (), v. refl. to put out of one’s mind, with dat.; -hús, n. outhouse, side-apartinent; -hvarf, n. deviation from the direct path (opp. to ‘gagnvegr’); -hýða (-dda, -ddr), v. to scourge thoroughly; -hylja (see hylja), v. to uncover; -hyrning, f. by-corner, recess; -hæra (-ðs, -ðr), v. to cut off the hair; -höfða (), v. to behead; -högg, n. hewing off, mutilation; chippings.

afi, m. (1) grandfather; (2) man; a. eptir afa, in regular descent.

af-kaup, n. bad bargain (opp. to ‘hagkeypi’).

af-kárr, a. strange, prodigious.

afkleyfis-orð, n., -samstafa, f. a superfluous word, syllable (in a verse).

af-klæða (-dda, -ddr), v. to undress; refl., afklæðast, to undress oneself; -komandi (pl. -endr), m. descendant; -kvistr, m. lateral branch, offshoot; -kvæmi, n. offspring.

afkvæmis-maðr, m. descendant.

af-kynjaðr, pp. degenerate; -kynjast (), v. refl. to degenerate.

afl, m. hearth of a forge.

afl, n. (1) physical strength (ramr styrkr, at afli); (2) force, violence taka með afli, by force; (3) plurality of votes, majority; ok skal afl ráda, the majority shall decide; (4) virtue, inherent power; a. dauðfœrandi grasa, the virtue of poisonous herbs.

afla (), v. to gain, earn, procure (a. e-m e-s); a. sér fjár ok frama, to earn fame and wealth; aflaði þessi bardagi honum mikillar frægðar, brought him great fame; (2) with acc., to earn (aflaði hann þar fé mikit); refl., e-m aflast e-t, one gains a thing; (3) with dat., to perform, accomplish (hann aflaði brátt mikilli vinnu); with infin., to be able (ekki aflar hann því at standa í móti yður).

afla-fár, a. short of strength; e-m verðr afla-fátt, one fails in strength.

aflag, n. (1) slaughtering of cattle; (2) gen., aflags = afgangs, left over.

af-laga, adv. unlawfully; -lagliga, adv. = aflaga.

afla-lítill, a. deficient in strength, weak; -maðr, m. powerful man; -mikill, a. (1) strong; (2) powerful; -munr, m. odds; etja við -muninn, to fight against odds.

aflan, f. gain, acquisition.

aflanar-maðr, m. good steward.

afla-skortr, m. short-coming in power or strength; -stund, f. fishing season.

af-lausn, f. (1) discharge (release) from claim or obligation; (2) absolution, indulgence (aflausn synda); -lot, n. (1) leaving off, relinquishing (aflát synda, misverka); án afláti, incessantly; (2) remission, pardon (aflat misgerninga, synda); -láta (see láta), v. with infin. to cease; -leggja (see leggja), v. (1) to put aside; (2) to give up, abandon; -leiðing, f. (1) terms; góðar afleiðingar eru með þeim, they are on good terms; (2) metric., continuation; -leiðingr, m. = afleiðing (1); þeir skildu góðan afleiðing, they parted on friendly terms; -leiðis, adv. (1) out of the right path or course (sigla afleiðis); (2) fig., ganga afleiðis, to go astray; snua (draga, fœra) e-t afleiðis, to pervert, misrepresent (þú fœrðir orð þeirra afleiðis); snúa e-m afleiðis, to lead astray; -leifar, f. pl. leavings, remnants; -leitinn, a. of odd appearance; -leitliga, adv. perversely (illa ok afleitliga); -leitligr, a. perverse, deformed; -leitr, a. (1) strange, hideous, disgusting (hversu afleitir oss sýnast þeirra hættir); (2) with dat., deserted by; afleitr hamingjunni, luckless; -lendis, adv. abroad (= erlendis); -lendr, a. far from land, in open sea; -letja (see letja), v. to dissuade from (afletja e-n at gera e-t, afletja e-t fyrir sér); -létta (-tta, -tt), v. to cease; cf. létta af; -léttr, a. prompt, ready.

afl-fátt, a. n. short of strength; e-m verðr -fátt, one fails in strength.

afl-gróf, f. forge-fit; -hella, f. hearth-stone in a forge.

afli, m. (1) means, gain, earnings, proceeds (afli ok herfang); (2) might, power; hafa afla til einskis, to have means for nothing, be unable to do anything; (3) troops, forces; þeir draga afla at ýður, they gather forces against you; aflinn (the main body) Magnúss, konungs flýði allr.

af-lima (), v. to dismember, mutilate; -lima, a. indecl. (1) dismembered, mutilated; (2) fig., verða aflima, to lose the use of one’s limbs, to become paralysed; verða e-m aflima, to be parted from (ek kveð aflima orðnar þérdísir); -liman, f. dismembering, mutilation.

afl-lauss, a. nerveless, weak, palsied, paralytic; -leysi, n. weakness, nervelessness; -lítill, a. weak, feeble; -mikill, a. strong, of great strength.

af-lofa, v. to prohibit; -loka (), v. to open (afloka hurðina).

afl-raun, f. trial (proof) of strength (þótti þetta mikill -raun); pl. bodily exercises (Skallagrímr hendi mikit gaman at -raunum ok leikum); -skortr, m. lack of strength; (skortr við þik fyrrum).

afls-maðr, m. strong man; -munr, m. difference in strength, odds.

afl-vani, a. deficient in strength; verða afl-vani, to succumb, be over-powered.

afl-vóðvi, m. the biceps muscle.

af-lögliga, adv. unlawfully; -lögligr, a. unlawful, contrary to law; -má (see ), v. to blot out, destroy; -mœðra (), v. to wean; -nám, n. (1) taking away, extirpation, destruction; (2) at afnámi, by reservation (before division of property, spoil, or inheritance); (3) loss (ef hann verðr at skaða þeim mönnum, er oss mun þykkja afnám í); (4) surplus.

afnáms-fé, n., -gripr, m. goods, an article of value, taken before a division; cf. afnám (2).

af-nefjaðr, pp. having the nose cut off, noseless; -neita ( or -tta, -tt), v. (1) to renounce (afneita veröldinni); (2) deny, refuse (eigi vil ek því afneita); -neitan, -neiting, f. abnegation, renunciation, denial; -neyzla, f. use (afneyzla skógarins); -nita (-tta, -tt), v. = -neita.

afr, n. some kind of beverage.

afr, a. strong (a. í tvau áss brotnaði).

af-ráð, n. payment; gjalda afráð, to pay heavily, suffer severely.

af-reið, f. setting off on horseback.

af-reizla, f. outlay, payment.

af-rek, n. great achievement, deed of prowess (vinna afrek; margir lofuðu mjök afrek Egils).

af-reka (), v. to achieve, perform (munu þér mikit afreka).

afreks-gripr, m. a thing of great value; -maðr, m. a valiant man, hero; -verk, n. valiant deed, great achievement, exploit.

af-remma, f. restriction, encumbrance.

afrendi, f. strength, valour; afrendr, a. strong (a. at afli); cf. afr-hendr.

af-rétt, f. common pasture, = af-réttr.

afréttar-dómr, m. a court held for deciding causes concerning common pasture; -menn, m. pl. partners in common pasture.

af-réttr, m. common pasture (þat er afréttr, er tveir menn eigo saman eða fleiri).

afr-hendr, a. strong, = afrendr.

af-roð, n. = afhroð, afráð; -róg, n. justification, excuse; -ruðningr, m. clearing of, defence; -runr (pl. -ir), m. injury, wrong; -rœkja (-ta, -tr), v. to neglect, = úrœkja (afrœkja boð e-s); refl., afrœkjast e-u or e-t, to neglect; to leave off (konungar afrœktust at sitja at Uppsölum); -saka (), v. to excuse, exculpate; -sakan, f. excuse, exculpation; -sanna (), v. to prove to be false, refute; -segja (see segja), v. (1) to resign, renounce (afsagði hann sér heiminn); (2) to refuse, deny (þeir afsögðu leiðangr úti at hafa); -setning, f. deposition; -siða, a. indecl. immoral; -sifja (), v. to alienate from one’s family (afsifja sér e-t); -síða, adv. aside, apart; -skapligr, a. monstrous, huge, shocking (afskapligt áfelli); -skeiðis, adv. out of the right path, astray, = afleiðis, afvegis; -skipan, f. dismissal, deposition; -skipta, a. indecl. wronged, cheated; vera görr afskipta, to be wronged.

afskipta-lauss, a. having nothing to do with (gera sér -lauss -við e-n); -lítill, a. caring little about (um e-t); -samr, a. = afskiptinn.

af-skipti, n. pl. dealings (with), intercourse (ok engi afskipti veita heiðnum goðum); -skiptinn, a. meddlesome; -skiptr, pp. (1) wronged, cheated; (2) afskiptr af e-u, void of, leaving no interest in; -skrámligr, a. hideous, monstrous (afskrámligt illvirki); -skræmiliga, adv. hideously; óttast afskræmiliga, to be scared at; -skurðr, m. cutting, off; -skyld, f. obligation, encumbrance; -sliðra (), v. to unsheath; -smekkr, m. taste; -snið, n. a bit cut off, snip; -sniðning, f. cutting or snipping off.

afsniðningar-járn, n. chopper.

af-sniðis, adv. obliquely, aslant (afsniðis um handlegginn); -spraki, m. rumour, news; -springi, n. (1) offspring, progeny; (2) produce, growth of the earth; -springr, m. (1) = -springi; (2) band, detachment; (3) fig. offshoot (er mikill ván, at þar verði nökkur afspringr af þessum ófriði); (4) rumour, notice (fá nökkurn afspring um e-t); -spurn, f. news, information; -standa (see standa), v. to cease, part with; -stigr, m. bypath; -stúka, f. side-nook, side-room; -styrmi, n. manikin, pigmy; -svar, n. refusal; veita e-a afsvör, to refuse, deny; -svara (), v. to deny, refuse (afsvara e-u or um e-t); -sveipa (), v. to uncover (afsveipa líkit); -sviptr, pp. deprived of; afsviptr þinni ásjónu, cut off from thy countenance; -sýnis, adv. out of sight; -sæll, a. unfortunate, luckless.

af-tak, n. (1) taking away; (2) slaying, manslaughter; hvat hann vildi bjóða fyrir aftak Geirsteins, for the slaying of G.; -taka, f. (1) taking away, loss; (2) slaying, = aftak (hann hafði verit at aftöku Þorkels fóstra).

aftaka-maðr, m. a determined person (-maðr um e-t); -minni, a. compar. less stubborn, more pliable.

af-tekja, f. revenue (ábúð ok aftekja staðanna); -tekning, f. taking away; -tekt, f. (1) = aftekja; (2) = aftak 2; -telja (see telja), v. to represent as unadvisable, dissuade (aftelja e-t fyrir e-m); -tigna (), v. to strip of dignity or honour; -trúa, f. unbelief heresy; -trúa (), v. to make one abandon his religious faith; refl., aftrúast, to fall into unbelief; -tœkiligr, a. adviseable; -tœkr, a. blameworthy (at fáitt muni vera aftœkt um skapsmuni yðra); -tœma (-da, -dr), v. to empty; refl., aftœmast, to be emptied or cleared of (e-u).

afusa, f. gratitude; see ‘aufusa’.

af-valdr, a. vera afvaldr e-u or e-s, to be the cause of a thing; af-vega, adv. out of the right way, astray; -vegaðr, pp. led astray, misled; -vegar, -vegis, adv. = -vega; -velta, a. indecl. fallen on the back and unable to rise; -vensla, f. expenses, outlay; -vik, n. creek, recess; -vinna, f. = afvensla.

af-virða (-rða, -rðr), v. (1) to disgrace, dishonour (afvirða náunga sinn); afvirða fyrir e-m, to throw a slur on one; (2) to detest, abhor (afvirða ódáðirnar); refl., afvirðast, to think it unworthy of oneself, with infin.

afvirðiligr, a. detestable, mean.

af-virðing, f. disparagement, depreciation; -vænn, a. unexpected, = úvænn; -vöxtr, m. decrease, loss, opp. to ‘ávöxtr’.

af-þokka (), v. to disparage, discredit, to bring into discredit (afþokka fyrir e-m); refl., afþokkast e-m, to displease; -þokkan, f. (1) disparagement; (2) displeasure, dislike; -þvattr, m. washing off, ablution; -þýða (-dda, -ddr), v. = afvirða, afþokka; -æta, f. a great bully.

aga, v. impers., nú agir við, now there is a great uproar.

aga-lauss, a. (1) free from disturbances (var nú allt kyrt ok agalaust); (2) undiminished; -samligr, a. unruly; -samr, a. turbulent; agasamt mun þá verða í heraþinu, ef, there will be uproar in the district, if.

agi, m. (1) awe, terror (þá skelfr jörð óll í aga miklum); (2) uproar, turbulence (a. ok úfriðr); (3) discipline, constraint.

agn, n. bait; ganga á agnit, to nibble the bait; -sax, n. a knife for cutting bait; -ör, f. barb of a fish hook.

aka (ek, ók, ókum, ekinn), v. (1) to drive (a vehicle or animal drawing a vehicle), with dat.: gott er heilum vagni heim at a., it is good to get home safe and sound; a. þrennum eykjum, with three yoke of horses; (2) to carry or convey in a vehicle, to cart, with dat. or acc. (hann ók heyjum sínum á yxnum; hann ók skarni á hóla); a. saman hey, to cart hay; líkin váru ekin í sleða, carried in a sledge; (3) with the prep. í or á; Freyr ók í kerru með gelti; ríðr Þ. hesti þeim, er hann hafði ekit á; (4) absol., to drive in a vehicle (fóru þeir í sleðann ok óku alla nóttina); with acc. of the road (óku úrgar brautir); (5) naut., to trim the sail (a. seglum at endilöngum skipum); (6) to remove, with dat.; ók hann af sér fjötrinum, worked it off by rubbing; ók Oddr sér þar at, worked himself thither (of a fettered prisoner); a. e-m á bug or a. bug; á e-n, to make one give way, repel; intrans. = akast, to move slowly; hvárrgi ók (gave way) fyrir oðrum; a. undan, to retire, retreat; (7) impers., hart ekr at e-m, one is in great straits; ekr nú mjók at, I am hard pressed; e-m verðr nær ekit, one gets into straits, is hard pressed; refl., e-m ekst e-t í tauma, one is thwarted in a thing.

akarn, n. acorn.

ak-braut, f. carriage-road; -fmri, n. driving gear, carriage and harness.

akkeri, n. anchor; liggja um akkeri, to lie at anchor; leggjast um a., to cast anchor; heimta upp a., to weigh anchor; a. hrífr við, the anchor holds.

akkeris-fleinn, m. fluke of an anchor; -lauss, a. without anchor; -leggr, m. shank of an anchor; -lægi, n. anchorage; -sát, f. = -lægi; -stokkr, m. anchor-stock; -strengr, m. anchor-rope, cable; -sæti, n. = -sát.

akr (gen. akrs, pl. akrar), m. (1) field, corn-field (bleikir akrar en slegin tún); (2) crop (þeir hófðu niðrbrotit akra hans alla).

akra-ávöxtr, m. produce of the fields; -gerði, n. enclosure of arable land; -merkil, n. field-boundary; -skipti, n. parcelling out of fields; -spillir, m. destroyer of fields.

akr-dái, m. a kind of weed (galeopsis); -deili, n. patch of arable land; -for, f. plough-forrow; -gerð, f. agriculture.

akrgerðar-maðr, m. husbandman.

akr-gerði, n. enclosure of arable land; -hæna, f. quail; -karl, m. ploughman, reaper; -kál, n. potherbs; -kvísl, f. dung-fork, = mykikvísl; -land, n. arable land; -lengd, f. field’s length (svá at akrlengd var í millum þeirra); -lykkja, f. = -gerði; -maðr, m. = -karl, akrgerðarmaðr.

akrplógs-maðr, m. ploghman.

akr-rein, f. strip of arable land; -skipti, n. division of a field; -skurðr, m. reaping.

akrskurðar-maðr, m. reaper.

akr-súra, f. field-sorrel; -tíund, f. tithe paid on arable land; -verð, n. price of a corn field; -verk, field-work, harvest-work.

akrverks-maðr, m. husbandman; tiller of the ground.

akta (), v. (1) to number, tax, value (a. fólkit, a. vísaeyri konungs); (2) to examine, search into (aktið þér ok öll leyni þau, er hann má felast); (3) to devote attention to, to study (a. ýmisligar íþróttir, bókligar listir); (4) to procure (a. þá hluti er hinum sjúka henta); a. e-t inn, to furnish, supply; (5) to debate, discuss in parliament (nú sem þetta var aktat, gengu menn til lögréttu).

ak-tamr, a. tame under the yoke (griðungr -tamr); -taumr, m. esp. in pl. aktaumar, braces (straps) of a sail (cf. aka segli); Þórarinn hafði -taumana um herðar sér, had the braces round his shoulders; sitja í -taumum, to manage the sail; fig., to have the whole management of a thing.

ala (el, ól, ólum, alinn), v. (1) to beget; born ólu þau, they begat children; börn þau, er hann elr við þeirri konu, begets by that woman; (2) to bear, give birth to (þóra ól barn um sumarit); börn þau óll, er alin eru fyrir jól, who are born before Christmas; alnir ok úalnir (= úbornir), born and unborn, present and future generations; (3) to bring up (children); ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, every child that is born shall be brought up; adding the particle ‘upp’ skal eigi upp alla, heldr út bera arn þetta, this child shall not be brought up, but be exposed to perish; of animals, to rear, breed (einn smásauð, er hann ól heima í húsi sínu); (4) to give food to, harbour, entertain (a. gest ok ganganda); guð elr gesti, God pays for the guests; (5) fig. in various phrases; a. aldr, a. aldr sinn, to pass one’s days; a. sút to grieve, mourn (= sýta); a. önn of e-t or at e-u, to take care of, see to; a. e-t eptir e-m, to give one encouragement in a thing (ól hann eptir engum mönnum ódáðir); a. á mál, to press or urge a matter (nú elr Gunnarr á málit við þórð ok segir).

alaðs-festr, f. the last ounce (eyrir) of the sum ‘fjörbaugr’ to be paid by a convict in the Court of Execution.

al-auðn, f. total devastation; -auðr, a. altogether waste; -bata, a. indecl completely cured, quite well; -berr, a. (1) quite bare, stark-naked; (2) manifest; -bitinn, pp. bitten all over; -bjartr, a. quite bright, brilliant; -blindr, a. stone-blind; -blóðugr, a. bloody all over; -breiðr, a. of the full breadth (albreitt lérept); -brotinn, pp. quite broken, shattered; -brynjaðr, pp. cased in mail; -búa (see búa), v. to fit out, furnish or equip completely (albúa kirkju); -búinn, pp. (1) completely equipped (ok er Björn var albúinn ok byrr rann á); (2) albúinn e-s, at gera e-t, quite ready (willing) to do a thing; -bygðr, pp. completely inhabited, at albygðu landi, after the colinization was finished.

alda, f. a heavy (swelling) wave, a roller.

alda, gen. pl. of ‘öld’.

aldafars-bók, f. = De Ratione Temporum, a work by Bede (svá segir heilagr Beda í -bók þeirri, er hann gerði um landaskipan í heiminum).

alda-mót, n. pl. the meeting of two (lunar) cycles, change of cycles.

aldar, gen. sing. of ‘öld’.

aldar-eðli, n. everlasting possession (at -eðli); -faðir, m. patriarch; -far, n. spirit or manners of the age; -mál, n. tenure for life; -menn, m. pl., hinir fyrstu -menn várir, our first ancestors; -rof, n. end of ages; -róg, n. strife of men; -tal, n. age (gamall at -tali); -trygðir, f. pl. everlasting truce; -þopti, m. = aldavinr.

alda-skipti, n. change of time; -tal, n. (1) chronology; (2) computation of time (by the various chronological cycles).

al-dauða, a. indecl. dead and gone, extinct (eptir dauða Haralds var aldauða hin forna ætt Danakonunga); aldauða arfr, inheritance to which there is no heir alive.

alda-vinr, m. old, trusty friend.

aldin, n. tree-fruit (nuts, acorns, apples); fig., blezat sé a. kviðar þíns, the fruit of thy womb.

aldin-berandi, pr. p. bearing fruit.

aldin-falda, a. indecl. wearing an old-fashioned head-dress.

aldin-garðr, m. garden, orchard.

aldini, n. = aldin.

aldin-lauss, a. bearing no fruit (-laust tré).

aldinn, a. old (inn aldni jötunn).

aldin-skógr, n. wood of fruit-trees; -tré, n. fruit-tree; -viðr, m. fruitbearing trees.

aldr (gen. aldrs), m. (1) age, life-time; sautján vetra at aldri, seventeen years of age; ungr at aldri, young; á ungum aldri, in (one’s) youth; á gamals aldri, in (one’s) old age; hniginn at aldri, in the decline of life; hniginn á efra aldr, stricken in years; á léttasta aldri, in the prime of life; lifa langan aldr, to enjoy a long life; nema, ræna e-n aldri, to take one’s life; týna (slíta) aldri, to lose one’s life; (2) old age; vera við a., to be up in years; aldri farinn or orpinn, very old; (3) long period, age (eptir marga vetr ok mikinn a.); allan a. through all time, always; of a., um a. (ok æfi), for ever and ever; after a negation, ever (þvílíka gersemi höfum vér eigi sét um a.); hverr um a. var svá djarfr, who ever was so bold?

aldraðr, a. elderly (öldruð kona).

aldr-dagar, m. pl., um -daga, for ever and ever (= um aldr); -fremd, f. everlasting honour.

aldri, adv. (1) never (a. skal ek heðan ganga fyrr en hann ríss upp); (2) ever, after a preceding negative or a comparative (er nú ørvænt at vér munum a. fá dýr skotit); gerðu þá verra en aldri fyrr, worst than ever before.

aldrigi (aldri-gi, dat. of aldr with the negative suffix -gi), adv. = aldri.

aldr-lag, n. (1) one’s appointed lot or fortune, destiny; (2) end of life, death; verða e-m at -lagi, to bring one to his end.

aldr-lok, n. pl. end of life, death; -máli, m. tenure for life; -nari, m. poet. name of fire; -runar, f. pl. life-runes, charms for preserving life; -sáttr, a. on terms of peace forever; -slit, n. pl. end of life, death (til -slita).

aldre-munr, m. difference in years.

aldr-stamr, a. fey, doomed to death; -tili, m. loss of life, death; -tjón, n. loss of life; -tregi, m. life-long sorrow.

ald-rœnn, a. elderly, aged.

aldyggiligr, -dyggr, a. faithful; -dæli, a. very easy to deal with, gentle.

aleiga, f. one’s entire property; aleigu-mál, n., -sök, f. a suit involving a person’s whole property.

al-eyða (-dda, -ddr), v. to lay totally waste, devastate; -eyða, f. devastation; gera aleyðu, to turn into a wilderness; -eyða, a. indecl. altogether waste, empty, void of people (þar var aleyða at mönnum); hann brennir ok gerir aleyða landit, makes the land an utter waste.

al-fari, a. fara (ríða í brott) al-fari, to go away (ride off) for good; -farinn, pp. worn out, far gone; -feginn, a. very glad; -frjáls, a. quite free; -fróðr, a. very wise; -fullr, a. quite full; -fúinn, a. quite rotten; -föðr, m. father of all (name of Odin); -gangsa, a. indecl. quite common; -geldr, a. quite gelded; -gera (-ða, -ðr), v. to finish, make perfect.

alger-leikr, m. perfection; -liga, adv. completely, fully; -ligleikr, m. = -leikr.

al-gerr, a. perfect, complete; finished; -gervi, f. (1) perfection; (2) full attire; -gildi, n. full value.

algildis-vitni, n. competent witness.

al-gjafta, a. indecl. stall-fed; -gleymingr, m. great glee; slá á algleyming, to become very merry; -góðr, a. perfectly good; -grár, a. quite grey; -gróinn, pp. perfectly healed; -grœnn, a. quite green; -gullinn, a. all-golden; -gæft, adv. fully.

al-gøraal-gørvi, see algera, &c.

al-heiðinn, a. utterly heathen; -heilagr, a. all-holy; -heill, a. (1) completely whole, entire; (2) perfectly healthy (alheill at líkam); -heilsa, f. perfect health; -henda, f. a metre having two pairs of rhyming words in every line; -hending, f. = -henda; -hendr, a. with full rhyme in every line (tvau kvæði alhend); -hreinn, a. quite pure, clean; -huga, a. indecl. wholehearted, in full earnest; -hugat, pp. n. resolved, fully determined; ef þér er þat alhugat, if you are in real earnest; adv. in earnest, sincerely (iðrast alhugat); -hugi, m. earnest; þetta er alhugi minn, I am in real earnest; -hugligr, a. sincere; -hungraðr, a. starving, famished; -húsa (), v. to build fully; -hvítr, a. quite white; -hýsa (-ta, -tr), v. = -húsa; alhýst, with all the buildings finished; -hýsi, n. all the farm-buildings; -hœgr, a. quite easy; smooth (alhœgt tungubragð).

ali-björn, m. tame bear; -dýr, n. domestic animal; -fískr, m. fish fattened in a pond; -fugl, m. tame fowl; -gás, f. tame goose.

alin (gen. sing. alnar or álnar; pl. alnar or álnir), f. = öln; (1) the old Icelandic ell (about half a yard); (2) unit of value, an ell of woollen stuff (a. vaðmáls), = one sixth of an ounce(eyrir).

ali-sauðr, m. home-fed (pet) sheep; -svín, n. tame swine.

al-jafn, a. quite equal; -járnaðr, pp. shod on all four feet; -keyptr, pp. dearly bought, = fullkeyptr; -klæðnaðr, m. a full suit of clothes; -kristinn, a. entirely Christian; -kristnaðr, pp. completely christianized; -kunna, a. indecl. (1) universally known, notorious (sem alkunna er orðit); (2) fully informed; unz alkunna, until I hnow the whole; -kunnigr, a., -kunnr, a. notorious; -kyrra, a. indecl. completely calm, tranquil.

all- may be prefixed to almost every adjective and adverb in an intensive sense, very, extremely; -annt, a. n. very eager; -apr, a. very harsh; -auðsóttligr, a. very easy to accomplish; -auðveldliga, adv. very easily; -auðveldr, a. very easy; -ágætr, a. very famous; -áhyggjusamliga, adv. very anxiously; -ákaftiga, adv. with much ardour; -ákaft, adv. very fast (riða -ákaft); -áræðiliga, adv. very oppositely; -áræðislítill, a. very timid; -ástúðligr, a. very hearty, intimate; -beinn, a. very hospitable; -beiskr, a. very harsh, bitter; -bitr, a. very sharp; -bjartr, a. very bright, splendid; -bjúgr, a. very much bent; -bliðliga, adv. very kindly; -blíðr, a. very mild, gentle; -bráðgórr, a. very precocious; -brosligr, a. very laughable, funny; -digr, a. very big; -djarfliga, adv. very boldly; -drengiliga, adv. very gallantly; -dræmt, adv. very boastfully; -dýrr, a. very dear; -eigulegr, a. very precious; -einarðliga, adv. very frankly, sincerely; -eldiligr, a. of a very aged appearance; -fagr, a. very bright, fair; -fast, adv. very firmly; drekka -fast to drink very hard; -fastorðr, a. very true to one’s word; -fámáligr, a. of very few words; -fámennr, a. followed or attended to by very few persons; -fáræðinn, a. very chary of words; -feginn, a. very glad; -fegin-samliga, adv. very gladly; -feigligr, a. having the mark of death plain on one’s face; -feitr, a. very fat; -fémikill, a. very costly; -fjarri, adv. very far, far from; -fjartekit, pp. n. very far fetched; -fjölkunnigr, a. very deeply versed in sorcery; -fjölmennr, a. followed or attended by very many people; in very great numbers; -fjölrœtt, pp. n. very much talked of; -forsjáll, a. very prudent; -frekr, a. very daring; -fríðr, a. very beautiful; -fróðr, a. very learned; -frægr, a. very famous; -fúss, a. very eager; -fýsiligr, a. very desirable.

All-föðr, m. father of all (a name of Odin).

all-gamall, a. very old; -gemsmikill, a. very wanton; -gerla, adv. very clearly, precisely; -gerviligr, a. very manly; -gestrisinn, a. very hospitable; -geysiligr, a. very impetuous; -glaðliga, adv. very joyfully; -glaðr, a. very joyfull; -glatt, adv. very bright (ljós brann -glatt); -gleymr, a. very gleefull, in high spirits (verða -gleymr við e-t); -glæsiligr, a. very shiny, splendid; -gløggsær, a. clearly visible, very transparent; -gløggt, adv. very precisely (vita e-t -gløggt); -góðr, a. very good; -góðvænliga, adv. very promisingly; -grimmr, a. very cruel or fierce; -grunsamliga, adv. very suspiciously; -gørla, adv. = -gerla; -gørviligr, a. = -gerviligr; -harðr, a. very hard, stern; -heimskr, a. very silly, stupid; -herðimikill, a. very broad-shouldered; -hjaldrjúgr, a. very talkative; -hógliga, adv. very gently; -hraustr, a. very valiant; -hrumliga, adv. very infirmly (from age); -hræddr, a. very much afraid; -hræðinn, a. very timid; -hugsjúkr, a. very much grieved, anxious; -hvass, a. blowing very hard (var -hvast í norðan); -hyggiligr, a. very prudent judicious; -hæðiligr, a. very scoffing; -hældreginn, a. very slow in walking, dragging the heels; -hœgliga, adv. gently, meekly (svara -hœgliga); -iðinn, a. very diligent; -illa, adv. very badly; -illr, a. very bad; -jafnlyndr, a. very calin, even-tempered.

al-ljóss, a. (1) quite light; dagr aljóss, broad daylight; (2) quite clear.

all-kaldr, a. very cold; -kappsamliga, adv. with zery much zeal, very liberally; -karlmannliga, adv. very manfully; -kaupmannliga, adv. in a very businesslike way; -kátligr, a. very funny; -kátr, a. very merry; -kerskiligr, a. very funny, pleasant; -kynligr, a. very strange; -kærr, a. very dear, beloved; -langr, a. very long; -laust, adv. very loosely; -lágr, a. very low, short of stature; -léttbrúnn, a. of very cheerful countenance; -léttmælt, pp. n. very cheerfully spoken; -léttr, a. very light (in weight); -líkliga, adv. in very agreeable terms; -líkligr, a. very likely; -líkr, a. very like; -lítill, a. very little; -lyginn, a. much given to lying; -mannhættr, a. very dangerous; -mannskœðr, a. very murderous; -mannvænn, a. (a man) of very great promise; -margliga, adv. very affably; -margmæltr, a. very talkative; -margr, a. very numerous; pl. allmargir, very many; -margrœtt, pp. n. very much spoken of; -málugr, a. very loquacious; -máttfarinn, a. very much worn out; -máttlítill, a. very weak; -meginlauss, a. very void of strength; -mikill, a. very great; -misjafnt, adv. very variously, in very different ways; -ljóss, a. very light; -mjór, a. very slim, slender; -mjök, adv. very much; -nauðigr, a. very reluctant; -nauðuliga, adv. very dangerously (-nauðuliga staddr); -náinn, a. very near, nearly related; -nær, adv. very near; -nærri, adv. = -nær.

al-loðinn, a. shaggy all over; -lokit, pp. n. entirely gone.

all-opt, adv. very often; -orðfátt, a. n., gera allorðfátt um, to be very chary of words as to; -ógurligr, a. very frightfull.

allr (öll, allt), a. (1) all, entire, whole; hón á allan arf eptir mik, she has all the heritage after me; af öllum hug, with all (one’s) heart; hvítr a., white all over; bú allt, the whole estate; allan daginn, the whole day; í allri veröld, in the whole world; allan hálfan mánuð, for the entire fortnight; with addition of ‘saman’; allt saman féit, the whole amount; um þenna hernað allan saman, all together; (2) used almost adverbially, all, quite, entirely; klofnaði hann a. í sundr, he was all cloven asunder, kváðu Örn allan villast, that he was altogether bewildered; var Hrappr a. brottu, quite gone; a. annarr maðr, quite another man; (3) gone, past; áðr þessi dagr er a., before this day is past; var þá óll þeirra vinátta, their friendship was all over; allt er nú mitt megin, my strength is exhausted, gone; (4) departed, dead (þá er Geirmundr var a.); (5) neut. sing. (allt) used as a subst. in the sense of all, everything; eigi er enn þeirra allt, they have not yet altogether won the game; þá var allt (all, everybody) við þá hrætt; hér er skammætt allt, here everything is transient; with a compar. all the more (því öllu þungbærri); with gen., allt missera (= öll misseri), all the year round; allt annars, all the rest; at öllu annars, in all other respects; alls fyrst, first of all; alls mest, most of all; in adverbial phrases: at öllu, in all respects, in every way; í öllu, in everything; með öllu, wholly, quite; neita með öllu, to refuse outright; (6) pl. allir (allar, öll), as adj. or substantively, all (þeir gengu út allir); ór öllum fjórðungum á landinu, from all the quarters of the land; allir aðrir, all others, every one else; flestir allir, nearly all, the greatest part of; gen. pl. (allra) as an intensive with superlatives, of all things, all the more; nú þykkir mér þat allra sýnst, er, all the more likely, as; allra helzt, er þeir heyra, particularly now when they hear; allra sízt, least of all.

allraheilagra-messa, f., -messudagr, m. All Hallow-mass, All Saints’ day.

all-rammskipaðr, pp. very strongly manned; -rauðr, a. very red; -ráðligr, a. very advisable; -reiðiligr, a. looking very angry; -reiðr, a. very angry; -ríkmannligr, a. very grand, magnificent; -rikr, a. very powerful; -röskliga, adv. very briskly.

alls, gen. sing. of ‘allr’, used as an adv.; (1) a. ekki (eigi), not at all, by no means; þeir ugðu a. ekki at sér, they were not a bit afraid; a. engi, no one at all; sometimes without a negative following it, quite, altogether; ær a. geldar, ewes quite barren; a. vesall, altogether wretched; hann var eigi a. tvítugr, not quite twenty years old; (2) in connection with numbers, in all; alls fórust níu menn, there perished nine in all; (3) far; alls of lengi, alls til lengi, far too long a time.

alls, conj. as, since (a. þú ert góðr drengr kallaðr); with addition of ‘er’ (a. er þú ert svá þráhaldr á þínu máli).

all-sannligr, a. very likely; -sáttfúss, a. very placable; -seinn, a. very slow; -seint, adv. very slowly.

alls-endis, adv., esp. with a preceding negative, in every respect, quite, thoroughly; also, til alls-endis; -háttar, adv. of every kind.

allsherjar-, general, public, common; -búð, f. the booth of the -goði; -dómr, m. public judgement; -fé, n. public property; -goði, m. the supreme priest (who opened the alþingi every year); -lið, n. public troops; -lýðr, m. the people, commonalty; -lög, n. pl. public law; -þing, n. general assembly.

all-sigrsæll, a. very successful in war; -skammr, a. very short; neut., -skammt, a very short way, short distance; -skömmu, a very short time ago; -skapliga, adv. very fittingly; -skapværr, a. of a very gentle disposition; -skapþungr, a. very depressed in spirit (e-m er -skapþungt); -skemtiligr, a. vey amusing; -skillítill, a. very-untrustworthy; -skjallkœnliga, adv. in a vey coaxing way; -skjótt, adv. very soon; -skygn, a. very sharp-sighted; -skyldr, a. (1) very obligatory, neut., -skylt, bounden duty; (2) very nearly related, near akin; -skynsamliga, adv. vely judiciously; -sköruligr, a. very striking or magnificent (allskörulig veizla); -slæliga, adv. very sluggishly; -slœliga, adv. very cunninly; -smár, a. very small; -snarpliga, adv. very sharply or smartly; -snarpr, a. very sharp; -snemma, adv. very early; -snjallr, a. vey shrewd or clever; -spakr, a. very gentle, very wise; -starsýnn, a. looking fixedly upon; -sterkligr, a. vey strong looking; -sterkr, a. very strong; -stilliliga, adv. very calmly, very composedly; -stirðr, a. very stiff; -stórhöggr, a. dealing very hard blows; -stórliga, adv. very haughtily; -stórmannliga, adv. very munificently; -stórorðr, a. using very big, words; -stórr, a. very great or big; -styggr, a. very ill-humoured, very cross; -styrkliga, adv. very stoutly; -styrkr, a. very strong.

alls-valdandi, pr. p. of God, Almighty; -valdari, m. almighty ruler; -valdr, a. = -valdandi; -vesall, a. utterly wretched.

all-svangr, a. very hungry.

all-svinnliga, adv. very wisely, prudently.

alls-völdugr, a. = alls-valdr.

all-sættfúss, a. very placable, very eager for peace.

all-sœmiligr, a. very honourable.

allt, neut. from ‘allr’; (1) right up to, all the way; Brynjólfr gengr a. at honum, close up to him; a. norðr um Stað all the way north, round Cape Stað; (2) everywhere; Sigröðr var konungr a. um Þrændalög, over all Drontheim; vóru svírar a. gulli búnir, all overlaid with gold; (3) already; vóru a. komin fyrir hann bréf, warrants of arrest were already awaiting him; (4) of time, all through, until (a. til Jónsvöku); (5) a. til, a. of, far too (þú ert a. of heimskr); (6) a. at einu, a. eins, all the same, nevertheless (ek ætla þó útan a. eins).

all-tillátsamr, a. very indulgent; -tíðrœtt, pp. n. very much talked of; -tíðvirkr, a. very quick at work; -torfyndr, a. very hard to find; -torfœrt, a. n. very hard to pass; -torsóttr, pp. very difficult to reach; -tortryggiliga, adv. very suspiciously; -trauðr, a. very slow, unwilling; -tregr, a. very tardy; -trúr, a. very true; -tryggr, a. very trusty; -undarligr, a. very strange; -ungr, a. very young; -úbeinskeytr, a. shooting very badly; -úblíðr, a. very harsh, unkind; -úbragðligr, a. very ill-looking; -údæll, a. very untractable; -úfagr, a. very ugly; -úfimliga, adv. very awkwardly; -úframliga, adv. very timidly; -úfrýnn, a. very sullen; -úfrægr, a. very inglorious; -úglaðr, a. very gloomy, sad; -úhœgr, a. very difficult; -úhöfðingligr, a. very plebeian; -úkátr, a. in very low spirits; -úknár, a. very weak of frame; -úkonungligr, a. very unkingly; -úkunnigr, a. quite unknown; -úlífligr, a. very unlikely to live; -úlíkliga, adv. very unlikely; -úlíkr, a. very unlike; -úmáttuliga, adv. very weakly; -úráðinn, a. very undecided; -úráðliga, adv. very unadvisedly or rashly; -úsannligr, a. very unjust, very unlikely; -úsáttfúss, a. very implacable; -úskyldr, a. far from being incombent on one (hitt ætla ek mér -úskylt); -úspakr, a. very unruly; -úsváss, a. very uncomfortable (var þá veðr -úsvást); -úsýnn, a. very uncertain, very doubtful; -úsæligr, a. of very wretched appearance; -úvinsæll, a. very unpopular; -úvísliga, adv. very unwisely; -úvænligr, a. of very unfavourable prospect; -úvænn, a. (1) very ugly; (2) very unpromising or unfavourable; neut., -úvænt, very unfavourably; -úþarfr, a. very unprofitable, injurious (e-m).

all-valdr, m. sovereign, king (heilit all-valdar báðir!).

allvalds-konungr, m. = allvaldr.

all-vandlátr, a. very difficult to please; -vandliga, adv. very carefully, exacctly; -vant, a. n., e-m er -vant um, one is in a very great strait; -varfœrr, a. very cautious, careful; -vaskr, a. very brisk or gallant; -veðrlítit, a. n. very calm; -vegliga, adv. splendidly, nobly; -vegligr, a. very grand; -vel, adv. very well; -vesall, a. very miserable, vile; -vingott, a. n. on very friendly terms (var -vingott með þeim); -vinsæll, a. very popular; -virðuligr, a. very worthy, dignified; -vitr, a. very wise; -vitrliga, adv. very prudently; -víða, adv. very widely; -vígliga, adv. in a very warlike manner; -vígmannliga, adv. very martially; -vígmóðr, a. quite wearied out with fighting; -víss, a. quite certain; -vænligr, a., -vænn, a. very promising; þykkja -vænt um e-n, to be delighted with one; -vænt, adv. very favourably (konungr tók þessu -vænt); -vörpuligr, a. of a very stately frame; -vöxtuligr, a. very tall; -þarfliga, adv. very pressingly; biðja -þarfliga, to beg very hard; -þéttr, a. very crowded; -þrekligr, a. of a very robust frame; -þungliga, adv. very heavily; taka -þungliga á e-m, to be very hard upon; -þungr, a. (1) very disagreeable, hard; (2) hostile, badly disposed towards (til e-s); -þykkr, a. very thick; féllu þeir -þykkt, in great numbers; -œfr, a. very furious; -œgiligr, a. very terrible; -œstr, pp. greatly excited; -örordr, a. very frank, outspoken; -øruggr, a. very unflinching.

almanna-bygð, f. a well-peopled district; -fœri, n. public way; -leið, f. public road; -lof, n. universal praise; -skript, f. general confession; -stofa, f. the common hall, opp. to ‘litla stofa’; -tal, n. (1) common reckoning (at -tali); (2) general census; -vegr, m. high road, = þjóðvegr, þjóðleið.

al-máttigr, a. almighty; -máttr, m. almightiness, omnipotence; -menni, n. the people, public; -menniliga, adv. generally, commonly; -menniligr, a. general, common.

almenning, f., almenningr, m. (1) common land; (2) common or public pasture; (3) public thoroughfare (in Norse towns); (4) the people, public in general; (5) levy, conscription; fullr (allr), hálfr almenningr, a full (complete) or half levy of men and ships.

almennings-bréf, n. proclamation; -drykkja, f. public banquet; -far, n. public ferry; -gata, f. public road; -glófar, m. pl. common gloves; -hús, n. a house for the use of travellers; -mörk, f., -skógr, m. public forest; -stræti, n. public thoroughfare; -tollr, m. public tax; -trú, f. Catholic faith (= almennilig trú); -vegr, m. public way; -öl, n. common ale.

almennr, a. common, general, public.

al-múgi, m. the commons, common people (konungrinn ok almúginn); -múgr, m. = al-múgi; -mæli, n. (1) common saying, general report; þat er almæli, at, all people say (agree) that; (2) saying, proverb; þótt almælit sannaðist, at móðurbrœðrum verði menn líkastir, though the saying proved true, that; -mæltr, pp. spoken by all; -mælt tíðindi, common news; (2) of a child that has learnt to talk; -mætti, n. = almáttr.

al-naktr, a. quite naked.

alna-mál, n. measure by the ell (see alin).

al-nýr, a. quite new; -nöktr, a. = alnaktr.

al-ogat, a., -ogi, m., -ogligr, a., see -hugat, -hugi, -hugligr.

alr (-s, -ir), m. awl; skjálfa þótti húsit, sem á als oddi léki, as if it were balanced on the point of an awl.

al-rauðr, a. quite red; -ráðinn, pp. quite determined; -ránn, a. utterly plundered; -reyndr, pp. fully proved.

alri, m. elder tree, see elri.

al-roskinn, a. quite grown up; -rotinn, a. quite rotten; -rœmdr, pp. rumoured by all; alrœmt er, every one says; -sagðr, pp. spoken of by all; -sátt, f., alsáttum sáttir, completely reconciled; -sáttr, a. fully reconciled; -sekr, a. an outlaw in the greater degree = skógarmaðr; -siða, a. indecl., er Kristni var alsiða, when the Christian faith had become universal; -skip-aðr, pp. (1) of a ship, fully manned; (2) of a bench, quite full; -skjaldaðr, a. closely set with shields; -skrifaðr, pp. written all over; -skygn, a. fully seeing; -skyldr, a. (1) quite bound in duty, obliged; (2) quite binding; -slitinn, pp. quite worn out; -slíkr, a. quite the same; -smíðaðr, pp. completely built; -snauðr, a. very poor; -snotr, a., -spakr, a. all-wise, very clever; -stýfðr, pp. (a metre) in masculine rhymes; -stýfingr, m. an animal with close-cropped ears (= afeyringr); -svartr, a. quite black; -sveittr, a., -sveitugr, a. perspiring all over; -sviðr, -svinnr, a. all-wise; -sýkn, a. altogether free or guiltless (al-sýkn saka); -sýkna, f. complete rehabilitation; -sæll, a. altogether happy; -sætt, f., -sætti, n. complete reconciliation.

altari, n. and m. altar.

altaris-blæja, f. altar-cloth; -bók, f. altar-book; -brík, f. altar-piece; -búnaðr, m. altar-furniture; -dagr, m. anniversary of the consecration of an altar; -dúkr, m. altar-cloth; -embætti, n. service of the altar; -fórn, f. offering on the altar; -gólf, n. the floor round an altar; -horn, n. corner of an altar; -hús, n. chapel; -klæði, n. altar-cloth; -líkneski, n. image placed on an altar; -messa, f. mass at an altar; -staðr, m. the place where an altar stands; -steinn, m. altar-slab; -stika, f. candlestick for an altar; -þjónusta, f. altar service.

al-tjaldaðr, pp. hung all round with tapestry; -ugat, a. = alhugat.

al-úð, f. (older form ölúð) affection, sincerity.

alúðar-maðr, m., -vinr, m. sincere or devoted friend.

al-valdr, a. = allvaldr.

alvara, f. (1) seriousness, earnest; taka e-t fyrir alvöru, to take it in earnest; vissa ek eigi, at þér var a., that you were in earnest; (2) affection = alúð; er öll hans a. (inclination) til Ólafs konungs.

alvar-liga, adv. (1) seriously, earnestly; (2) heartily (fagna e-m -liga); (3) entirely (-liga hreinn); -ligr, a. hearty, affectionate (-lig vinátta).

al-vaskligr, a. most valiant, martial; -vaxinn, pp. quite grown up; -vapnaðr, pp. in full armour; -vátr, a. thoroughly wet, wet through; -al-verki and -verkja, a. indecl. aching, feeling pains all over the body.

al-virkr, a. alvirkr dagr, a full working day; -víst, a. with full certainty; -vitr, a. all-wise; -væpni, n. complete arms; hafa alvæpni, með alvæpni, (to be) fully armed.

al-vítr, f. fairy maid, Valkyrie.

alvöru-liga, adv. earnestly, sincerely; -ligr, a. = alvarligr; -samliga, adv. = -liga; -samligr, a. sincere, devoted (-samlig þjónusta).

al-yrkr, a. = alvirkr (dagr); -þakinn, pp. thatched all over; -þiljaðr, pp. completely wainscotted or panelled.

alþingi, n. the annual parliament or general assembly of the Icelandic Commonwealth (held in June).

al-þingis, adv. quite, altogether (= öllungis).

alþingis-dómr, m. court of justice at the alþingi; -för, f. journey to the a.; -helgun, f. inaugeration of the a.; -lof, n. permission, leave, given by the a.; -mál, n. parliamentary rules or proceedings; -nefna, f. nomination of judges in courts of the a.; -reið, f. journey to the a.; -sátt, f. agreement entered into at the a.; -sáttarhald, n. the keeping of alþingissátt.

al-þjóð, f. people in general (alþjóð manna).

al-þykkr, a. quite thick, foggy (veðr alþykkt).

al-þýða, f. (1) the whole people (bauð hann alþýðu ríkis síns at göfga líkneskjuna); (2) people in general, the majority or bulk of the people (var þat heit þá fest ok játat af altri alþýðu); vera lítt við alþýðu skap, to be upopular; (3) the common people (ánauð ok úlfrelsi gekk yfir fólk allt, bæði ríka menn ok alpýðu).

al-þýðast (dd), v. refl., alþýðast til e-s, to incline towards, attach oneself to; -þýði, n. = þýða.

alþýðis-fólk, n. the common people.

alþýðligr, a. common, general; -ligr maðr = mennskr maðr, a common man; í ligri rœðu, in ordinary speech; hitt væri -ligra, more plain.

alþýðu-drykkja, f. common banquet; -leið, f. high-road (= almannaleið); -lof, n. general praise, popularity; -mál, n. general report; -tal, n. common reckoning, opp. to ‘rímtal’; -vápn, n. ordinary weapon; -vegr, m. = -leið; -virðing, f. public opinion; -vitni, n. universal testimony; -þyss, m. general tumult.

al-þægr, a. quite acceptable or pleasing (to one); -œstr, pp. quite excited, stirred up.

ama (), v. to vex, molest; refl., amast við e-n, e-t, to inconvenience, trouble (ömuðust liðsmenn lítt við hana); to object to, disapprove, show dislike to (a. við bygð e-s).

amalera (), v. to enamel (foreign word).

amban, f. (Norse) = ömbun.

ambátt, f. (1) bondwoman; (2) concubine.

ambátta-fang, n. tussle between bondwomen.

ambáttar-barn, n., -dóttir, f. child, daughter of a bondwoman; -ligr, a. vile, like an ambátt; -mót, n. exfiression (mien) of a bondwoman (er eigi -mót á henni); -sonr, m. son of a bondwoman.

amboð, n. = andboð, annboð.

amma, f. grandmother (fóður-móðir, móður-móðir).

ampli, m., ampúll, m. jug (ampulla).

amra (), v. to howl or yell piteously (of cats).

an, conj. than (an old form for ‘en’).

and-, a prefix denoting whatever is opposite, against, towards, and fig. hostile, adverse; often spelt an- or ann-.

anda (), v. to breathe, live (meðan þeir megu a.); refl., andast, to breathe one’s last, die; andaðr, pp. dead; hún var þá önduð, had breathed her last.

anda-gift, f. inspiration; -kast, n. breathing; -lauss, a. without breathing (lifa -lauss); -liga, adv. spiritually; -ligr, a. spiritual (-lig fœða).

andar-, gen. from ‘önd’; -auga, n. spiritual eye; -dauði, m. spiritual death; -dráttr, m. breath, respiration.

andar-egg, n. duck’s egg; -fygli, n. ducks.

andar-gjöf, f. = -gift; -gustr, m. breath of wind; -heilsa, f. spiritual welfare; -kraptr, m. strength of mind; -rúm, n. breathing time; -sár, n. mental wound.

andar-steggi, -steggr, m. drake.

andar-sýn, f. vision; -tak, n. breath; -vani, -vanr, a. breathless, lifeless.

and-blásinn, pp. blown up, inflated with wind or air.

and-boð, n. utensil (= annboð).

and-dyri, n., -dyrr, f. pl. porch.

and-fang, n. reception, hospitality.

and-fælur, f. pl. fright; vakna með -fælum, to awake in a fright.

and-fœtingr, m. (1) a person whose feet are turned backwards; (2) pl. and-fœtingar, Antipodes.

and-hlaup, n. suffocation.

and-hvalr, m. bottle-nosed whale.

andi, m. (1) breath, breathing; a. Ingimundar er ekki góðr, his breath smells, is foul; (2) current of air (a handar þinnar); (3) gramm., aspiration (linr, snarpr a.); (4) soul (guð skapaði líkamann ok andann); gjalda guði sinn anda, to die; (5) spirit, spiritual being; úhreinn a., an unclean spirit; heilagr a., the Holy Ghost.

and-kostr, m. see annkostr.

and-lauss, a. breathless, lifeless.

and-lát, n. (1) death (þá er þú fregn andlát mitt); (2) the last gasp; þá var konungr nær andálti, was almost breathing his last.

andláts-dagr, m., -dœgr, n. day of death; -sorg, f. grief for a death; -tíð, f., -tími, m. time of death.

and-liga, adv. spiritually; -ligr, a. spiritual (biskup hefir andligt vald til andligra hluta).

andlit, n. face countenance.

andlits-björg, f. visor; -bliða, f. mild expression of the countenance; -mein, n. cancer in the face; -skepna, f. form or make of the face; -sköp, n. pl. = -skepna; var vel sköpum, had well formed features; -vænn, a. fine-featured; -vöxtr, m. form of the face, features; and-marki, m. see annmarki.

and-málugr, a. contentious, quarrelsome; -mæli, n. pl. contradiction, objection.

and-nes, n. promontory, headland; -orða, a. indecl., at verða andorða, to come to words with; -óf, n. paddling with the oars, so as to keep a boat from drifting (cf. andœfa).

and-rammr, a. having foul breath.

andrar, m. pl. snow-shoes.

andrjá, f. tumult, uproar.

and-róði, m. pulling against tide and wind; þeir tóku (áttu) mikinn -róða, they had a hard pull; -róðr (-ra), m. = andróði; -saka (), v. to reprimand (hann -sakaði sveinana harðliga); -sakan, f. reprimand, rebuke; -skoti, m. (1) opponent, adversary; (2) the devil, satan.

and-spilli, n. colloquy, discourse.

and-spjall, n. (1) = andspilli; (2) pl. andspjöll, answer, reply.

and-stefja (), v. to respond, answer; -stefna (-da, -t), v. = -stefja; -streymi, n. adversity; -streymr, a. strongly adverse (-streym ørlög); Sighvatr var heldr -streymr um eptirmálin, hard to come to terms with; -stygð, f. disgust; e-m er -stygð af e-u, one feels abhorrence for; -styggiligr, -styggr, a. abominable, odious; -svar, n. answer, reply, decision (vera skjótr í -svörum); -svara (), v. (1) to answer (e-m); (2) to respond (= andstefja); (3) to answer for, be responsible for (e-u).

andsvara-maðr, m. respondent, defender.

and-syptir, m. difficulty in breathing.

and-sœlis, adv. against the course of the sun, widdershins (-rangsœlis), opp. to ‘réttsœlis’.

and-vaka, f. (1) sleeplessness; (2) vakefulness; and-vaki, a. sleepless (liggja -vaki).

and-vana or -vani, a. destitute of, wanting, with gen. (auðs andvani ok alls gamans); -vanr, a. = -vani; andvanr átu, famished for food.

andvara-gestr, m. unwelcome guest; -lauss, a. free from care or anriety.

and-varða (), v. to hand over (= afhenda).

and-vari, m. care, anxiety.

and-varp, n. (1) breath, breathing; (2) sigh; -varpa (), v. to heave a sigh (-varpa öndinni); -varpan, f. sighing, sobbing.

and-vegi, n. throne (= öndvegi); -verðr, a. = öndverðr; -viðri, n. head wind; -virði, n. worth, equivalent, price; andvirði hvalsins, the value of the whale.

and-virki, n. (1) hay, haystacks, croft; nautafjöldi var kominn í tún ok vildi brjóta -virki, throw down the cocks; -virki (fodder) gekk þar upp fyrir hestum; (2) Norw. agricultural implements; viðarköst, timbr, grindr, sieða eða önnur -virki; (3) fig., legit hafa mér -virki nærr garði en at berjast við þik, I have had business more urgent than to that with you.

and-vitni, n. contradictory testimony; -vígr, a. a match for (bann var eigi betr en -vígr öðrum þeirra brœðra); -yrði, n. pl. objection, contradiction; -æra, f. resistance; -æris, adv. adversely, unfavourably (ganga mun ykkr -æris); -œfa (-ða, -t), v. to keep pulling against wind and tide so as to prevent a boat from drifting astern; -œpa (-ta, -t), v. to reply against (ekki er þess getit, at þórðr andœpti þessarri vísu).

ang, n. fragrance (með unað ok a.).

anga (), v. to exhale odour or fragrance; angan, f. sweet odour; a. Friggjar, the love of Frigg.

angi, m. sweet odour.

angi, m. prickle, sting (þetta mál hefir anga).

angist, f. anguish.

angistar-ár, n. year of misery; -neyð, f. great distress; -tími, m. hour of distress.

angr (gen. -rs), m. grief, sorrow; gera e-m angr, to do one harm; vera e-m at angri = angra e-n.

-angr (gen. -rs), m. in Norse local names, bay, firth.

angra (), v. to grieve, vex, distress (mik hefir angrat hungr ok frost); with dat. (hvárt sem mér angrar reykr eða bruni); impers. to be grieved (angraði honum mjök); refl., angrast af e-u, to be vexed at, take offence at; a. við e-n, to fall out with.

angraðr, pp. sorrowful, sad, vexed (reiðr ok a.).

angran, f. sorrow, affliction.

angr-fullr, a. sorrowful, sad; -gapi, m. rash, foolish person; -lauss, a. free from care; -ligr, a. sad; -ljóð, n. pl. mourning songs, dirges; -lyndi, n. sadness, low spirits; -mœðast (), v. refl. to be in low spirits; -samliga, adv. sorrowfully, sadly; -samligr, a. = -fullr; -samr, a. (1) troublesome (-söm fluga); (2) depressed, downcast; e-m er -saint, one is in low spirits; -semd, -semi, f. depression of spirits; -væri, f. dejection; -œði, n. moody temper, sullenness.

ankanna-fullr, a. full of faults; -laust, adv. with flawless title (Magnús konungr hafði þá ríki einn saman ok ankannalaust).

ann-, in several compds. = and-.

anna (), v. to be able to do (a. e-u); cf. ‘annast’.

annarligr, a. strange, alien.

annarr (önnur, annat), a., indef. pron., ord. numb.; (1) one of the two, the one (of two); Egill þessi hefir aðra hönd (only one hand) ok er kaliaðr einhendr; á aðra hönd, on the one side; a. … a. one … the other (hét a. Sörli, en a. Þorkell); (2) second; í annat sinn, for the second time; høggr hann þegar annat (viz. högg), a second blow; (3) the next following; á öðru hausti, the next autumn; annat sumar eptir; fig., next in value or rank; annat mest hof í Noregi, the next greatest temple; fjölmennast þing annat eptir brennu Njáls, the fullest assembly next to that after the burning of N.; (4) some other (hón lék á gólfinu við aðrar meyjar); Þórarinn ok tíu menn aðrir, and ten men besides; hann var örvari af fé en nokkurr a., than anybody else; (5) other, different; öl er a. maðr, ale (a drunken man) is another man, is not the same man; þau höfðu annan átrúnað, a different religion; (6) in various combinations; a. slíkr, such another, another of the same sort; gekk a. til at öðrum (one after another) at biðja hann; hverja nótt aðra sem aðra, every night in turn; annat var orð Finns harðara en annat, each word of Finn was harder than another; aðrir … aðrir, some … others; einir ok aðrir, various; ymsir ok aðrir, now one, now another (nefna upp ymsa ok aðra); hvárr (or hverr) … annan, each other, one another (hétu hvárir öðrum atförum); við þau tíðindi urðu allir giaðir ok sagði hverr öðrum, one told the news to another, man to man.

annarra-brœðra, gen. pl. used ellipt. in the sense of children of ‘næsta brœðra’, third cousins; -brœtri, m. third cousin.

annarr hvárr, indef. pron., one or other of two persons, either (drepa annan hvárn þeirra sona Skallagríms); at öðru hváru, every now and then, aðrir hvárir, one or other of the two parties; neut. used as adv., annat hvárt … eða, either … or.

annarr hverr, indef. pron. every other alternately; annan hvern dag, every other day; annat hvert orð, every other (second) word; at öðru hverju, every now and then.

annarr tveggi, annarr tveggja, indef. pron. one or other of the two = annarr hvárr; er aðrir tveggju eru lengra í burt komnir en ördrag, when either of the two parties has got further away than an arrow’s flight; annat tveggja … eða, either … or.

annars, gen. from ‘annarr’, used as adv. otherwise, else (stendr a. ríki þitt í mikilli hættu).

annarsligr, a. = annarligr.

annarstaðar, adv. elsewhere, in another place = annars staðar.

annast (), v. refl. (1) to take care of (mál þetta mun ek a.); (2) to provide for, support (a. börn, ómaga); a. sik, to support oneself; (3) a. um e-t, to be busy about, to occupy oneself with (a. um matreiðu).

annáll (-s, -ar), m. chronological register, annals.

ann-boð, n. agricultural implements.

ann-friðr, m. cessation from lawsuits during the spring farming.

ann-kostr, m. = önnkostr.

ann-kvista, v. to take care of.

annmarka-fullr, a. faulty, full of faults; -lauss, a. faultless.

ann-marki, m. (1) defect, flaw, fault (þú leyndir -marka á honum); (2) adversity (þú gaft mér varygð í farsælu, huggan í -marka).

ann-rikt, a. n., eiga -ríkt, to be very busy; -samligr, a. toilsome, laborious; -samt, a. n., e-m er -samt, one is very busy; -semd, f. business, care, concern; bera mikla -semd fyrir e-u, to be concerned about.

annt, a. n., e-m er a., eager, anxious; mörgum var a. heim, many were eager to get home; hví mun honum svá a. at hitta mik, why is he so eager? ekki er a. um þat, it is not pressing; hvat er nú a. mínum einga syni, what has my only son at heart? sagði sér a. (that he was busy) um daga; vera a. til e-s, to be eager for.

antikristr, m. antichrist.

anza (), v. (1) to heed, take notice of (a. e-u); (2) to reply, answer (a. til e-s).

apa (), v. to mock, make sport of, to befool (margan hefir auðr apat); refl., apast at e-u, to become the fool of.

apaldr (gen. -rs or -s, pl. -rar or -ar), m. apple-tree.

apaldrs-garðr, m. orchard; -klubba, -kylfa, f. club made of apple-tree; -tré, n. apple-tree.

apal-grár, a. dapple-grey.

api, m. (1) ape, monkey; (2) fool (margr verðr af aurum api).

apli, m. bull = þjórr, graðungr.

appella, appellera (), v. to cite, summon to the pope.

apr (öpr, aprt), a. (1) hard, sharp; en aprasta hríð, the sharpest fighting; aprastr við at eiga, the worst to deal with; (2) sad, dispirited.

aprligr, a. cold, chilly (-ligt veðr).

aptan, adv. from behind behind, opp. to ‘framan’; þá greip hann a. undir hendr honum, from behind; fyrir a., as prep. with acc., behind; ek hjó varginn í sundr fyrir a. bóguna, just behind the shoulders.

aptann (gen. -s, dat. aptni; pl. aptnar), m. evening; síð um aptaninn, late in the evening; miðr a., middleeve, 6 o’clock.

aptan-drykkja, f. evening carouse; -kveld, n. = aptann; -langt, adv. all the evening; -skæra, f. twilight; -stjarna, f. evening star; -söngr, m. evensong, vespers.

aptansóngs-mál, n. the time of evensong.

aptan-tíðir, f. pl. = aptansöngs tíðir; -tími, m. the time of evening.

aptari, a. compar. = eptri.

aptarla, adv. behind, far in the rear.

aptarr, adv. compar. farther back.

aptast, adv. superl. farthest back.

aptastr, a. superl. farthest back.

aptna (), v. impers. to become evening; refl., aptnast = aptna.

aptr, adv. (1) back; fara (snúa, koma, senda, sœkja, hverfa) a., to go (turn &c.) back; reka a., to drive back, repel; kalla a., to recall, revoke; (2) backwards; fram ok a., backwards and forwards, to and fro; þeir settu hnakka á bak sér a., they bent their necks backwards; (3) lúka (láta) a., to shut, close; hlið, port, hurð er a., is shut; (4) at the back, in the rear; þat er maðr fram, en dýr a., the fore part a man, the hind part of a beast; bæði a. ok fram, stem and stern (of a ship); Sigurðr sat a. á kistunni, S. sat aft on the stern-chest; (5) again; Freyja vaknar ok snerist við ok sofnar a., and falls asleep again.

aptra (), v. to take back, withdraw, recall; a. ferð sinni, to desist from, give up; a. sér, to withdraw, waver, hesitate.

aptran, f. withdrawal, keeping back.

aptr-bati, m. convalescence; vera í -bata, to be on the way to recovery; -bati, a. convalescent, getting better, recovering; -beiðiligr, a. reciprocal; -borinn, pp. born again, regenerate; -byggi, m. (esp. pl. -byggjar opp. to frambyggjar) a man in the stern in a ship of war; -dráttr, m. reflux of the tide (-dráttr hafsins); -drepa, f. relapse, shock; -elding, f. dawning; -ferð, f. journey back, return; -fœrsla, f. bringing back; -för, f. = -ferð; -ganga, f., -gangr, m. ghost, apparition; -gjald, n. repayment; -hald, n. checking, holding back.

aptrhald-samr, a. saving, close.

aptrhalds-maðr, m. one who impedes the progress of a thing.

aptr-hlaup, n. runing back; -hnekking, f. repulse; -huppr, m. haunch; -hvarf, n. (1) return; illr -hvarfs, disinclined to face the enemy again; (2) relapse, apostasy; (3) turning away from sin (rare); -kall, n. recalling, revocation; -kast, n. hurling back, repulse; -kaup, n. repurchase; -koma or -kváma, f. coming back, return; -kvæmt, a. n. admitting of return; esp. eiga -kvæmt, to be allowed to return (from exile); -lausn, f. redemption; right of redeeming; -mjór, a. tapering behind; -mundr, m. regret, loss; mér er mikill -mundr at e-u, I miss a thing greatly; -reka, a. indecl. driven back (by stress of weather); -rekstr, m. driving back, repulse; -sjá, f. regret, longing (= eptirsjá); -skipan, f. restoration (-skipan allra hluta); -velting, f. rolling back.

apynja, t she-ape, she-monkey.

ara-hreiðr, n. eagle’s nest, eyrie.

arðar-, gen. from ‘örð’; -leiga, f. rent for one yeay’s crop; -máli, m. contract, agreement for one year.

arðr (gen. arðrs), m. a simple form plough.

arðr-for, f. furrow, trench made by plough; -gangr, m. coulter; -járn, n. plough-iron; -járn þat er ristill (coulter) heitir; -uxi, m. plough-ox.

arðs-geldingr, m. = arðruxi.

arfa, f. heiress (Norse, rare).

arfa-sáta, f. a heap, or small tick, of chickweed (arfi).

arfa-þáttr, m. section of law treating of inheritance (arfr).

arf-borinn, pp. by birth entitled to inherit, legitimate (= til arfs alinn); -deild, f. = arfskipti; -gengr, a. entitled to inherit.

arfi, m. heir, heiress; a. e-s or at e-u, heir to a property.

arfi, m. chickweed.

arf-kaup, n. sum paid for another’s expectation of inheritance; -leiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to adopt as an heir (= ættleiða); -leiðing, f. adoption of an heir; -nyti (gen. -nytja), m. heir, inheritor (poet.).

arfr (gen. arfs), m. (1) inheritance; taka arf, to take possession of an inheritance; taka arf eptir e-n, to be heir to a person, to inherit; standa til arfs eptir e-n, to be entitled to inherit a person; hón á allan arf eptir mik, she is my sole heir; selja arf, to sell the expectation of inheritance (= selja arfván); (2) patrimony = föðurleifð.

arf-rán, n. unjust taking of one’s inheritance; -ræning, f. = arf-rán; -ræningr, m. one stripped of his inheritance; -sal, n. cession of right of inheritance (on condition of getting maintenance for life).

arfsals-maðr, m. one who has made another his heir on condition of being maintained by him for life; -máldagi, m. deed concerning ‘arfsal’.

arf-skipti, n. partition of an inheritance; -skot, n. fraud in matters of inheritance; -sókn, f. suit in a case of inheritance; -svik, n. pl. defrauding in matters of inheritance; -svipting, f. taking- away of one’s inheritance; -tak, n. the act of taking one as arfsalsmaðr (taka e-n arftaki); -taka, f. receiving, taking possession of, an inheritance; -takari, -taki, m. inheritor; -tekinn, pp. taken by inheritance; -tekja, f. = -taka.

arftekju-land, n. land obtained by inheritance.

arf-tœki, n. = arftaka; -tœkr, a. = arfgengr; verða arftœkr e-s, to receive by inheritance.

arftöku-karl, m. one taken as arfsalsmaðr; -maðr, m. inheritor, successor to an inheritance.

arf-ván, f. expectancy of inheritance; -þegi, m. heir.

arg-hola, f. harlot.

argr, a. (1) unmanly, effeminate, cowardly (sem fyrir úlfi örg geit rynni); (2) lewd; (3) wicked, pernicious (þú hit argasta dýr).

argskapr, m. effeminacy, cowardice, wickedness.

ari, m. eagle (= örn).

arin-dómr, m. fireside gossip; -eldr, m. hearth-fire; -elja, f. a home-rival to a wife; -greypr, a. encompassing the hearth (bekkir aringreypir); -hella, f. hearth-stone.

arinn (gen. arins; dat. arni; pl. amar), m. (1) hearth (eldr var á arni); as a law term, fara eldi ok arni, to remove one’s homestead, taking fire and hearth together; (2) an elevated platform.

arins-horn, n. corner of the hearth; -járn, n. poker.

arka (), v. to walk heavily, trudge; a. at auðnu, to take whatever course fate may decide.

arkar-fótr, m. the foot of a chest (örk); -smíð, f. the building of Noah’s Ark.

arma, f. pity; dróttinn sá örmu á mannkyni, took pity upon.

arm-baugr, m. armlet, bracelet; arm-bryst, n. cross-bow.

arm-fylking, f. = fylkingar-armr.

armingi (pl. -jar), m. poor fellow (= aumingi).

arm-leggr, m. arm (= armr).

armligr, a. pitiful, miserable.

armr (-s, -ar), m. (1) arm; leggja arma um e-n, to embrace (of a woman); koma á arm e-m, to come into one’s embraces (of a woman marrying); (2) the wing of a body, opp. to its centre; armar úthafsins, the arms of the ocean, viz. bays and firths; armr fylkingar, a wing of an army.

armr, a. (1) unhappy, poor; (2) wretched, wicked; hinn armi Bjarngrímr, the wretch, scoundrel B.; hin arma kerlingin, the wicked old woman.

arm-skapaðr, pp. misshapen miserable, poor; -vitki, f. compassion; -vitugr, a. charitable, compassionate; lítt armvitugr, hard-hearted.

armœða, f. distress, trouble; armœðast, v. refl. to distress oneself.

arnar-, gen. from ‘örn’; -hamr, m. eagle’s plumage; -hreiðr, n. eagle’s nest, eyrie; -kló, f. talon of an eagle; -líki, n. eagle’s shape; -ungi, m. eaglet.

arning, f. tillage, ploughing (related to ‘erja’).

arn-súgr, m. the rushing, sound caused by the flight of an eagle.

ars, m. posteriors, = rass.

arta, f. a species of teal, garganey.

aska, f. ashes (mold ok a.; dust eitt ok a.). Cf. ösku-.

aska-smiðr, m. shipwright?

aska-spillir, m. ship spoiler?

ask-limar, f. pl. branches of an ash.

ask-maðr, m. shipman, viking, pirate; cf. askr (3).

askr (-s, -ar), m. (1) ash, ash-tree; (2) ash-spear; (3) small ship (þeir sigla burt á einum aski); (4) wooden vessel or dish (stórir askar fullir af skyri); (5) a Norse measure for liquids equal to four bowls (bollar), or sixteen ‘justur’.

ask-rakki, m. marten; -viðr, m. ash-tree.

asna, f. she-ass.

asna-höfuð, n. ass’s-head; -kjálki, m. jawbone of an ass.

asni, m. ass, donkey.

at, prep. A. with dative. I. Of motion; (1) towards, against; Otkell laut at Skamkatli, bowed down to S.; hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge against A.; (2) close -up to; Brynjólfr gengr alit at honum, quite up to him; þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters with him; (3) to, at; koma at landi, to come to land; ganga at dómi, to go into court; (4) along (= eptir); ganga at stræti, to walk along the street; dreki er niðr fór at ánni (went down the river) fyrir strauminum; refr dró hörpu at ísi, on the ice; (5) denoting hostility; renna (sœkja) at e-m, to rush at, assault; gerði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog; (6) around; vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a veil round one’s head; bera grjót at e-m, to heap stones upon the body; (7) denoting business, engagement; ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after horses, watching sheep; fara at landskuldum, to go collecting rents. II. Of position, &c.; (1) denoting presence at, near, by, upon; at kirkju, at church; at dómi, in court; at lögbergi, at the hill of laws; (2) denoting participation in; vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, wedding; vera at vígi, to be an accessory in man-slaying; (3) ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at; kvalararnir, er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him; var þar at kona nökkur at binda (was there busy dressing) sár manna; (4) with proper names of places (farms); konungr at Danmörku ok Noregi, king of; biskup at Hólum, bishop of Holar; at Helgafelli, at Bergþórshváli; (5) used ellipt. with a genitive, at (a person’s) house; at hans (at his house) gisti fjölmenni mikit; at Marðar, at Mara’s home; at hins beilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave’s church; at Ránar, at Ran’s (abode). III. Of time; (1) at, in; at upphafi, at first, in the beginning; at skilnaði, at parting, when they parted; at páskum, at Easter; at kveldi, at eventide; at þinglausnum, at the close of the Assembly; at fjöru, at the ebb; at flœðum, at the floodtide; (2) adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr’; at ári komanda, next year; at vári, er kemr, next spring; generally with ‘komanda’ understood; at sumri, hausti, vetri, vári, next summer, &c.; (3) used with an absolute dative and present or past part.; at sér lifanda, duing his lifetime; at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all; at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the hearing of the chief; at upprennandi sólu, at sunrise; at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks are past; at honum önduðum, after his death; (4) denoting uninterrupted succession, after; hverr at öðrum, annarr at öðrum, one after another; skildu menn at þessu, thereupon, after this; at því (thereafter) kómu aðrar meyjar. IV. fig. and in various uses; (1) to, into, with the notion of destruction or change; brenna (borgina) at ösku, to burn to ashes; verða at ormi, to become a snake; (2) for, as; gefa e-t at gjöf, as a present; eiga e-n at vin, to have one as friend; (3) by; taka sverð at hjöltum, by the hilt; draga út björninn at hlustunum, by the ears; kjósa at afli, álitum, by strength, appearrance; (4) as regards as to; auðigr at fé, wealthy in goods; vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face; (5) as a law term, on the grounds of, by reason of; ryðja (to challenge) dóm at mægðum, kvið at frændsemi; (6) as a paraphrase of a genitive; faðir, móðir at barni (= barns, of a child); aðili at sök = aðili sakar; (7) with adjectives denoting colour, size, age, of; hvítr, svartr, rauðr at lit, while, black, red of colour; mikill, lítill at stœrð, vexti, tall, small of stature; tvítugr at aldri, twenty years of age; kýr at fyrsta, öðrum kálfi, a cow that has calved once, twice; (8) determining the source from which anything comes, of, from; Ari nam ok marga frœði at Þuríði (from her); þiggja, kaupa, geta, leigja e-t at e-m, to receive, buy, obtain, borrow a thing from one; hafa veg (virðing) styrk at e-m, to derive honour, power, from one; (9) according, to, after (heygðr at fornum sið); at ráði allra vitrustu manna, by the advice of; at landslögum, by the law of the land; at vánum, as was to be expected; at leyfi e-s, by one’s leave; (10) in adverbial phrases; gróa (vera grœddr) at heilu, to be quite healed; bíta af allt gras at snøggu, quite bare; at fullu, fully; at vísu, surely; at frjálsu, freely; at eilífu, for ever and ever; at röngu, at réttu, wrongly, rightly; at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same; at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent. B. with acc., after, upon (= eptir); sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, to take the inheritance after his father; eiga féránsdóm at e-n, to hold a court of execution upon a person; at þat (= eptir þat), after that, thereafter; connected with a past part. or adj., at Gamla fallinn, after the fall of Gamli; at Hrungni dauðan, upon the death of Hrungnir.

at, (1) as the simple mark of the infinitive, to; at ganga, at ríða, at hlaupa, to walk, to ride, to run; (2) in an objective sense; hann bauð þeim at fara, sitja, he bade (ordered) them to go, sit; gefa e-m at eta, at drekka, to give one to eat, to drink; (3) denoting design or purpose, in order to (hann gekk í borg at kaupa silfr).

at, (1) demonstrative particle before a comparative, the, all the, so much the; hón grét at meir, she wept the more; þykkir oss at líkara, all the more likely; þú ert maðr at verri (so much the worse), er þú hefir þetta mælt; (2) rel. pron., who, which, that (= er); þeir allir, at þau tíðindi heyrðu, all those who heard; sem þeim er títt, at (as is the custom of those who) kaupferðir reka.

at, conj., that; (1) introducing a subjective or objective clause; þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, it happened once that H.; vilda ek, at þú réðist austr í fjörðu, I should like you to go; (2) relative to ‘svá’, denoting proportion, degree; svá mikill lagamaðr, at, so great a lawyer, that; (3) with subj., denoting end or purpose, in order that (skáru þeir fyrir þá (viz. hestana) melinn, at þeir dœi eigi af sulti); (4) since, because, as (= því at); (5) connected with þó, því, svá; þó at (with subj.), though, although; því at, because, for; svá at, so that; (6) temp., þá at (= þá er), when; þegar at (= þ. er), as soon as; þar til at (= þ. t. er), until, till; áðr at (= á. en), before; (7) used superfluously after an interrog. pron. or adv.; Olafr spurði, hvern styrk at hann mundi fá honum, what help he was likely to give him; in a relative sense; með fullkomnum ávexti, hverr at (which) þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða.

at, negative verbal suffix, = -a; var-at, was not.

at, n. an incited conflict or fight (see etja); odda at, Yggs at, battle.

ata (), v. to stain, smear.

atall (ötul, atalt), a. fierce; ötul augu, fierce, piercing., eyes.

at-beini, m. assistance, help.

atblástrar-maðr, m. instigator.

atburða-lauss, a. eventless, uneventfull.

at-burðr, m. (1) occurrence, event; verðr sá atburðr, at, it so happens that; dráp Bárðar ok þá atburði er þar höfðu orðit, and the events that had happened there; (2) incident, circumstance; Ó. sagði honum alla atburði (all the circumstances, particulars) um sitt mál; í hverjum atburðum, under what circumstances; með hverjum atburðum, in what manner, how; (3) chance, accident; slíkt kalla ek atburð, en eigi jartegn, such a thing I call an accident, and not a miracle; af atburð, by chance; accidentally; með atburð, by chance; per adventure, perhaps; (4) attack; (5) gesture (með atburð kallaði hann mik til sín); var hón en fríðasta jungfrú ok vel at atburðum, of good manners, well-bred.

at-búnaðr, m. proper outfit, equipment, &c.; veita atbúnað dauðum mönnum, to lay out dead bodies.

at-djúp, n. deep water close to shore; -djúpr, a. deep close to the shore.

atdráttar-maðr, m., mikill -maðr, a good housekeeper.

at-dráttr, m. provisions, supplies for household use; hafði hann atdrátt at þeirra búi, he supplied their household; atdrættir ok útvegar, ways and means.

at-dugnaðr, m. assistance, help.

at-eggjan, f. egging on, = áeggjan.

at-fall, n. rising tide, flood-tide.

atfanga, gen. pl. from atföng, provisions; -dagr, m., -kveld, n. the day, or evening, preceding a church festival; atf. jóla, Christmas Eve; -lauss, a. destitute of means of subsistence, without resources; -maðr, m. = atdráttarmaðr.

atfara-laust, a. n. without onslaught or armed aggression (see atför).

atfarar-dómr, m. sentence of execution (for payment); -þing, n. court of execution.

at-ferð, f. (1) proceeding, conduct, behaviour (skynsamlig atferð); víkjast eptir atferðum enna fyrri frænda þinna, to follow their (good) example; (2) activity, energy; (3) assault; veita e-m atferð, to set upon one; (4) a law term, execution (með dómrofum ok atferðum).

atferðar-bót, f. improvement of conduct; -góðr, a. well-behaved; -leysi, n. inactivity, idleness; -maðr, m. energetic man.

atterðligr, a. fit or manly.

at-ferli, n. action, proceeding, procedure hann spurðist fyrir um aiferli heraðsmanna, what they were doing; -flutning, f. conveyance to a place, supply; -frétt, f. asking, inquiry.

atfréttar-maðr, m. inquirer (e-s, after something).

at-fundull, a. fault-finding, censorious; -fylgi, n., -fylgja, f. help, backing, support; -fyndiligr, a. blameable, reprehensible; -fyndli, f. censoriousness; -fœrsla, f. exertion, activity.

atfœralu-maðr, m. a man of vigour.

at-för, f. (1) proceeding, method; (2) attack; gera atför at e-m, veita e-m atför, to make an attack upon; (3) a law term, execution (dómr ok atför); -ganga, f. (1) attack, onslaught; veita e-m atgöngu, to attack; (2) help, assistance; -gangr, m. (1) fighting, combat; (2) inroad, intrusion; veita e-m atgang, to intrude upon; (3) help, cooperation.

atgangs-mikill, a. energetic.

atgeirr, m. bill or halberd.

atgengiligr, a. acceptable, inviting.

at-gerð, at-gervi, see atgørð, atgørvi.

at-geyminn, a. careful, mindful, attentive; -geymsla, f. attention, heedfulness; -gæzla, f. care, caution.

at-gørð, f. (1) achievement (þessa heims atgørðir); (2) accomplishment, ability; (3) surgical operation (cf. gøra at meini); (4) pl., measures, steps taken; litlar atgørðir, small measures; var eigi vænt til atgørða, there were few expedients.

atgørða-lauss, a. inactive, idle; -laust er um e-t, no steps are taken; -maðr, m. a ready man.

atgørðar-maðr, m. = atgørvimaðr; -mikill, a. active, energetic; -vinr, m. a friend in deed.

at-gørvi, f. (or neut.), accomplishments, ability.

atgørvi-maðr or atgørvis-maðr, m. a man of great (physical) accomplishments.

athafnar-lauss, a. inactive; -maðr, m. an enterprising man.

at-hald, n. (1) constraint, restraint; (2) ascetic abstinence.

athalds-maðr, m. ascetic; -taumr, m. constraining force.

at-hjúkan, f. nursing, attendance on a sick person.

at-hlaup, n. onset, attack; í einu athlaupi, in one rush (in a battle); tókst nú þegar athlaup, a hand to hand fight.

at-hlátr, m. mockery, laughing-stock; -hlœgi, n. = -hlátr; -hlœgiligr, a. ridiculous.

athuga-lauss, a. heedless, careless; -leysi, n. heedlessness; -lítill, a. rather heedless.

at-hugall, a. heedful, thoughtfull, carefull.

athuga-maðr, m. devout person; -samliga, adv. attentively; -samligr, a. (1) attentive; (2) = -verðr; -samr, a. heedful, attentive; -verðr, a. worthy of attention.

at-hugi, m. attention, meditation; af öllum athuga, carefully; flytja fram bœnir sínar með athuga, with devotion; leiða e-t athuga, to reflect upon, to take into consideration.

athugliga, adv. attentively.

at-hvarf, n. courteous attentions to any one, in the phrases, gøra e-m athvarf, gøra at athvarfi við e-n.

at-hyggja, f. attention (með allri hugarins athyggju); -hygli, f. heedfulness, attentiveness; -hyllast, v. refl., to cultivate one’s friendship; to side with (e-n); -hœfi, n. conduct, behaviour, proceeding (í öllu sínu athœfi); -hœfiligr, a. fit, fitting; -höfn, f. (1) doings, business; fengin var þeim önnur athöfn, occupation; (2) behaviour, conduct; -kall, n. demand, claim; -kast, n. rebuke, reproach.

atkeri, m. anchor; see ‘akkeri’.

at-koma, -kváma, f. (1) arrival; (2) pain, visitation; -kominn, pp. situated (vel, illa atkominn).

atkvæða-lauss, a. unimportant, of no consequence; -maðr, m. a man of importance; -mikill, a. of weight, influential.

at-kvæði, n. (1) technical term; skal sœkja sem þjófssök fyrir utan atkvæði, with exception of the technical terms, without calling it theft; (2) word, expression; (3) sound, pronunciation (atkvæði nafns hvers þeirra); (4) decision; var því vikit til atkvæða Marðar, referred to Mard’s decision; S. veitti atkvæði (ordered, decreed), at hætta skyldi áverkum; af atkvæði guðanna, by the gods’ decree; (5) spell, charm; atkvæði Finnunnar, the spell of the Finnish witch.

at-laga, f. (1) laying the ships alongside for attack in a sea-fight, attack, assault (also on land); (2) landing without notion of fight (jarl skipði svá fyrir um atlöguna).

at-lát, n. coinpliance; atlát synda, indulgence in sin.

atlátsamr, a. compliant (e-u).

atlogu-skip, n. a ship engaged in battle.

atmælasamr, a. fault-finding.

at-mæli, n. blame, censure; -rás, f. charge, attack; -reið, f. (1) riding at; (2) charge of horse.

atreiðar-áss, m. quintain-post.

at-rekandi, m. vigorous efforts, great exertions.

at-renna, f. running knot, noose, slip-knot.

atrennu-lykkja, f. = atrenna.

atrið, n. movement; hann hafði allt eitt atriðit, he did both things at once.

at-róðr, m. (1) rowing towards; (2) rowing against the enemy (to make an attack).

atsamr, a. quarrelsome, contentious.

at-seta, f. residence; hafa atsetu e-s staðar, to reside, esp. of kings; -setr, n. = -seta.

at-skelking, f. derision, ridicule.

atskiljanligr, a. various, different.

atskjaldaðr, a. covered with shields.

atskjótaðr, a. situated; illa atskjótaðr, badly off.

at-sókn, f. (1) onslaught, attack; (2) run of visitors or guests seeking hospitality (föng vóru lítil, en atsókn mikil).

atsóknar-maðr, m. aggressor.

at-spurning, f. inquiry; leiða atspurningum um e-ð, to make inquiries about a thing.

at-staða, f. (1) assistance, support; (2) zeal; (3) importunity, obtrusion; -staddr, a. situated, circumstance (vel, illa atstaddr); -stuðning, f., -stuðningr, m., -stóð, f. support, assistance; -súgr, m., only in the phrase, bora frekan atsúg til e-s, to lay vigorous claim to; -svif, n. incident, bearing; -tekinn, pp. = -staddr; -tekt, f. state, condition.

at-tónn, f. tusk, = vígtönn (cf. at, n.).

at-veizla, f. assistance (cf. ‘veita at’); -vorknaðr, m. work, esp. in haymaking; var þórgunnu ætlat nautsfóðr til atverknaðar, to toss and dry it.

at-vik, n. (1) esp. in plur., details, particulars; eptir atvikum, according to the circumstances of the case; greina e-t með atvikum, circumstantially; (2) concession; (3) onset, assault, = atvígi.

at-vinna, f. (1) assistance, support; (2) means of subsistence.

atvinnu-lauss, a. without means of subsistence.

at-vist, f. presence, esp. the act of being present at a crime; vera í atsókn ok atvist, to be present and a partaker in the onslaught; atvistar-maðr, m. aider and abettor.

at-vígi, n. onset, onslaught.

atyrða (-rta, -rðr), v. to rebuke; -yrði, n. pl. abusive words.

auð-, adverbial prefix to a great many adjectives, adverbs, and participles (opp. to tor-), easily; -béðinn, pp. easily persuaded; -bœnn, a. easily moved by entreaty; -bœttr, pp. easily compensated for; -eggjaðr, pp. easily egged on; -fenginn, pp., -fengr, a. easy to get; -fundinn, pp., -fyndr, a. easy to find; -fundit (-fynt), easy to perceive, clear; -fœrr, a. (1) easy to pass (-fœrr vegr); (2) easily accessible.

auðga (), v. to enrich (a. e-n e-u); refl., auðgast, to grow wealthy.

auð-gengr, a. easy to pass (stígr -gengr); -gætligr, a., -gætr, a. easy to get; -görr, pp. easily done; -heyrt, pp. n. easily heard, clear.

auð-hóf, n., -hœfi, n. pl. riches, = auðœfi.

auðigr and auðugr, a. rich, wealthy (a. at fé); skip mikit ok auðigt, with a rich lading.

auðit, pp. n. of an obs. verb; e-m verðr e-s au., it falls to one’s lot; oss varð eigi þeirrar hamingju au., this good fortune was not destined for us; þó at mér verði lífs au., though life be granted to me; hafði au., they had won the day; varð þeim eigi erfingja au., to them no heir was granted; au. fé, means possessed.

auð-kendr, pp. easy to recognize, of distinguished appearance; -kenni, n. mark, distinction; -kenniligr, a. easy to recognize; -keyptr, pp. easily bought, cheap; -kjörinn, pp. easily chosen, easy to decide on; -kumall, a. tender, delicate, easily hurt or wounded; -kumall í skapi, irritable; -kvaddr, pp. easily moved (váru menn til þass -kvaddir).

auð-kvisa, f., -kvisi, m.; see ‘aukvisi’.

auð-kvæðr, a. easily talked over, easily moved, pliable.

auð-kymli, f. weakness (þá varp hón af sér -kymli konunnar).

auð-kýfingr, m. a man of great wealth.

auð-lattr, pp. easily kept in check; -látinn, pp. of easy, affable manners, complaisant.

auð-legð, f. wealth, riches; -maðr, m. wealthy man; -mildingr, m. generous, free-handed man.

auð-mjúkliga, adv. (1) humbly; (2) easily; -mjúkligr, a. humble (auðmjúkligt bœnarbréf); -mjúkr, a. (1) humble, meek; (2) pliable, docile; -munaðr, pp. easily remembered; -mýkja (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to humble; auð-mýkja sik, to humble oneself; (2) to make pliable; -mýkt, f. meekness, humility.

auðn, f. (1) wilderness, desert (úfœriligar auðnir); (2) uninhabited and uncultivated tract of land, waste (bygðust þá margar auðnir landsins); (3) deserted farm or habitation (sá bœr hét síðan á Hrappstöðum, þar er nú auðn); (4) desolation; ríki mitt stendr mjök til auðnar, is in a state of desolation; liggja (leggja) í auðn, to lie (to lay) waste; (5) destruction (auðn borgarinnar).

auðna, f. (1) fate; a. mun því ráða, Fate must settle that; (2) good fortune; með auðnu þeirri, at Þorkatli var lengra lífs auðit, by that good fortune that longer life was destined for Thorkel.

auðna, f. desolation, = auðn.

auðna (), v. impers. to fall out by fate; ef honum auðnaði eigi aptr at koma, if he did not have the good fortune to return; ef guð vill, at þess auðni, that it shall succeed; sem auðnar, as luck decides.

auðnar-glutr, n. squandering, prodigality; -hús, n. deserted house; -maðr, m. destroyer; -óðal, n. impovetished estate; -sel, n. deserted shieling; -staðr, m. a desert place.

auðnu-lauss, a. luckless; -maðr, m. lucky man, favourite of fortune; -samliga, adv. fortunately.

auð-næmiligr, a. easy to learn.

auð-næmr, a. easily learned, soon got by heart.

auðr, a. empty, void, desolate; húsin voru auð, uninhabited; auð skip (= hroðin), empty ships, all the crew being slain or put to flight; a. af mönnum, void of people; a. at yndi, devoid of pleasure, cheerless.

auðr, m. riches, wealth; auðr fjár, great wealth; auðr er valtastr vina, wealth is the ficklest of friends.

auð-ráð, n. wealth, = auðræði.

auð-ráðinn, pp. (1) easily explained (of a dream); (2) easy to manage (of a boat); -ráðr, a. pliable, yielding.

auð-rann, n. rich house; -ræði, n. pl. means, property, wealth; -salir, m. pl. rich (splendid) halls.

auð-sénn, pp. easily seen, evident; -skilligr, a. easy to understand; -skreiðr, a. = örskreiðr; -skœðr, a. easily damaged, delicate, tender; -sóttligr, a. (1) easy to perform, an easy task (þótti þetta eigi vera -sóttligt); (2) that can easily be taken by force (borg -sóttlig); -sóttr, pp. easy to win (mal -sótt); auðsóttr til bœna, pliable, yielding.

auð-stafr, m. poet. wealthy man.

auð-sveipr, a. pliable, yielding.

auð-sýna (-da, -dr), v. to show, exhibit; refl., -sýnast, to appear clearly; -sýniliga, adv. clearly; -sýniligr, a. evident, clear; -sýning, f. making evident, explanation; -sýnn, a. easily seen, clear, evident; -sæligr, a. = -sýniligr; -sær, a. = -sýnn; -trúa, a. indecl., -trúinn, a. credulous; -tryggi, f. simplicity, credulity; -tryggr, a. simple-hearted, credulous.

auðugr, a., see ‘auðigr’.

auð-velda (), v. to make easy, take lightly.

auðvelda-verk, n. an easy task.

auð-veldi, n. easiness, facility; með -veldi, easily; -veldliga, adv. (1) easily, lightly, taka -veldliga í e-u, to make light of; (2) without reluctance, willingly; -veldligr, a. easy to overcome (hversu -veldlig sú borg var); -veldr, a., -velliligr, a. (1) easy; (2) compliant.

auð-virða, &c.; see ‘afvirða’.

auð-vitað, pp. n. easy to know, clear, evident; -víst, a. n., = -vitað.

auð-þrifligr, a. weakly, feeble.

auð-œfi, n. pl. opulence, wealth, riches.

aufi, interj. woe! alas!; a. mér or a. mik, woe is me!

aufusa or aufúsa, f. thanks, gratitude, satisfaction, pleasure; kunna e-m aufúsu fyrir e-t, to be thankful, obliged to one, for a thing; gefa e-m aufúsu, to thank; e-m er au. á e-u, one is pleased, gratified, with; ef yðr er þar nökkur au. á, if it be any pleasure to you; var mönnum mikil au. á því, were much pleased by it.

aufúsa-gestr, m. a welcome guest, opp. to ‘andvara-gestr’; -lauss, a. ungrateful, unthankful; -orð, n. thanks; -svipr, m. friendly mien.

auga (gen. pl. augna), n. eye; lúka (bregða) upp augum, bregða augum í sundr, to open (lift up) the eyes; lúka aptr augum, to shift the eyes; renna (bregða, leiða) augum til e-s, to turn the eyes to; leiða e-n augum, to measure one with the eyes; berja augum í e-t, to take into consideration; koma augum á e-t, to set eyes on, become aware of; hafa auga á e-u, t have, keep, an eye upon; segja e-m e-t í augu upp, to one’s face, right in the face; unna e-m sem augum í höfði sér, as one’s own eye-balls; e-m vex e-t í augu, one has scruples about; náit er nef augum, the nose is neighbor to the eyes; gløggt er gests augat, a guest’s eye is sharp; mörg eru dags augu, the day has many eyes; eigi leyna augu, ef ann kona manni, the eyes cannot hide it if a woman loves a man; (2) hole, aperture in a needle (nálarauga), in a millstone (kvarnarauga) or an axe-head; (3) pit full of water.

auga-bora, f. socket of the eye; -bragð, n. (1) twinkling of an eye, moment; á einu augabragði, in the twinkling of an eye; (2) glance, look; snart -bragð, a keen glance; hafa -bragð af e-u, á e-u, to cast a look at; (3) a butt for ridicule, hafa en at -bragði, to make sport of ridicule verða at -bragð to become a laughingstock; -bragðligr, a. (1) momentary; (2) instantaneous; -staðr, m. socket of the eye; -steinn, m. apple (or pupil) of the eye.

augbrá, f. eye-lashes; -dapr, a. weak-sighted; -fagr, a. = augnafagr; -lit, n. face, countenance; fyrir (or í) gúðsaugliti, before the face of God; -ljós, n., in the phrase, koma í -ljós, to come to light, appear; -ljóss, a. clear, manifest.

augna-bending, f. a warning look or glance; -bragð, n. = augabragð; -fagr, a. fair-eyed, having beautiful eyes; -fullr, a. full of eyes; -gaman, n. delightfull of the eyes; -karl, m. pan of the hip-joint; -kast, n. wild glance; -lag, n. look; -mein, n. disease of the eye; -myrkvi, m. dimness of the eye; -sjáldr, n. eyeball, pupil; -skot, n. (1) look, glance of the eye; (2) measure by the eye (at augnaskoti); -staðr, m. = augastaðr; -sveinn, m. a Iad leading a blind man; -verkr, m. pain in the eye; -þungi, m. heaviness of the eye.

aug-sjándi, pr. p. seeing with one’s own eyes; at augsjándum postulum sínum, in sight of his apostles; -sjón, f. = augsýn; -súrr, a. blear-eyed, = súreygr; -sýn, f. sight; koma í -sýn e-m, to appear before him; í -sýn e-m, in the face of; -sýnast (d), v. refl. to appear clearly; -sýniliga, adv. visibly; -sýniligr, a. visible; -sýnn, a. = auð-sýnn, aug-ljóss.

auk, adv. and conj. (1) besides, = at auki (hundrað manna ok auk kappar hans); (2) also, = ok.

auka (eyk, jók, jókum, aukinn), v. (1) to augment, increase (a. virðing e-s; a. ætt sína; a. vandræði); to prolong (a. þing); aukanda ferr am e-t, something goes on increasing; eigi er þat aukit (it is no exaggeration) þó at hann sé sagðr ríkastr maðr á Íslandi; orðum aukit, exaggerated; aukin (more than) þrjú hundruð manna; (2) to add, with dat. (jók ek því es mér varð síðar kunnara); a. synd á synd ofan, to heap sin upon sin; a. e-u við, to add; aukast orðum við, to come to words, to converse; with acc., a. ný vandræði (= nýjum vandræðum) á hin fornu, to add new difficulties to old ones; impers., jók stórum hans harm, his grief increased greatly; (3) to surpass, exceed; þat er eykr sex aura, þá á konungr hálft þat er eykr, if it exceeds six ounces, the king takes half the excess.

auka (), v. (a Norse form) = the preceding.

auka-gørð, f. unnecessary work.

auka-hlutr, m., at -hlut, in addition, to boot, = at auk.

aukan, f. increase, augmenttation.

auka-nafn, n. nickname, additional name; -smíði, n. superfluous thing; -tungl, n. intercalary moon; -verk, n. superfluous work.

auki, m. (1) addition, increase (a. fagnaðar, pínsla); verða at moldar auka, to become dust, to die; til auka, in addition, to boot; fœrast í alla auka (afls síns), to exert to the utmost one’s bodily strength; (2) seed, progeny, offspring (eigi gaft þú mér auka eðr afkvæmi); (3) produce of the earth; (4) interest of capital.

auk-nefna (-da, -dr), v. to nickname; -nefni, n. contemptuous name, nickname (eigi em ek bastarðr nema at -nefni, of William the Conqueror).

aukning, f. increase.

aukvisi, m. degenerate person, laggard (einn er au. ættar hverrar).

auma, f. misery, in the phrase, sjá aumu or aumur á e-m, to take pity upon; cf. ‘arma’.

aum-hjartaðr, a. tender-hearted, charitible.

aumingi (-ja), m. miserable person, wretch (guð aumingi).

aumka (), v. to commiserate, to feel pity for (a person, &c.).

aumkan, f. lamentation, wailing.

aum-leikr, m. misery, wretchedness; -liga, adv. piteously, wretchedly; -ligleikr, m. = -leikr; -ligr, a. poor, miserable (aumligr ok hörmuligr).

aumr, a. poor, miserable, unhappy, wretched.

aum-staddr, pp. in a poor, wretched state; miserably situated.

aura-, gen. pl. from aurar; see ‘eyrir’.

aura-dagr, m. pay-day; -lag, n. standard of money; -lán, n. wordly luck; -lógan, f. squandering money, profuseness; -lykt, f. payment; -skortr, m. scarcity of money; -taka, f. receipt of money.

aur-borð, n. the second plank from the keel of a boat.

aur-gáti, m.; see ‘ørgáti’.

aurigr (acc. aurgan), a. clayey, muddy.

aurr, m. moist earth, clay, mud (aurr etr iljar, en ofan kuldi).

aurriða-bekkr, m. trout-stream; -flski, n. trout-fishery; -net, n. troutnet; -vatn, n. a lake with trout.

aurriði, m. salmon-trout.

aur-skór, m. ‘mud-shoe’, horse-shoe; -skriða, f. landslip.

ausa (eys, jós, jósum, ausinn), v. to sprinkle, pour, with dat.; þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum ok ausa (viz. því) upp yfir askinn, pour it over the ash-tree; a. síld ór netjum, to empty the nets of the herrings; fig., a. sauri á e-n, to bespatter with abuse; a. e-m e-u í augu upp, to throw … in one’s face; (2) a. e-n (or e-t) e-u, to besprinkle with a thing; a. e-n moldu, to sprinkle with earth, to bury; a. barn vatni, a sort of baptism in the heathen age (Sigurðr jarl jós sveininn vatni ok kallaði Hákon); (3) with acc., to bale; a. skip upp, to bale the ship out; fig., a. bát sinn, to make wetter; (4) of a horse, to kick or lash out with the hind legs.

ausa, f. ladle; ekki er enn sopit, þó í ausuna sé komit, there’s many a slip ‘twixt the cup and lip.

aus-ker, n. = austrs-ker.

ausli, m.; see ‘auvisli, usli’.

austan, adv. from the east; á austan, blowing from east; fyrir austan (as a prep. with acc.), east of; (2) without motion, on the eastern side (þrjú hlið vóru austan á borginni); (3) with gen., to the east of (austan árinnar; austan fjarðar).

austan-ferð, f. journey from the east; -gols, f. light breeze from the east; -kváma, f. arrival from the east; -marð, m. a man from the east; -veðr, n. easterly gale; -verðr, a. eastern, easterly; -vindr, m. east wind.

austar-liga, adv., -ligr, a. easterly.

austarr, adv. compar. more to the east; austast, adv. superl. most to the east; austastr, a. superl. most easterly, easternmost.

aust-firðingr, m. one from the east of Iceland; -firðir, m. pl. the east firths of Iceland; -firzkr, a. from the east firths (of Iceland); aust-ker, n. = austrs-ker.

aust-maðr, m. ‘eastman’, a man from the east; in Iceland and in the Orkneys, a man from Norway.

austr, n. (1) the east (sól í austri; til austrs); (2) as adv., in the east (ek var a. ok ána varðak); towards the east (þú vart a. sendr).

austr (-ra or -rar), m. (1) the act of baling out water; standa í austri, to be engaged in baling; (2) bilge-water (skipit fullt af austri).

austr-átt, f. = austrætt.

austr-biti, m. a cross-beam near the baling place (in a ship).

austrfarar-knórr, m., -skip, n. vessel bound for the Baltic.

austr-ferð: -för, f. voyage to the east, esp. to Russia or the eastern Baltic.

austr-hálfa, f. (1) the eastern part; hennar (of Europe) -hálfa; (2) Asia (-austr-hálfa heimsins).

austrhálfu-lýðr, m., -þjóð, f. people of the east.

austr-kendr, a. easterly (var veðrit austrkennt).

austr-ker, n. scoop, = austrs-ker.

austr-ligr, a. eastern.

austr-lönd, n. pl. the East.

austr-mál, n. turn at baling.

austr-oka (), v. to lavish, squander (-oka fé sínu).

austr-ríki, n. the eastern empire, esp. the east of Europe; also of Asia.

austr-rúm, n. the baling place in a ship.

austrs-ker, n. scoot, bucket for bating out water.

austr-vegr, m. the east, esp. the eastern Baltic, Russia.

austrvegs-konungr, m. king of Russia; -konungar, the three kings from the east; -maðr, m. inhabitant of the austrvegr.

austr-ætt, f. eastern region of the heaven, east.

aust-rœnn, a. eastern, coming from the east; -rœn gola, easterly breeze; -rœnn maðr = austmaðr; -rœnn viðr, timber from Norway.

aust-skota, f. scoop, = austrs-ker.

auvi, interj. alas! = aufi (auvi mér veslugri).

auvirðast (), v. refl., to become worthless, = afvirðast.

auvirði, n. (1) worthless wretch; (2) a law term, damage, anything impairing the value of a thing.

auvirðiligr, a. worthless, wretched.

auvirðis-maðr, m. a worthless wretch.

auvirðskapr, m. worthlessness.

auvisla-bót, f. compensation for damage.

auvisli (af, vesall), m., contr. ausli, usli; (1) a law term, damage; bœta auvisla, to pay compensation for damage done; (2) hurt, injury in general; setja undan öllum auvisla, to get off unscathed.

ax, n. ear of corn.

axar-, see ‘øxar-’.

ax-helma, f. stalk and ear of corn.

axlar-bein, n. shoulder-bone, shoulder-blade; -liðr, m. shoulder-joint.

axl-byrðr, f. load borne on the shoulder (öxl); -hár, a. as high as a man’s shoulder (axlhár e-m).

ay, interj. = auvi (ay mér veslugri).

Á

á, prep., A. with dat. I. of place; (1) on, upon, in; á gólfi, on the floor; á hendi, on the hand (of a ring); á sjá ok landi, on sea and land; á bókum enskum, in English books; á himni, in heaven; á jörðu, on earth; hafa lykil á sér,… on one’s person; vera á þingi, to be present at a meeting; vera í skógi, to be out in a forest (of a hunter, robber, deer); þær eyjar liggja á Breiðafirði,… in Broad firth; (2) in connexion with proper names of countries, esp those ending in ‘-land’, in; á Englandi, Írlandi, Skotlandi, Bretlandi, Grœnlandi, Íslandi, &c., á Mœri, Ögðum, Fjölum; á Mýrum (in Iceland); á Finnmörk, á Fjóni (a Danish island), but í Danmörk, Svipjóð; also before names of Icel. farms denoting open spaces; á Þórisstöðum, á Möðruvöllum, á Fitjum. II. of time; (1) during, in the course of; á nótt, by night; á degi, by day; á því ári, vári, sumri, in that year, spring, summer; á þrem sumrum, in the course of three summers; var hann á fám dögum heill, within few days; á dögum e-s, in the days of, in his reign or time; (2) used of a fixed recurrent period or season; á várum, sumrum, haustum, vetrum, every spring, summer, &c.; á kveldum, in the evening; þrisvar á ári, mánuði, three times a year, a month. III. fig. and in various relations; (1) denoting personal relation, in, to, towards; bœta e-t á e-m, to make amends to one (personally); sjá á e-m, to read one or in one’s face; hafa elsku (hatr) á e-m, to bear love (hatred) to one; rjúfa sætt á e-m, to break a truce on one; (2) with a reflexive pron., denoting personal appearance, temper, look; vera þungr, léttr á sér, to be heavy or light (either bodily or mentally); kátr ok léttr á sér, of a gay and light disposition; þat bragð hafði hann á sér, he looked as if; sýna fáleika á sér, to show displeasure; (3) as periphrasis of the possessive pron. or a genitive; hann rétti á sér fingrna, he stretched his fingers; fótrinn á honum, his foot; í vörunum á honum, in his lips; stafn, skutr, árar, segl á skipi, the stem, stern, oars, sail of a ship; blöð á tré, leaves of a tree; egg á sverði = sverðsegg; (4) denoting instrumentality, by, by means of; afla fjár á hólmgöngum, to make money by duelling; fella e-n á bragði,… by a trick (in wrestling); komast undan á flótta, to escape by flight; (5) with numerals; á þriðja tigi manna, between twenty and thirty; á níunda tigi, between eighty and ninety years of age; á öðru hundraði skipa, with above a hundred sail; (6) in many adverbial phrases; á lífi, alive; á brautu, away; á floti, afloat; á milli, between; á laun, secretly; á móti, against; á enda, at an end; á flugi, a-flying, in the air; á gangi, walking; á skjálfi, a-shivering; á hleri, a-listening; á veiðum, a-hunting; á beit, a-grazing; (7) used absol. in reference to the air or the weather; þoka var á mikil, a thick fog was on; allhvast á norðan, very strong breeze from the north; gørði á regn, rain came on. B. with acc. I. of place; (1) indicating direction with or without motion, towards, to, on, upon; ganga á land, to go ashore; ganga á skóg, into the wood; stíga á skip, to go on board; á bæði borð, on both sides (of the ship); á hlið, sidewise; höggva á tvær hendr, to hew or strike right and left; stefna á fótinn, to aim at the foot; gekk veðrit á vestr, the wind veered to the west; hárit tók ofan á belti, reached down to the belt; reka austr á haf, to drift eastwards on the sea; (2) in some cases the acc. is used instead of the dat., esp. with verbs denoting to hear or to see; þeir sá boða mikinn inn á fjörðinn, they saw great breakers away in the firth; with phrases denoting to be placed, seated, to sit, the seat is freq. in acc.; sitja á miðjan bekk, to be seated on the middle bench; skyldi konungs sæti vera á þann bekk; (3) denoting parts of the body; bíta e-n á barka, to bite one in the throat; skera e-n á háls, to cut one’s throat; kalinn á kné, frozen (frost-bitten) up to the knee. II. of time; (1) connected with ‘evening, morning, the seasons’ with the article; á kveldit, every evening; á sumarit, every summer; á vetrinn, in the winter-time; the plur., however, is much more common in such cases; á nætrnar, by night, everynight; á morgnana, in the morning, every morning; á kveldin, in the evening; á várin, in spring; á sumrin, in summer; á haustin, in autumn (cf. A. II. 1.); ‘dagr’ is always used in sing. with the art. suffixed; á daginn, during the day-time, every day in turn; (2) denoting a movement onward in time; er leið á vetrinn (daginn, kveldit, nóttina), as the winter, &c., wore on. III. fig. and in various relations; (1) on, upon, to; bjóða vöxtu á féit, to offer interest on the money; fá á e-n, to make an impression upon; koma á rœðu við e-n, to enter into talk with, to speak with; (2) of colour, complexion, in respect of, in regard to: hvítr, jarpr, døkkr á hár, having, white, brown, dark hair; døkkr á hörund, of dark complexion; (3) denoting skill, dexterity; hagr á tré, a good carpenter; hagr á járn, málm, an expert worker in iron, metals; fimir á boga, good at the bow; meistari á hörpuslátt, a master in harp-playing; mikill á íþrótt, highly accomplished; frœðimaðr á landnámssögur ok forna frœði, a great scholar in history and antiquities; (4) denoting dimensions; á hæð (lengd, breidd, dýpt), in height (length, breadth, depth); (5) denoting instrumentality; bjargast á sínar hendr, to live on the work of one’s own hands; vega á skállir, to weigh in scales; nefna e-n á nafn, by name; (6) denoting manner; á þessa lund, in this wise; á marga (ymsa, alla) vega, in many (various, all) respects; esp. of a language; mæla, rita á e-a tungu, to speak, write in a tongue; á Írsku, in Irish; (7) in some phrases the acc. is used instead of the dat.; hann lét ekki á sik finna, he showed no sign of motion; (8) in distributive sense; skal mörk kaupa gæzlu á kú eðr oxa, a mark … for every cow; (9) connected with nouns, in prepositional and adverbial phrases; á hendr e-m, against; á hœla e-m, at one’s heels, close behind; á bak e-m, at the back of, behind; á braut, away; á víxl, so as to cross, cross-wise.

á (gen. ár, pl. ár, gen. á, dat. ám), f. river; hér kemr á til sævar, here the river runs into the sea, fig., = this is the very end.

á-auki, m. (1) increase; (2) interest of money, yield, profit; (3) reward.

á-austr (-rs), m. abusive language.

á-barning, f. (1) thrashing, flogging (= barsmíð); (2) assault (of the Evil One), temptation.

á-batan, f. = ábati.

á-bati, m. profit, gain.

á-bersemi, f. disposition to accuse.

á-blátsinn, pp. inspired (bók guðliga áblásin).

á-blásning, f. (1) breathing upon (með elds á.); (2) gramm., aspiration; (3) inspiration; á-blástr, m. (1) breathing upon; (2) inspiration.

ábóta-dœmi, n. abbacy, abbotship; -kosning, f. election of an abbot; -ligr, a. abbatial; -sonr, m. son of an abbot; -stétt, f. the rank, dignity of an abbot; -stofa, f. abbot’s parlour; -sæti, n. seat of an abbot; -vald, n. the power, dignity of an abbot.

ábóta-vant, a. n. in need of improvement, imperfect (þar er honum þótti -vant um kristnihaldit).

ábóti, m. abbot.

á-breiða, f., á-breizl, n. bed-covering, counterpane.

á-brúðigr, a. = afbrúðigr; ábbrýða, v. = afbrýða; á-brýði, f. = afbrýði.

áburðar-klæði, n. pl. fine clothes, showy dress; -kona, f. a showy, dressy woman; -maðr, m. showy person, dandy; -mikill, a. puffed up, showy; -samligr, -samr, a. showy.

á-burðr, m. (1) charge; (2) salve, ointment; (3) pomp or bravery in dress (cf. ‘berast mikit á’).

á-búð, f. (1) tenancy; ef land spillist í ábúð hans, during his tenancy; (2) duties of a tenant.

ábúðar-maðr, m. an inhabitant; -skylda, f. duties ol a tenant.

á-búnaðr, m. tenancy (= ábúð).

á-byrgð, f. responsibility; vera í á. um e-t, to be responsible for; vera ór á. um e-t, to be exempt from responsibility in a case; hafa mikit í á., have much at stake; e-t er í ábyrgðum við mik, I am responsible for it.

ábyrgðar-fullr, a. full of responsibility, responsible; -hlutr, m. an object, matter involving risk, a responsibility; -lauss, a. irresponsible, free from risk; -lítill, a. involving little risk; -ráð, n. responisible step; -samligr, a. momentous, very important.

á-byrgja (-ða, -ðr), v. to make one answerable for (á e-m e-t or e-t á hendi e-m); refl., ábyrgjast e-t, to answer for, warrant.

á-bœli, n. tenancy, farm, = ábúð.

áðan, adv. (1) before (löngu á.); (2) a little while ago (Kolr fór frá seli á.).

áðr, adv. (1) already (ek hef áðr ráðit brullaup Mitt); (2) before, heretofore; litlu (löngu) á., a little while (long) before; (3) = áðr en, previous to the time when, before, ere; þeir höfðu skamma hríð setið á. þar kom Gunnhildr, they had sat but a short while before G. came; dóu margir á. þeir kœmi til fyrirheitsjarðar, before they came to the land of promise; (4) until, till (þat var svipstund ein á. stofan brann); (5) sem á., nevertheless, for all that (hón bað hann þat eigi gera, en hann tekr hana sem á.).

áðreifing, f. sprinkling upon.

áðr-nefndr, pp. before mentioned.

á-drykkja, f. the act of drinking to; sitja fyri ádrykkju e-s, to sit over against one as his drinking-mate (regarded as a mark of honor).

á-drykkr, m. a wave dashing over a ship.

á-eggja (), v. to egg or urge on, to exhort (á e-m).

á-eggjan, f. egging on, instigation.

áeggjanar-fífl, n. a fool or tool egged on by another (hafa e-n at -fífli); -grejnir, f. pl. exhortations; -óp, n. encouraging shout.

á-eggjari, m. instigator (áeggjari glœpa).

áfa, f. disturbance, quarrel, strife.

á-fall, n. (1) heazy sea (dashing over a ship); (2) law term, imposition of a fine (á. sektar); (3) = áfelli, calamity, visitation.

áfalls-dómr, m. sentence of condemnation or punishment.

á-fang, n. (1) laying hands upon, rough handling (varð hann fyrir miklu spotti ok áfangi); (2) mulct, fine, incurred by illegal seizure of another man’s goods; sex aura á., a fine of six ounces.

á-fangi, m. = áfang 2.

á-fangr, m.; see ái-vangr.

á-fastr, a. fastened to, joined to.

á-fátt, a. n. defective, faulty.

á-felli, n. calamity; standa undir áfelli, to be under great hardship; hvert á. jarl hafði veitt honum, what penalties the earl had laid on him.

áfellis-dómr, m. condemnation.

á-fenginn, pp., -fengr, a. intoxicating (á. mjöðr, drykkr).

á-flog, n. pl. brawl fighting.

á-form, n. arrangement.

á-forma (), v. to arrange about a thing (um e-t).

á-fram, adv. forward, onward; féll hann á., on the face; komst aldri lengra á. fyrir honum um skáldskapinn, he never got any further in his verse making; héldu þeir á. leiðina, they held forward on their way.

á-frá, prep. from, = frá (á. þeim degi).

á-frýja, v. = frýja á e-n.

á-frýja, f. reproach, rebuke.

á-fýsi, f. gratification, satisfaction (oss er engi á. at).

á-fœra (-ða, -ðr), v. to reproach.

á-ganga, f. = ágangr (veita e-m ágöngu).

á-gangr, m. molestation, annoyance, assault, aggression.

ágang-samr, a. agressive.

ágangs-maðr, m. an aggressor (við mína ágangsmenn).

á-gauð, f. barking (at one); abusive language; veita e-m mikla ágauð, to abuse grossly.

á-gengiligr, a. acceptable, agreeable.

á-gengt, a. n., e-m verðr ágengt, one is exposed to ágangr.

á-gildi, n. value of a ewe (ær).

á-gildr, a. of a ewe’s value.

á-girnast (d), v. refl. to covet, lust after (ágirnast e-t = girnast á e-t); ágirnd, f. (1) ardent desire, ambition; (2) cupidity, avarice (hann hafði dregit undir sik Finnskattinn með ágirnd).

ágirndar-bál, n., -eldr, -logi, m. flame of ambition or cupidity; -löstr, m. vice (passion) of avarice.

á-girni, f. (1) ambition; (2) greed, cupidity.

á-girnis-fullr, a. avaricious, selfish.

á-gjarn, a. (1) ambitious (á. ok fégjarn); á. til fjár, covetous; (2) impetuous, eager (kappar ágjarnir ok óhræddir).

ágjarn-liga, adv. (1) eagerly, vehemently; (2) with greed or cupidity; -ligr, a. proceeding from cupidity or avarice (-lig rán).

ágóða-hlútr, m. profitable share.

á-góði, m. gain, profit, benefit.

á-grip, n., in the phrase, lítill ágripum, small of size.

ágæta (-tta, -ttr), v. to praise or commend highly.

ágæta-, gen. pl. from ‘ágæta’, is prefixed to many words to express something capital, excellent; -góðr, a. excellent; -gripr, m. capital thing; -naut, n. fine ox; -skjótr, a. very swift; -vel, adv. excellently well.

ágæti, n. glory, fame, renown, excellence; in pl., glorious deeds (mikil ágæti vóru sögð af Gunnari); gera e-t at ágætum, to praise highly.

ágætingr, m. = ágætismaðr, ágætr maðr.

ágætis-, gen. from ‘ágæti’, prefixed to a great many words with the same meaning as ‘ágæta-’; -gripr, m. = ágæta-gripr; -læknir, m. excellent physician; -maðr, m. excellent man; -verk, n. master-piece; used as an adv. highly, extremely (húsfrú ágætis siðsöm).

ágæt-liga, adv. capitally; -ligr, a. excellent, goodly.

ágætr, a. famous, excellent; ágætr höfðingi, excellent chief; ágætir gimsteinar, noble gems.

á-gørð, f. gain, profit (= ávöxtr).

á-hald, n. (1) laying hold of, esp. in pl., fighting, brawl; verða áhöld með mönnum, they come to a tussle; (2) possession; veita e-u áhald or áhöld, to take possession of; (3) hafa áhöld við e-m um e-t, to be equal to (match for) one in a thing.

á-hankast (), v. refl. to become entangled.

á-heit, n. invocation, vow.

á-henda (-nda, -ndr), v. to lay hands upon, seize; á-hendr, pp. within reach; þau urðu áhend, they were seized.

á-heyrandi, pr. p. within hearing, listening; at öllum boðsmönnum áheyröndum, in the hearing (presence) of all the guests.

á-heyriligr, a. worth hearing, well soundin; á-heyris, adv. within hearing, in one’s hearing; á-heyrsi, á-heyrsli, a. indecl., verða e-s á., to get to know by hearing.

á-hlaup, n. (1) onset, attack, incursion; gera e-t með áhlaupum, to do a thing, impetuously; (2) leaping, covering (of animals).

á-hlaups-maðr, m. an impetuous person.

á-hlekking, f. (1) stumbling block (drepa fótum í áhlekkingar); (2) error, slip; (3) adversity; á-hleypinn, a. impetuous, vehement; á-hlýðást (dd), v. refl. to give ear to, listen to (á. ummæli e-s); á. við e-n, to agree with; á-hlýðinn, a. giving a willing ear, listening readily (á. um e-t, til e-s); ekki á., obstinate, self-willed.

áhrins-orð, n. pl. words (spells) that come true (verða at -orðum).

áhuga-fullr, n. pl. full of care; -lítill, a. slow; -maðr, a. eager, aspiring man; -mikill, a. eager, vigorous; -samt, a. n., e-m er -samt, one is concerned (about something); -verðr, a. causing concern, serious.

á-hugi, m. (1) intention, mind; e-m er e-t í áhuga, one intends to do a thing; (2) eagerness (ekki skortir ykkr áhuga); (3) mind, opinion (eigi er því at leyna, hverr minn á. er um þetta); (4) care, solicitude, áhyggja; (5) devotion; biðja þeir goðm með miklum áhuga, fervently.

á-hyggja, f. care, concern, anxiety; bera áhyggju fyrir e-m, to be concerned about; fær þat honum mikillar áhyggju ok reiði, it causes him much concern and anger.

áhyggjast (), v. refl., á. e-t or um e-t, to be concerned about, take care or thought for.

áhyggju-fenginn, -fullr, a. anxious, concerned; -lauss, a. unconcerned; -mikill, a. very anxious; e-m gerist mikit, one grows very anxious; -samliga, adv. gravely, anxiously; -samligr, a. anxious-looking; -samr, a. anxious, careful; -svipr, m., -yfirbragð, n. grave, anxious look.

áhöfn, f. (1) frreight or loading of a ship; (2) luggage.

á-högg, n. slaughter of a ewe (ær).

ái, m. greal-grandfather.

ái-fangi, ái-fangr, m. restin-place (for horses to rest and graze); -fóðr, n. fodder for horses at a resting-place; -vangr, m. = ái-fangr (cf. ‘æja’, to bait, and ‘vangr’, field).

ákafa-maðr, m. an eager, impetuous man (-maðr um e-t).

ákafast (), v. refl., to be vehement, eager; á. á e-t, to busy oneself eagerly with a thing.

ákafi, m. eagerness, vehemence; með ákafa miklum, vehemently; í ákafa, eagerly, impetuously; the gen. ‘ákafa’ is prefixed to a great many adjectives and to some substantives, in the sense of in a high degree, very; ákafa fagr, very beautiful; ákafa reiðr, very angry, furious; ákafa drífa, a heavy snow-drift.

ákaf-leikr, m. eagerness, vehemence; -liga, adv. (1) vehemently, impetuously; fara ákafliga, to rush on; biðja -liga, to pray ferevently; (2) very, exceedingly (-liga reiðr); -ligr, a. vehement, hot (ákafligr bardagi, -lig reiði); -lyndi, n. a hot, impetuous temper; -lyndr, a. hot-tempered, impetuous.

ákafr, a. vehement, fierce (á. bardagi); þenna dag var veizlan allra áköfust, at the highest pitch; neut. as adv., kalla ákaft á Bárð, to pray to B. fervently; ríða sem ákafast, to ride at a furious pace.

á-kall, n. (1) calling upon, invocation (á. á nafn guðs); (2) clamour, shouting; (3) claim, demand (á. til e-s, to a thing).

ákalls-lauss, a. free from all claims or demands.

á-kals, n. an inportunate, urgent request (cf. kalls).

á-kast, n. (1) throwing upon, casting at; (2) fig., assault (á. óhreins anda); (3) pl. taunts; á-kastan, f. casting upion; ákasta-samr, a. taunting.

á-kefð, f. = ákafi (vægiliga en eigi með ákefð).

á-kefðarorð, n. pl. passionate or violent words.

á-kenning, f. (1) smack, savour (hafa á. e-s or af e-u); (2) slight reprimand (gera e-m á.); á-kenningr, m. = ákenning.

á-keypi, n. right of pre-emption.

á-klagan, f. accusation, charge.

ál-klæði, n. bed-covering, counterpane (sængr með áklæðum).

á-kneiki, n. shame (snúa e-u e-m til ákneikis); -koma, -kváma, f. (1) touch; úfriðar á., visitation of war; (2) hurt, wound.

á-kúfóttr, a. round as a ball.

á-kveðinn, pp. fixed, appointed; ákveðin orð, marked, pointed words; með ákveðnum orðum, in express words.

á-kvæði, n. decision, verdict; með ákvæðum, expressly.

ákvæðis-teigr, m. a piece of field to be mown in a dey; -verk, n. piecework (þat er títt á Íslandi at hafa ákvæðisverk).

á-kynnis, adv. on a visit.

á-kæra (-ða, -ðr), v. to complain of.

á-kæra, f. charge, complaint (bera ákæru á e-n); á-kærari, m. accuser, complainant; á-kærsla, f. = ákæra.

ákærslu-lauss, a. = ákærulauss; -maðr, m. = ákærumaðr.

ákæru-lauss, a. undisputed, unimpeached; -maðr, m. accuser, complainant.

ál (pl. -ar), f. leather-strap.

á-lag, n. (1) esp. pl., álög, impost, tax, burden; (2) visitation, tribulation; (3) law term, additional fine; (4) spell, charm.

á-laga, f. esp. pl. álögur = álag (1).

ála-garðr, m. eel-pond, stew for eels.

álags-háttr, m. a kind of metre, the first syllable of the following line completing the sentence.

álar-endi, m. end of a leather strap; -reip, n. rope of leather.

ála-virki, n. = álagarðr.

ál-belti, m. leathern belt; -borinn, pp. measured with a thong or cord (of a field); -burbr, m. measurement (of a field) with a cord.

á-leiðis, adv. (1) onwards forwards (fóru á. til skipa sinna); vildu snúa á. för sinni, proceed on their journey; fig., koma e-u á., to bring about; víkja á. með e-m, to side with one; (2) on the right path, opp. to afleiðis; snúa e-m á., to convert one.

á-leikni, f. pertness; á-leikr, m. trick; á-leiksi, a. having got the worst of the game.

á-leita (), v. to molest, annoy; á-leitiligr, a. reprehensible; áleitinn, a. aggressive; á-leitni, f. (1) aggressiveness (á. við e-n); (2) blame, censure.

á-lengdar, adv. for the future (engum friði heit ek þér á.).

á-lengr, adv. (1) for the future, always (þessi illvirki skyldi eigi á. úhefnd vera); (2) furthermore; (3) á. er, as soon as (álengr er hann er sextán vetra).

álfa, f. = hálfa.

álfa-blót, n. sacrifices to the elves; álfa-kyn, n. the race of elves.

álf-kona, f. female elf; álf-kunnigr, -kunnr, a. akin to the elves.

álfr (-s, -ar), m. elf, fairy (hóll er skamt heðan er álfar búa í).

álf-rek, n., -reki, m. dirt, excrements (which drive away the elves); ganga -rek, -reka, at -reka = ganga ørna sinna.

álf-röðull, m. poet. the sun.

á-lit, n. (1) aspect, appearance, countenance (vænn at áliti, fagr álitum, døkkr álits); (2) view, consideration, reflection; með skjótum álitum, without mature consideration; eigi með nógum álitum, inconsiderately; gøra e-t at álitum, to take into consideration; (3) opinion, judgement (at réttsýnna manna áliti).

álita-leysi, n. absence of reflection; -lítill, a. inconsiderate; -mál, n. pl. in the phrase, gøra e-t at -málum = gøra e-t at álitum.

álit-liga, adv. becomingly, respectably, pretty well; -ligr, a. deliberate.

á-litning, f. consideration (á. himnaríkis fagnaðar).

á-líkr, a. like, resembling.

á-ljótr (gen. -s or -ar), m. (1) serious bodily injury that leaves a mark, wilfully inflicted; (2) contumelious language (mæla áljót).

áljóts-eyrir, m. a fine for ‘áljótr’.

álka, f. auk; álku-ungi, m. young auk (fugl þvílikastr sem álku-ungi).

áll (-s, -ar), m. (1) eel; (2) a deep narrow channel in sea or river (eru nú þeir einir álar til lands, er ek get vaðit); (3) germ, sprout of a plant.

álmr, m. (1) elm; (2) poet. man.

álm-sveigr, m. elm-twig; -tré, n. elm-tree = álmr (1).

álmviðar-skógr, m. elm-wood.

álnar-breiðr, a. an ell broad; -kefli, n. a staff an ell long; -langr, a. an ell long; -tíund, f. tithe of the value of an ell; -virði, n. the value of an ell (alin, öln).

álpt (pl. álptir and elptr), f. swan.

álptar-hamr, m. the skin and plumage of a swan; -hreiðr, n. swan’s nest; -líki, n. swan’s shape or form.

álpt-veiðr, f. catching wild swans.

ál-reip, n. rope of leather.

á-lútr, a. bending forwards, stooping (cf. lútr).

á-lygi, f. slander, calumny.

á-lykt, f. issue, decision.

ályktar-áminning, f. final admonition; -dómr, m. final judgement; -orð, n. the last word, peroration; -vitni, n. conclusive testimony.

á-lyktan, f. conclusion, final decision.

á-lægja, a. indecl. in heat (of a mare).

ámátligr, ámáttigr, a. loathsome, unpleasant, piteous.

á-minna (-ta, -tr), v. to admonish; á-minning, f. (1) admonition, warning; the act of reminding one (of something); (2) recollection (á. allra synda).

áminningar-maðr, m. admonisher, reminder; -orð, n. pl. admonition, exhortation; -vísur, f. pl. admonitory or warning verses.

á-mót, n. cofluence of (two or more) rivers (uppi hjá ámóti).

á-munr, a. like (á. e-m).

ámu-sótt, f. erysipelas.

á-mæla (-ta, -t), v. to blame (á. e-m fyrir e-t).

á-mælandi (pl. -endr), m. reprover.

á-mæli, n. blame, reproof, reproach; leggja e-m e-t til ámælis, to reproach one for, or with, a thing.

ámælis-laust, adv. without reproach; -orð, n. reproof; -samr, a. bringing reproach, shameful; -verðr, a. blameworthy.

án, prep. without; (1) with gen.; þess máttu Gautar illa án vera, they could not well do without it; án allrar vægðar, without any mercy; (2) with dat.; án e-s ráði, without (against) his will; án afláti, incessantly; (3) with acc.; án alla flærð, without any deceit; án leyfi, without leave.

á-nafnaðr, a. renowned, famous.

ánauð, f. (1) oppression, constraint; (2) bondage; (3) straits, hardship (also in pl.).

ánauðar-ok, n. yoke of bondage; -vist, f. life of oppression or bondage.

á-nauðga (), v. (1) to reduce to bondage, to enslave (á. e-m); (2) to oppress; á-nauðigr, a. oppressed, enslaved; á-nauðr, m. = ánauð.

á-nefna (-da, -dr), v. to name, appoint (á. dag til orrustu).

á-netja (), v. to entangle as in a net (á. e-n e-u); refl., ánetjast e-u, to be entangled in.

á-neyða (-dda, -ddr), v. to force, subject by force.

áning, f. resting, baiting; cf. ‘æja’.

á-nyt, f. ewe’s milk, = ær-nyt.

á-nýja (), v. to renew.

á-nœgja, v. = nœgja; lát sér e-t á., to be content, rest satisfied, with.

ár, n. (1) year; at ári, next year; telja árum, to count time by years; (2) plenty, abundance, fruitfulnes (þá var ár um öll lönd); (3) the name of the Rune A.

ár, f. oar; draga skip á árum, to pull the boat with oars; þungr undir árum, heavy to pull; draga árar um e-t, to contend for; koma eigi ár sinni fyrlr borð, to be under restraint.

ár, n. first beginning; ár var alda, in times of yore; at morgins ári, um morguninn í ár = árla um morguninn, early in the morning.

ár, adv. (1) anciently, of yore; (2) early (ár um morguninn).

ára-burðr, m. the movement of the oars; koma (ráðast) undir -burð e-s, to become dependent on one; vera undir -burði e-s, to be under one’s protection; -gangr, m. splashing of oars; -glam, n. = -gangr; -lag, n. time in rowing; kunna áralag, to be able to handle an oar.

ár-áll, m. river-channel.

ár-angr (-rs), m. (1) season, = árferð; (2) produce of the earth.

árar-hlumr, m. oar-handle; -hlutr, m. piece of an oar; -stubbi, m. stump of an oar; -tré, n. wood for making oars.

á-rás, f. assault, attack, -áhlaup.

ára-tal, n. number of years; fimtugr at -tali, fifty years of age; -tala, f. (1) = -tal; (2) calculation, reckoning of years.

ár-bakki, m. bank of a river.

ár-bót, f. bettering of the season of produce.

ár-brot, n. inundation of a river; -brú, f. bridge over a river.

ár-búinn, a. early ready.

ár-býll, a. dwelling in abundance.

ár-dagar, m. pl., í -daga, in days of yore; -degis, adv. early in the day.

ár-djúp, n. pool in a river.

á-reið, charge of cavalry, invasion of horsemen; á-reitingr, m. inducement.

á-rennilgr, a. easy to face.

á-reyðr, f., a kind of salmon.

ár-eyrr, f. bar, sandbank at the mouth of a river; -farvegr, m. course of a river.

ár-ferð, f. (1) season (góð árferð); (2) good luck.

ár-flótr, a. fast, swift (of a rowing vessel).

ár-gali, m. ‘the early singer’, the cock, chanticleer.

árgalla-lauss, a. free from failure of crop, fertile. ár-galli, m. failure of crop.

ár-gangr, m. a year’s course, year.

ár-gljúfr, n. pl. steep cliff’s over-hanging a river.

ár-guð, m. god of plenty (the god Frey); -gœzka, f. good season.

ár-hlutr, m. one’s portion of a river (as regards fishing rights).

á-riða, f. smearing, rubbing (cf. ríða á’).

árla, adv. (1) early; with gen., árla dags; (2) in times of yore.

ár-langt, adv., -lengis, adv. for a year, during a whole year; -liga, adv. (1) = árla; (2) yearly; -ligr, a. (1) annual, yearly; (2) early.

ár-maðr, m. steward, esp. of a king’s or bishop’s estates.

ár-megn, n. main stream or current of a river.

ár-menning, f. stewardship.

árna (), v. (1) to earn, gain, get (á. e-t); (2) á. e-m e-s, to procure a thing for one; á. e-m góðs, to pray for good to one; á. e-m ills, to imprecate evil upon, to curse; á. e-m lífs, to intercede for one’s life; á. e-s við guð, to pray to God for a thing.

árna (), v. to go forward, to wander (á. úrgar brautir).

árnaðar-maðr, m. intercessor (esp. of Christ and the saints); -orð, n. intercession (of the saints).

árnaðr, m. intercession.

árnan, f. = árnaðr.

árnandi (pl. -endr), m. intercessor, = árnaðarmaðr.

ár-oss, m. mouth of a river.

árr (pl. ærir and árar, acc. áru and ára), m. (1) messenger, servant; (2) pl. angels (ærir ok höfuðærir).

árr, a. early (at árum degi).

ár-risull, a. given to rising early.

ár-sali, -salr, m. precious hangings of a bed (kult ok blæjur ok ársali).

ár-samr, a. fertile (ársamr vetr).

ár-sáinn, pp. early sown.

ár-skyld, f. yearly rent.

ár-straumr, m. current in a river; -strönd, f. bank of a river.

ár-sæli, f. the fact of having prosperous seasons (during one’s reign); -sæll, a. happy in having good seasons.

ár-tal, n. reckoning by years; -tekja, f. yearly rent; -tíð, f. anniversary of a man’s death.

ártíðar-dagr, m. = ártíð; -skrá, f. obituary.

á-runi, m. attack, = árás.

ár-vað, n. ford of a river.

ár-vakr, a. early awake, early rising (árvakr ok ósvefnugr).

ár-vegr, m. = árfarvegr.

ár-vænligr, -vænn, a. promising a good season.

ár-vöxtr, m. the rising or swelling of a river.

áræða-mikill, a. daring, enterprising (cf. áræðis-mikill).

á-ræði, n. (1) attack; veita e-m á., to talk; (2) courage, daring, pluck.

á-ræðiligr, a. (1) likely, probable; (2) daring, dangerous; (3) ekki áræðiligt, not easy to face.

á-ræðinn, a. daring, enterprising.

áræðis-fullr, a. = áræðinn; -lítill, a. of small courage; -mikill, a. daring; -raun, f. test of courage, daring deed; -skortr, m. want of courage; -snarr, a. of great courage, plucky.

á-saka (), v. to accuse, reproach (opp. to ‘afsaka’); á-sakan, f. charge censure.

ásakanar-efni, n. matter for cen sure; -orð, n. pl. words of reproach.

á-sakari, m. accuser, adversary.

á-samt, adv. (1) vera á., to be together, esp. of married people; (2) koma á, to agree; þau kómu vel á., they lived happily together.

á-sauðr, m. ewe; coll. ewes.

á-sáld, a. sprinkling, fig., of a snow storm.

á-sáttr, pp. agreed, having come to terms (á. um e-t).

ás-brú, f. bridge of the Gods, the rainbow.

ás-drengr, m. short pillar; -endi, m. the end of a beam.

á-seta, f. (1) sitting upon; (2) tenure of a farm (áseta á jörd).

á-setning, f. laying on, putting on (á. stólunnar).

ás-garðr, m. the residence of the Gods; -grindr, f. pl. the gate of ásgarðr.

á-sigling, f. sailing upon.

á-sjá (gen. ásjár), f. (1) help, aid, protection (biðja e-n ásjár); (2) superintendence, inspection; (3) appearance, shape.

ásjá, -ligr, a. handsome, pretty; -mál, n. a matter worthy of, or requiring, consideration.

á-sjána, f. older form for ‘ásjóna’.

ásjón, f. superintendence, inspection = ásýn.

á-sjóna, f. (1) countenance, look; kvenna vænst bæði at ásjónu (appearance) ok vitsmunum; greppligr í ásjónu, ugly-looking; (2) form, shape (andi drottins í dúfu ásjónu).

á-skelling, f. chiding, severe reproof (cf. ‘skella á.’).

á-skeyti, n. attack.

á-skilnaðr, m. (1) disagreement, difference; (2) separation; í tvennum áskilnaði, in two different ways.

á-skoran, f. a pressing request; a challenge.

á-skot, n. shooting at; svá mikil á., at, so hard shooting, that.

ás-kunnigr, -kunnr, a. akin or related to the gods.

á-skurðr, m. carving, in wood or stone (áskurðr ok trésmíði).

á-skynja, a. indecl., á. e-rar íþróttar, experienced, expert in an art; also with dat.; á-skynjandi, pr. p. = áskynja.

á-slátta, f. injury inficted by some one (á. djöfuls).

ás-liðar, m. pl. champions of the Gods; -megin, n. the divine strength of the Gods, esp. used of Thor; -megir, m. pl. the sons of the Gods; -móðr, m. divine wrath (sá hann þá Þór í ásmóði).

á-sókn, f. (1) attack, assault; (2) indictment, accusation; ásóknar-maðr, m. accuser.

áss (gen. áss and ásar; pl. æsir, acc. æsi and ásu), m. one of the old heathen gods in general, or esp. one of the older branch, in opp. to the younger ones (the Vanir).

áss (gen. áss, pl. ásar), m. (1) a thick pole, main beam (in a house); (2) in a ship, yard of a sail (beitiáss); (3) rocky ridge.

ás-stubbi, m. stump of a beam.

ást, f. (1) love, affection; hafa á. á e-m to feel a love for; fella á. til e-s or við e-n, to take a fancy to or for one; (2) pl. ástir, love between man and woman, esp. affection between man and wife (vel er um ástir okkrar, sagði hón).

á-staða, f. (1) assertion, contention; (2) pl. disagreement, discord.

ásta-lauss, a. loveless.

ástar-andi, m. spirit of love; -angr, n. grief from love; -auga, n. loving eye, tender look (líta, renna -augum til e-s); -band, n. tie or bind of love; -boðorð, n. commandment of love; -bragð, n. token of love; -brími, -bruni, m. fire of love, ardent love; -drykkr, m. love-potion; -eldr, m. = -brími: -fullr, a. (1) loving; (2) enamoured; -fundr, m. affectionate meeting; -gjöf, f. gift of grace; -grein, f. kind of affection; -gyðja, f. goddess of love; -gørningr, m. act of charity; -harmr, m. grief from love; -hirting, f. chastisement of love; -hiti, m. warmth of love; ástar-hugi, m. love, affection; ástar-hugr, m. love, affection; -hygli, f. devotion; -ilmr, m. sweetness of love; -kveðja, f. hearty greeting; -kveikja, f. kindler of love; -lauss, a. loveless; -leysi, n. absence of love; -logi, m. flame of love; -mark, n. token of love; -orð, n. pl. words of love (mæla -orðum til e-s); -reiði, f. anger from love; -samband, n. band of love; -sigr, m. victory of love; -snæðingr, m. love feast; -sœtleikr, m. sweetness of love; -várkunn, f. compassion; -verk, n. act of charity; -vél, f. artifice of love (bók -véla, Ars amandi); -þjónusta, f. service of love; -þokki, m. love, affection; -œði, n. fury of love.

ást-blindr, a. blind from love; -bundinn, pp. in bonds of love, deeply enamoured.

á-stemma, f. damming up of a river.

ást-fenginn, pp. (1) love-exciting (-fenginn drykkr); (2) bound in love (-fenginn við Maríu); -fólginn, pp. beloved, dear to one (e-m); -fóstr, n. loving fosterage (leggja -fóstr við e-n; fœða e-n upp -fóstri); -gjöf, f. gift of love, grace; -goði, or -góði, m. darling; -hollr, a. affectionate (e-m); -hugaðr, a. dearly loving, affectionate; -hugi, m. affection.

á-stig, n. treading-upon (slétt stræti til ástigs).

ást-igr, a. dear, lovely; pl. contr. ástgir, ástgar; -kynni, n. hearty welcome; á-lauss, a. void of love, loveless; -leysi, n. want of love, unkindness; -menn, m. pl. dearly beloved friends; -mær, f. darling maid, sweetheart; -ráð, n. kindly advice.

á-stríðari, m. adversary, tempter.

ást-ríki, f. affectionate tenderness hafa -ríki af e-m, to be much loved by; -ríkr, a. full of love (-ríkt hugskot) -ríkr e-m or til e-s, full of love to; -samliga, adv. affectionately; -samligr, a. affectionate; -samr, a. full of love, tenderly disposed towards (við e-n); -semd, f. love, affection.

ástsemdar-frændsemi, f. affectionate relationship; -ráð, n. kind advice; -verk, n. work of love; -vinátta, f. loving-friendship.

ást-semi, f. = -semd; -sæld, f. popularity; -sæll, a. beloved by all, popular (-sæll e-m or af e-m).

á-stunda (), v. to study, take pains with, = stunda á e-t; á-stundan, f. (1) care, painstaking endeavour; (2) strong desire (hafa á. til guðs); (3) intention.

ást-úð, f. love, affection; leggja ástúð til e-s, to become fond of one.

ástúðar-frændsemi, f. affectionate kinship; -vinr, m. dear friend.

ást-úðigr, a. beloved, dear (-úðigr öllu fólki); -úðigt er með þeim, they are on friendly or loving terms; -úðligr, a. amiable, friendly (við e-n or e-m); loving.

ást-vina, f. dear (female) friend; -vinátta, f. intimate friendship; -vinr, m. intimate friend; -þokki, m. = ástarþokki.

ás-yrja, f. goddess, the fem. answering to ‘áss’.

á-sýn, f. (1) countenance, presence (kásta e-m burt frá sinni á.); (2) appearance, shape (guðs hold ok blóð í á. brauðs ok víns); (3) view, opinion (með rangri á.); (4) dat. pl. used as adv., hversu var hann ásýnum, how did he look?; gen. as adv., minna ásýnar, apparently less.

á-sýna (-da, -dr), v. to shew; á-sýnd, f. = ásýn; ásýndum = ásýnum; ásýndar = ásýnar; á-sýniligr, a. conspicuous, stately; á-sýnis, adv. in appearance, to look at (friðr á.); á-sýnt, a. n. to be seen, visible; ef eigi verðr á., if no mark (of the blow) can be seen; þat er á., it is evident.

á-sœkni, f. aggressiveness.

át, n. (1) the act of eating; eiga át ok drykkju við e-n, to eat and drink with one; kýr hafnaði átinu, the cow would not eat; (2) food (át ok drykkr).

áta, f. (1) eating; góðr átu, good eating; (2) food, meat; sá hafi húð ok átu, er átti, let the owner (of the ox) have the hide and meat.

á-tak, n. (1) touch, touching; svá átaks (to the touch) sem skinn; (2) firm hold or grasp; átök ok sviptingar, in wrestling.

á-tala, f. rebuke, reprimand (veit e-m átölur).

átan, n. eatable thing, proper food (cf. ‘úátan’).

á-tekjur, f. pl. manner of taking a thing (Þorsteini óx móðr við átekjur hans).

á-tekning, f. (1) touching; (2) the sense of feeling; á-tekt, f. (1) = átekjur; (2) = átekning (1).

át-fátt, a. n. short of food.

át-frekr, a. greedy, voracious; -girni, f. greediness of food.

átján, card. numb. eighteen.

átjándi, ord. numb. eighteenth.

átján-sessa, f. a shiphaving eighteen rowing benches.

á-troð, n., átroði, m. treading, upon, trampling (verða fyrir átroða).

átrúnaðar-maðr, m. a believer, a worshipper.

á-trúnaðr, m. belief in (drauma á.); forn á., the old heathen faith.

átt, f. (1) family, race; (2) quarter, direction; see ‘ætt’.

átta, card. numb., eight; áttandi, ord. numb. eighth = átti, áttundi.

áttar-auki, m. increase of the family; -mót, n. relationship; -œxling, f. propagation of kin.

átta-tigir, m. pl., -tíu, card. numb. eighty.

átt-bogi, m. lineage, = ættbogi.

átt-feðmingr, m. a measure of eight fathoms (-feðmingr torfs).

átt-hagi, m. one’s native place, one’s home (í átthaga sínum).

átt-hyrndr, a. eight-cornered, octagonal.

átti, ord. numb. the eighth (átti dagr Jóla; við átta mann).

áttján, card. numb. eighteen, the older form = átján.

átt-leggr, m. = ættleggr; -lera, a. indecl. degenerate.

átt-mælt, a. n. name of a metre, a verse containing eight lines, each being a separate sentence.

átt-niðjungr, -niðr, -runnr, m. kinsman, descendant.

átt-rœðr, a. (1) eighty years of age; (2) measuring eighty fathoms, in height, breadth, or depth.

átt-stafr, m. kinsman, = ættingi.

átt-strendr, a. octagonal.

áttugandi, ord. numb. eightieth.

áttungr, m. (1) the eighth part (á. manna); (2) division of the country (in some parts of Norway).

áttungr, m. kinsman, = ættingi.

áttungs-kirkja, f. a church belonging to an ‘áttungr’ (in Norway).

átt-vísi, f. genealogical knowledge, = ættvísi.

átt-seringr, m. eight-oared boat; -ærr, a. of eight oars (skip áttært).

átu-þýfi, n. stolen eatables.

átölu-lauss, a. undisputed.

ávalt (= of allt), adv. always.

á-vant, a. n. in the phrase, e-s er á., is wanted, needed (einnar mér Freyju á. þykkir).

á-varðr, a. dear, acceptable, only of man in relation to the gods (avarðir goðunum; ávarðr Guði).

á-varp, n. calculation (in round numbers), opinion, estimate (at ávarpi flestra manna).

á-vaxta (), v. to make fertile or productive; á. fé, to put out to interest; refl., ávaxtast, to increase; ávaxtast með þorn ok klungr, to become overgrown with.

ávaxta-lauss, a. (1) unproductive; (2) fruitless, resultless; -ligr, a. profitable, useful (e-m).

á-vaxtan, f. increase, augmentation.

ávaxtar-samligr, a. profitable; -samr, a. = ávaxt-samr; -tími, m. the time of harvest.

ávaxta-samr, a. = ávaxtsamr.

ávaxt-lauss, a. unfruitful; -samligr, a. = ávaxtar-samligr; -samr, a. profitable, fruitful.

á-ván, f. faint expectation or hint segja e-m áván e-s, to give one some hint of a thing.

á-veiðr, f. river fishery.

á-verk, n. (1) bodily injury or lesion, wound (veita, bjóða, e-m á.); (2) unlawful use of another man’s land (as cutting trees in his forest).

áverka-bót, f. compensation for an áverki; -drep, n. a stroke producing áverki; -maðr, perpetrator of an áverki; -mál, n. an action concerning áverki.

á-verki, m. = áverk.

á-viðris, adv. on the weather side of (áviðris e-u = á veðr e-u).

á-viljaðr, a. inclined to, with inf.

á-vinna (see vinna), v. to gain, make profit.

á-vinningr, m. (1) attainment; í ávinning, at, in order to attain, that; (2) profit, gain.

á-vinnt, a. n. dificult, toilsome; þa mun á. um söxin, then those in the bow will be hard put to it.

á-vist, f. abode, residence; Snorra þótti betra ávistar í Hlíð, Snorra prefered living at Hillside.

á-vita, a. indecl., verða e-s á., to become aware of a thing.

á-vitall or á-vitull, m. hint, intimation, indication.

á-viti, a. = ávita.

á-víga, a. indecl in phr. verða á., to lose most people in a combat.

á-vísa (), v. to point at, indicate.

á-vísan, f. indication intimation.

á-vít, n. pl. reprimand, rebuke; berja e-n ávitum, to upbraid one.

á-víta (), v. to chide, rebuke (á. e-n um e-t).

ávíta-laust, a. n. blameless.

ávítan, f. rebuke, reprimand.

ávítanar-orð, n. word of blame.

ávíta-orð, n. = ávítanarorð; -samligr, a. blameable.

ávít-samligr, a. = ávítsamligr; -samr, a. apt to blame, censorious.

á-væni, n. = áván.

á-vöxtr, m. (1) produce, growth, ruit; (2) interest, rent; (3) gain.

á-þekkr, a. similar (á. e-m).

áþéttar-orð, áþéttis-órð, n. defamatory language, invective.

á-þjá (see þjá), v. to oppress.

á-þján, f. oppression, harsh or oppressive rule.

áþjánar-ok, n. yoke of tyranny.

á-þrætni, f. mutual strife.

á-þyngd, f. exaction, oppression.

B

bað, n. bath, esp. steam- or vapour-bath (fara or ganga til baðs, koma ór baði, ganga frá baði; taka bað).

baðast (), v. refl. to take a bath, to bathe.

bað-ferð, f. going to the bath (vera í -ferð); um -ferðir, about the time for bathing; -kápa, f. bathing-cloak; -kona, f. female bathing attendant.

baðmr, m. (1) tree; (2) bosom.

bað-stofa, f. bath-room, bathing room, in later times, sitting room.

baðstofu-gluggr, m. opening (window) in the roof of a baðstofa.

bagall, m. a bishop’s staff or crozier.

bagal-stafir, m. = bagall.

baggi, m. pack, bundle.

baglaðr, a. crooked, deformed.

bak, n. (1) back (binda bagga á b. sér); fig. bera sök á baki, to be guilty; leggja bleyðiorð á b. e-m, to charge one with being a coward; hafa marga vetr á baki, to be advanced in years; snúa baki við, to turn the back, flee; ganga á b. heitum, orðum, to go back on one’s word; (2) = hestbak; fara á b., to mount; fara, stíga, spretta af baki, to dismount; (3) the backside of a thing (cf. handarbak, hurðarbak, húsbak); á baki húsunum, at the back of the houses; gøra e-t á baki e-m, in one’s absence, behind one’s back; ríða at baki e-m, behind him on the same horse; berr er hverr at baki nema sér bróður eigi, bare is one’s back without a brother behind it; á bak, (a) behind; koma á b. e-m, to attack in the rear; (b) after; á b. jólum, after Christmas; hvat sem á b. kemr, whatever may come after or follow; (c) absol., falla á b. aptr, to fall backwards; brjóta á b. orð e-s, to refute, make them null and void; brjóta á b. Rómverja, to defeat them.

baka (), v. (1) to bake (b. brauð); (2) to warm and rub the body, and limbs, at a large fire (see ‘bakeldr’) esp. refl. bakast (við eld); (3) to rub = strjúka; bakaði Helgi fótinn, he rubbed the (broken) leg.

bakan, n. bacon (rare).

bakara-meistari, m. master-baker; -ofn, m. baker’s oven.

bakari, m. baker.

bak-bit, n. back-biting slander; -bítari, m. backbiter, slanderer; -borði, m. the larboard side of a ship, port, opp. to ‘stjórnborði’; -brjóta (see brjóta), v. to violate, = brjóta á bak; -byrðingar, m. pl. the crew on the larboard side opp. to ‘stjórnbyrðingar’; -byrðr, f. a burden to carry on the back.

bakelda-gørð, f. the action of making a bakeldr, or the rubbing of the back at a bakeldr.

bak-eldr, m. a fire at which to bake (warm and rub) the body and limbs (sitja við -elda).

bak-fall, n. (1) falling backwards, esp. in pl., róa -föllum, knýja árar með stórum -föllum, to take long pulls with the oars; (2) attack in the rear, = -slag; veita e-m -fall, to attack in the rear; -ferð, f. mounting, on horseback; -ferla (), v. to drive back, annul, make void; -hlutr, m. the hind part, backside; -hold, n. pl. the flesh on the btick of cattle; -hverfast (ð), v. refl., to turn one’s back upon (við e-ð); -jarl, m. a foe attacking in the rear.

bakka-kólfr, m. a kind of blunt headed arrow; -stokkar, m. pl. stocks on which a ship is built; setja fram af -stokkum, to launch.

bakki, m. (1) bank (of a river, lake, chasm, &c.); (2) ridge, bank (hann settist undir bakka í hrísrunni); (3) a mound on which the target is set up; setja spán í bakka, to set up a target; (4) bank of clouds above the horizon; (5) back of a knife or other cutting instrument, opp. to ‘egg’.

bak-klæði, n. tapestry; -lengja, f. the back-strip of a hide; -máll, -málugr, a. backbiting, slanderous; -mæla (-ta, -t), v. to backbite (-mæla e-m); -mælgi, f., -mæli, n. backbiting, slander.

bakmælis-maðr, m. calumniator.

bak-rauf, f. anus, a nickname; -sárr, a. having a sore back (of a horse); -setja (see setja), v. to neglect, omit (-setja at gera e-t); -skyrta, f. the hind part of a shirt; -slag, n., -sletta, f. attack in the rear, = bakfall (2); -slettr, m. = baksletta; -stakkr, m. the hind part of a cloak; -stokkar, m. pl. bakkastokkar.

bakstr (-rs), m. (1) baking; (2) baked bread esp. communion bread; (3) poultice, fomentation; (4) warming, rubbing (of the body).

bakstr-brauð, n. baked bread; -buðkr, m. a box in which the communion bread was kept; -eldr, m. (1) = bakeldr; (2) fire for making bread (gera þeir -elda stóra til brauðs); -hús, n. bakehouse; -járn, n. an iron plate for baking communion bread; -kona, f. female baker; -ofn, m. baking-oven; -sveinn, m. baker-boy.

bak-vana, a. indecl. having a sore back (of horses); -verkr, m. pain in the back; -verpast (t), v. (1) to turn away from, disregard (við e-t or við e-m); (2) to flee before one (-verpast við sínum úvinum).

baldikin, n. baldaquin, rich brocade.

baldinn, a. untractable, unruly.

baldrast (), v. refl. to crowd to together in a confused throng.

baldriði, m. = ballriði.

bali, m. grassy bank.

ballr, a. dangerous, dire; böll ráð, fatal schemes; ballir draumar, bad, ill-boding dreams; böll þrá, heavy grief.

ballrast (), v. refl. = baldrast.

ball-riði, m. poet., ‘bold rider’, hero (Freyr er beztr allra ballriða).

balsamr, m. balsam.

bana (), v. to kill, with dat.

bana-bloð, n. blood shed in slaying; -dagr, m. day of death; -drykkr, m. baneful drought, poison; -dœgr, n. = -dagr; -högg, n. death-blow (fá -högg; varð þat hans -högg); -lag, n. stabbing to death; bana-maðr, m. killer, slayer; -orð, n. (1) tidings of one’s death (segja -orð e-s); bera -orð af e-m, to slay one in fight; (2) death; þiggja -orð af e-m, to be killed by one; kenna e-m -orð, to charge with slaying one; -ráð, n. planning a person’s death; ráða or veita e-m -ráð, to bring about one’s death; -sár, n. death-wound, a mortal wound; -skot, n. mortal shot; -sótt, f. death sickness, mortal illness; -spjót, n., in the phrase, berast -spjót eptir, to be deadly enemies; -tilræði, n. mortal attack (veita e-m -tilræði); -þúfa, f. a knoll that causes one’s death; hníga við -þúfu, to die; drepa fótum við -þúfu, to stumble against or over a fatal knoll.

band, n. (1) the act of binding or settling, opp. to ‘lausn’; fig., lausn ok b. allra vandamála, the decision in all difficult cases; (2) band, cord (mjótt b.); (3) in pl., (a) bonds, fetters (hafa e-n í böndum); (b) bond, confederacy (ganga í bönd ok eið); (c) poet., the gods, cf. ‘höpt’; blóta bönd, to worship the gods; at mun banda, at the will of the gods.

banda (), v. to make a sign by waving the hand; b. á móti fénu, to drive away the sheep; with dat., b. höndum; to wave the hands.

banda-maðr, m. confederate, one who is in league with others.

bandingi (-ja), m. prisoner.

band-vetlingr, m. a kind of glove.

bang, n. hammering; banga (), v. to hammer, knock; b. dyrr or á dyrr, to knock at the door.

bang-hagr, a. knowing how to use the hammer.

bani, m. (1) death; fá (bíða, hafa, taka) bana, to die; ráða sér bana, to commit suicide; leiða e-n til bana, to cause one’s death (of an illness); kominn at bana, sinking fast; (2) that which causes death, bane; slayer (fjögurra manna b.).

bann, n. (1) excommunication, anathema, interdict; hit meira b, the greater exc.; hit minna b. (the lesser exc.) þat sem forboð er kallat á norrœnu; (2) prohibition, opp. to ‘lof’ (hlýða boði ok banni e-s); leggja b. fyrir e-t, to prohibit.

banna (), v. (1) to forbid, prohibit (b. e-m e-t or with infin.); (2) to curse (b. e-m); refl. bannast um, to swear (to do a thing).

bannaðar-orð, n. = bannanarorð.

bannan, f. curse, imprecation.

bannanar-orð, n. pl. = bannan.

bann-fœra (-ða, -ðr), v. to place under the ban.

banns-atkvæði, n. sentence of excommunication; -áfelli, n., -dómr, m. = -atkvæði.

bann-setja (see setja), v. (1) to place under the ban; (2) to curse; -setning, f. excomunication; -settliga, adv. wickedly; -settligr, a. execrable, detestable; -settr, pp. (1) placed under the ban; (2) accursed.

banns-mál, n. a case liable to excommunication; -pina, f. punishinent of excommunication; -spjót, n. spear of excommunication; -verk, n. an act liable to excommunication.

bann-syngja (see syngja), v. to pronounce an anathema against.

banns-sök, f. an offense liable to excommunication.

ban-orð, f. = banaorð; -vænligr, a. mortal, deadly; -vænn, a. (1) = -vænligr (-vænt sár); (2) deadly sick; ok er dró at því at hann var -vænn, when all hope of life was gone.

barar, f. pl. (1) hand-barrow, stretcher (Þ. var borinn í börum um fjallit); (2) funeral bier carried by horses (mœddust hestarnir undir börunum).

barátta, f. (1) contest, fighting; (2) fight, battle.

baráttu-fullr, a. combative, fond of fighting; -maðr, m. warrior; -samr, a. given to fighting.

barð, n. (1) beard (rare); (2) brim, of a hat or helmet; (3) the beak or armed prow of ships (of war), stem; róa fyrir b. e-m (= róa fyrir stafn e-m), to thwart one.

barða, f. a kind of axe.

bardaga-búinn, pp. ready for battle; -frest, n. delay of battle; -fullr, a. = -gjarn; -fýst, f. love of combat; -gjarn, a. eager for combat; -guð, m. god of battle; -gyðja, f. goddess of battle; -laust, adv. without battle; -list, f. art of war; -lykt, f. the close of a battle; -maðr, m. warrior; -stef, n., -stefna, f. a time fixedfor a battle.

bardagi, m. (1) beating, thrashing; (2) fight, battle (heyja, eiga bardaga við e-n); (3) calamity, scourge.

barð-hvalr, m. a sort of whale.

barði, m. a sort of ship, ‘ram’.

barð-mikill, a. with a great ‘barð’ (3).

barir, f. pl. = barar (rare).

barka-kýli, n. Adam’s apple.

barki, m. windpipe, weazand.

barki, m. a sort of small boat, launch.

bark-lauss, a. without bark (börkr).

barlak, n. barley, = bygg.

barmi, m. poet., brother.

barmr, m. brim, rim (of a vessel or a steel cap).

barm-tog, n. a rope for hauling the nets ashore.

barn, n. (1) bairn, child; vera með barni, to be with child; ganga með barni, to go with child; barns hafandi or hafandi at barni, with child, pregnant; frá blautu barni, from one’s tender years; (2) = mannsbarn; hvert b., every man, every living soul.

barna (), v. to get with child.

barna-börn, n. pl. grandchildren; -eldi, n. procreation of children; -fœri, n. in the phrase, ekki -fœri, no task for children; -gaman, n. child’s play; -karl, m. children’s friend.

barn-aldr, m. = barnsaldr.

barna-leikr, m. child’s play.

barn-alinn, pp. native; -alinn á Íslandi, a native of Iceland.

barna-mál, n. childish affair; gera e-t at -málum, to treat as a trifle, trifle with; -mesba, f. Holy Innocents’ Day; -skap, n. childish temper; hafa ekki -skap, to be no baby; -vipr, n. childish trifles, gewgaws; -þáttr, m. the section of law concerning infants.

barn-beri, a. with child, pregnant; -burðr, m. childbirth; -bærr, a. capable of bearing children, opp. to ‘úbyrja’; -dómr, m. childhood; -eign, f. (1) getting or having children; (2) children, family (furðu illa -eign gat Loki); -eskja, f. childhood, = barnœska; -faðir, m. a childs alleged father; -fóstr, n. fostering of a child (a kind of adoption in olden times); bjóða e-m -fóstr, to offer to do this for another man; -fóstra, f. foster-mother; -fóstri, m. foster-father; -fúlga, f. pay for the maintenance of a child; -fœddr, pp. = -alinn; borinn ok -fœddr, born and bred; -fœði, n. native place, birthplace (eiga -fœði e-s staðar); -getnaðr, m. (1) procreation of children; (2) pregnancy (hón hafði fengit -getnað af þeirra samvistu); -gœlur, f. pl. nursery songs, lullabies.

barningr, m. thrashing, see ‘lamabarningr’.

barn-lauss, a. childless; -leikr, m. = barnaleikr; -leysi, n. childlessness; -ligr, a. childish, childlike.

barns-aldr, m. (time of) childhood (nýkominn af -aldri); -bein, n., in the phrase, frá (or af) blautu -beini, from childhood; -full, a. f. pregnant; -fylgja, f. the after-birth, = eptirburðr; -grátr, m. the crying of a baby; -húfa, f. child’s cap.

barn-skikkja, f. childs cloak; -skírn, f. christening of an infant; -skirnar-orð, n. pl. words used in christening, baptismal formula.

barn-sótt, f. pains, throes of childbirth (taka -sótt); -sæll, a. fortunate in one’s children; -sæng, f. childbed; -teitr, a. glad as a child; -ungr, a. very young, youthful; -úmagi, m., -úmegð, f. (see these words); -œska, f. childhood (bráð er barnœska).

barr, n. (1) acicular leaves, needles of the fir or pine (wrongly applied by Snorri, who speaks of the ‘barr’ of the ash); (2) barley.

barr-axlaðr, a. high-shouldered, with sharp, prominent shoulder bones; -haddaðr, a. poet., barley-haired (of the earth).

Barreyskr, a. from Barra (in the Hebrides).

barr-skeptr, a. high-shafted, of an axe (breiðöx barrskept).

barr-viðr, m. pine-forest; the wood of the fir.

bar-smíð, m. (1) thrashing, flogging; (2) in pl., fight, row.

barún (pl. barúnar), m. baron.

bar-viðri, n. beating storm, violent blasts (b. ok regn mikit).

bassi, m. bear, = bersi.

bast, n. (1) bast, the inner bark of the lime-tree (bleikr sem b.); (2) cord or string of bast (sá, þeir á b. bauga dregna).

basta (), v. to bind with a rope of bast (úbastaðr ok úbundinn).

bastarðr, m. bastard.

bastari, m. bastrope-maker.

bast-bleikr, a. pale as bast (= bleikr sem b.); -lina, f. cord of bast; -taug, f. rope or cord of bast; -vesall, a. = -bleikr; -øx, f. a kind of axe.

bati, m. improvement, advantage.

batna (), v. (1) to improve, get better; (2) impers., e-m batnar, one recovers (after sickness); the disease is added in gen. (e-m batnar síns meins, sjúkleika).

batnaðr (gen. -ar), m. improvement (berja e-n til batnaðar).

bauga-brot, n. fragments of rings (given in payment); -tal, n. enumeration of ‘rings’ (baugar), the section of law dealing with weregilds.

baug-bót, f. supplemental payment to the ‘baugr’ (baugþak, þveiti); -broti, m. ‘ring-breaker’, free-handed man; -bœtandi (pl. -endr), m. one who has to pay the weregild (baugr); -eiðr, m. the oath upon the sacred temple ring; -gildi, n. (1) the ‘weregild’ to be paid to the ‘agnates’ of the slain, opp. to ‘nefgildi’, the same amount to be paid to the ‘cognates’; (2) agnatic relationship.

baug-gildingr, m. see next entry.

bauggildis-maðr, m., usually pl. -menn, agnates who are bound to pay or receive the ‘bauggildi’.

baug-gildr, a. payable, fit to pay as ‘bauggildi’ (-gildr eyrir, -gilt fé).

baugr (-s, -ar), m. (1) ring, armlet (of gold or silver) worn on the wrist, esp. the sacred ring (stallahringr) on the altar in heathen temples, cf. ‘baugeiðr’; (2) in olden times, before minted gold or silver came into use, such rings were commonly used as a medium of payment; hence ‘baugr’ simply means money; (3) fine of varying amount for manslaughter, weregild; (4) gaff-hook? (5) in the phrase, eiga (kost) á baugi, to have a (single) chance left; ef sá væri á. baugi, if there were no other chance; þú munt eiga slíkan á baugi brátt, thou wilt soon have the very same chance or lot (viz. death); (6) the painted circle on a round shield.

baug-rýgr (-rýgjar, -rýgir), f. an only daughter entitled to receive and pay weregild.

baugs-helgr, f. personal sacredness (so that one’s death must be atoned for by a weregild).

baug-variðr, pp. adorned with rings; -þak, n. ‘ring-covering’, supplemtal payment to be added to the ‘baugr’ (3); at -þaki, fig., in addition, to boot; -þiggjandi (-endr), m. receiver of weregild.

bauka (), v. to dig, to rummage.

baula, f. cow; baulu-fall, n. the carcass of a slaughtered cow; -fótr, m. cow’s foot, a nickname.

baun (pl. -ir), f. bean; bauna-lögr, m. bean-broth.

bauta, v. beat, chase? (svá bautu vér björnuna).

bautaðar-, bautar- or bauta-steinn, m. stone monunent, memorial stone (reisa, setja bautastein).

baztr, a. superl. = beztr.

báðir (báðar, bæði, gen. beggja), a. both (báðir tveir).

bági, m. poet., adversary.

bágr, a. uneasy, awkward (verðr honum nú bág höndin); bágt var mjök um matbjargir, provisions were very scarce.

bágr, m. contest, resistance, in such phrases as, brjóta bág við e-n, to contend against, offer resistance to; fór í bág með þeim, a conflict arose between them; they quarrelled.

bág-ráðr, a. difficult to deal with, opp. to ‘auð-ráðr’; -rækr, a. difficult to drive (of geese).

bákn, n. beacon, signal.

bákna (), v. to beckon, make signals (þeir báknuðu vápnunum til þeirra Hákonar).

bál, n. (1) fire; slá b. = drepa eld; (2) flame, blaze; gera b., to make a blaze; (3) pyre, funeral pile; bera e-n á b., to carry to the pyre; stíga á b., to mount the pyre.

bál-för, f. funeral.

bálkr, m. (1) partition, balk (b. um þveran hellinn); (2) section in a code of laws; (3) body, group, host.

bára, f. wave, billow; vant er at sigla milli skers ok báru, between Scylla and Charybdis.

bára (), v. to fall and rise in waves (vatnit hrœrðist mjök ok báraði).

báróttr, a. undulated, wavy (haussinn var allr b. útan sem hörpuskel).

bár-stórt, a. n., var -stórt, the waves ran high.

báru-fall, n. heavy sea; -skot, n. swell; -stormr m. storm with heavy sea; -stórt = bár-stórt.

bása (), v. to drive into a stall, with dat. = bæsa.

bás-hella, f. a flagstone separating two stalls in a cowhouse.

báss, m. boose or stall in a cowhouse (binda kú í bás).

básún, m. bassoon (for. word).

bát-festr, f. a rope by which a boat is made fast; -lauss, a. having no boat; -leysi, n. want of a boat; -maðr, m. boatman.

bátr (-s, -ar), m. boat; sjá fyrir báti sínum, to go one’s own course, to mind one’s own business.

báts-borð, n. the side of a boat; -farmr, m. boat’s freight; -haki, m. boat-hook.

bát-stafn, m. boat’s prow.

beðja, f. poet., bed-fellow, wife.

beð-mál, n. pl. bed-talk.

beðr (-jar, -ir), m. bolster, bedding; ganga á beð e-m, to go to bed with one, to marry.

beiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to ask, beg, request; b. e-n e-s, or b. e-m (for one) e-s; b. e-s af e-m, to ask a thing of or from a person; b. e-n máls, orða, to address one; with acc., b. lögbeiðing, to make a lawful request; refl., beiðast, to request on one’s own behalf (b. laga, griða); beiddr, pp. unwilling reluctant (b. fór ek heiman at biðja þín, Guðrún).

beiðing, f., beiðni, f., beiðsla, f. request, demand.

beiðslu-maðr, m. a person asking.

beimar, m. pl. poet., men, heroes.

bein, n. (1) bone; láta með beini ganga, to deal blows to the very bone, give no quarter; hafa b. í hendi, to be well off; (2) leg, = fótleggr; (3) pl. mortal remains; bera bein or beinin, to be buried (hér mun ek b. bera á Íslandi).

beina (-da, -dr), v. (1) to stretch out, put into motion; b. flug, to stretch the wings for flight; b. skrið sinn, to creep, of a serpent; b. raustina, to raise the voice, speak aloud; (2) to further, promote; b. för (ferð) e-s, to help one forwards; b. at or til með e-m, to lend one help, to assist one; b. e-u til e-s, to contribute to a thing; b. at e-u, to lend a hand to; b. fyrir e-m, to support, entertain.

beina-, gen. pl. from ‘bein’ and gen. sing. from ‘beini’.

beina-bót, f. accommodation, comfort for guests.

beina-fœrsla, f. removal of bones (from one churchyard to another); -hrúga, f. heap of bones; -lag, n. burying of one’s bones, death.

beina-spell, n. spoiling the comfort of guests; -þurfi, a. in need of hospitable treatment.

bein-brjóta (see brjóta), v. to break one’s bones; -brot, n. fracture of a bone; -fastr, a., -fast sár, a wound to the bone; -fiskr, m. a kind of fish; -gróinn, pp. grown fast to the bone; -högg, n. a blow injuring the bone (svöðusár ok eigi beinhögg).

beini, m. (1) help, benifit; (2) esp. hospitable entertainment, hospitality (vinna, veita e-m beina); ganga um beina, to wait upon the guests.

beinir, m. = beini (1).

beini-samr, a. ready (willing) to help; -semi, f. readiness to help.

bein-knúta, f. joint-bone; -kross, m. cross of bone; -lauss, a. boneless, without bones.

bein-leiðis, adv. straight, directly.

bein-leiki, m. hospitable treatment, hospitality, = beini (2).

beinn, a. (1) straight; bein rás, straight course; beinstr vegr, the straightest (shortest) way; (2) hospitable (bóndi var beinn við þá); gera beint við e-n, to treat one kindly.

-beinn, a. -legged (berbeinn, bare-legged; digrbeinn, thick-legged).

beinn, m. a kind of tree, ebony?

bein-skeyti, f. straight shooting, marksmanship; -skeytr, a. straight shooting, a good shot.

beins-litr, m. colour of a bone.

bein-stórr, a. big-boned (maðr mikill ok beinstórr).

beint, adv. (1) straight, in a straight line, straight on; (2) just (þat kom mér b. í hug); b. sex tigir skipa, precisely sixty ships; nú b., just now; þá b., b. í þessu, just then.

bein-verkir, m. pl. pain in the legs.

bein-vitr, m. holly.

bein-vöxtr, m. bone-growth, size of bones (lítill beinvöxtum).

beiska, f. bitterness, sourness.

beiska (), v. to embitter.

beisk-leikr, m. bitterness, harshness; -liga, adv. bitterly (gráta -liga); -ligr, a. bitterish; -lundaðr, a. bitterhearted, malevolent.

beiskr, a. (1) bitter, acrid (b. drykkr); (2) exasperated, angry (hón varð beisk við); (3) painful, sore (beiskr bruni).

beit, f. pasturage, pasture.

beit, f. a plate of metal mounted on the brim (of a thing).

beit, n. poet., ship.

beita, f. bait, esp. for fish.

beita (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to ‘cause to bite’, graze, with the animals in dat. (b. nautum), the pasture in acc. (b. haga, land, engi); absol. to pasture cattle (b. í skógi); b. upp land, to exhaust by grazing; b. upp (to consume) engjum ok heyjum; (2) to handle, use a weapon (b. sverði); (3) to hunt or chase (with dogs or hawks); b. e-n hundum, to set dogs on one; (4) fig., b. e-n brögðum, úlögum, illu, to deal cunningly, unlawfully, badly with one; recipr., við höfum opt brögðum beizt, schemed against each other; (5) to harness (a horse, &c.) to a vehicle (b. hest fyrir vagn); beittu enn blakka mar, saddle thy black steed; fig., b. e-n fyrir e-t, to put one at the head of; refl., beitast fyrir e-t or e-u, to lead the cause; (6) to furnish (a vehicle) with horses (vagn at b.); (7) to steer or sail near the wind, to cruise (beita þeir í brot, frá landinu); fengu þeir beitt fyrir Skotland, they weathered S.

beit-fiskr, m. fish to be caught with bait? (al. ‘beinfiskr’).

beiti, n. pasturage.

beiti, n. heather (beiti tekr við bitsóttum).

beiti-áss, m. sail-yard.

beiting, f. (1) grazing; (2) sailing by the wind (cf. þrá-beiting).

beitinga-mál, n. a lawsuit about right of grazing or pasturage.

beittr, a. sharp, keen (of cutting instruments).

beizl, n. bridle; leggja b. við hest, to bridle a horse.

beizla (), v. to bridle.

beizla, f. = beiðsla.

beizl-ál, f. bridle-rein; -hringr, m. bridle-ring; -tamr, a. used to the bridle; -taumr, m. bridle-rein.

beizlu-maðr, m. = beiðslumaðr.

bejur, bæjur, f. pl. fetters, irons (foreign word).

bekkjar-gjöf, f. ‘bench-gift’ (a gift which the bridegroom offered to the bride at the wedding festival).

bekkjar-kvern, f. water-mill.

bekkjast (t), v. refl. to strive to get a thing (b. til e-s); b. til við e-n, to pick a quarrel with one.

bekkju-nautr, m. bench-fellow.

bekk-klæði, n. covering of a bench.

bekkr (gen. -s or -jar, pl. -ir), m. bench; œðri b., the upper bench (along the north side of the hall, looking towards the sun); úœðri b., the lower (inferior) bench (along the southern side); breiða, strá bekki, to cover, strew the benches (in preparation for a feast or wedding).

bekkr (gen. -s or -jar, pl. -ir), m. beck, brook (poet.).

bekk-skrautuðr, m. adorner (ornament) of the bench (poet.).

bekk-sœmr, a. adorning the bench.

bekri, m. ram; brjóta bekrann, to break one’s neck (rare).

belg-fláttr, m. flaying or taking off the skin of an animal entire (flá hafrana -flætti).

belgja (-ða, -ðr), v. to inflate, puff out (b. hvápta, augun).

belgr (gen. -s or -jar, pl. -ir), m. (1) the skin (of a quadruped) taken off whole (cf. kálfsbelgr, kattbelgr, hafrbelgr, otrbelgr); (2) skin-bag, skin-case (draga belg á or yfir hofuð e-m); (3) bellows (smiðju-belgr).

belja (), v. to bellow (b. sem naut).

beljan, f. bellowing, lowing.

bella (bell, ball, —), v. to hit, hurt, with dat. (ball þér nú?); ekki má ófeigum b., one not fated to die is proof against all shots.

bella (-da, -t), v. to dare, venture, with dat.; (hverr mun hafa þessu bellt?); to deal in, display (bella svikum, lygi, gleði).

belli-bragð, n. knavish trick.

bellinn, a. tricky, trickish.

bell-visi, f. trickishness.

belta-dráttr, m. a close struggle.

belti, n. belt (cf. gjörð, lindi).

beltis-púss, m. a pouch attached to the belt; -staðr, m. waist.

ben (-jar, -jar), f. (1) mortal wound (ben, ef at bana verðr); (2) small bleeding wound; also of the wound produced by letting blood.

ben, n. wound = ben, f.

benda (-nda, -ndr), v. to beckon, make a size with the head or hand (b. e-m til sín, at fylgja sér); with acc., b. e-t fyrir, to forebode, betoken.

benda (-nda, -ndr), v. to bend (b. sverð um kné sér); b. boga, to bend a bow; b. höfuðit, to bow the head; refl., bendast á um e-t, to dispute, contest about.

benda, f. band, tie (cf. höfuðbenda).

bendi, n. cord.

bendill, m. small cord, string.

bending, f. (1) sign, token; gera e-m bending, to make a sign to one; (2) foreboding, betokenig (víst eru þetta bendingar stórra bardaga).

bendr, pp. bended, bent (skjóta af bendum boga).

benja (), v. to wound mortally (bróður minn hefr þú benjaðan).

benja-lýsing, f. a sort of coroner’s inquest upon a slain man; -váttr, m. a sort of coroner’s juryman; -vætti, n. the verdict of a benjaváttr.

ben-lauss, a. free from wounds; -logi, m. poet. ‘wound-flame’, sword; -rögn, n. ‘wound-drops’; -vöndr, m. poet. ‘wound-wand’, sword.

benzl, n. pl. bent state of a bow; taka boga af benzlum, to unbend it.

ber (gen. pl. berja), n. berry.

bera (ber; bar, bárum; borinn), v. I. (1) to bear, carry, convey (bar B. biskup í börum suðr í Hvamm); b. (farm) af skipi, to unload a ship; b. (mat) af borði, to take (the meat) off the table; b. e-t á hesti, to carry on horseback; (2) to wear (b. klæði, vápn, kórónu); b. œgishjálm, to inspire fear and awe; (3) to bear, produce, yield (jörðin berr gras; tré bera aldin, epli); (4) to bear, give birth to, esp. of sheep and cows; kýr hafði borit kálf, had calved; absol., ván at hón mundi bera, that the cow would calve; the pp. is used of men; hann hafði verit blindr borinn, born blind; verða borinn í þenna heim, to be born into this world; þann sóma, sem ek em til borinn, born to; borinn e-m, frá e-m (rare), born of; Nótt var Nörvi borin, was the daughter of N.; borinn Sigmundi, son of S.; (5) b. e-n afli, ofrafli, ofrliði, ofrmagni, ofríki, to bear one down, overcome, oppress, one by odds or superior force; b. e-n ráðum, to overrule one; b. e-n málum, to bear one down (wrongfully) in a lawsuit; b. e-n sök, to charge one with a fault; b. e-n bjóri, to make drunk with beer; verða bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise; borinn verkjum, overcome by pains; þess er borin ván, there is no hope, all hope is gone; borinn baugum, bribed; cf. bera fé á e-n, to bribe one; (6) to lear, be capable of bearing (of a ship, horse, vehicle); þeir hlóðu bæði skipin sem borð báru, with as much as they could carry; fig., to sustain, support (svá mikill mannfjöldi, at landit fekk eigi borit); of persons, to bear up against, endure, support (grief, sorrow, &c.); absol., bar hann drengiliga, he bore it manfully; similarly, b. (harm) af sér, berast vel (illa, lítt) af; bar hon sköruliga af sér, she bore up bravely; hversu berst Auðr af um bróðurdauðann, how does she bear it? hon berst af lítt, she is much cast down; b. sik vel upp, to bear well up against; (7) b. e-t á, e-n á hendr e-m, to charge or tax one with (eigi erum vér þess valdir, er þú berr á oss); b. (kvið) á e-n, to give a verdict against, declare guilty (í annat sinn báru þeir á Flosa kviðinn); b. af e-m (kviðinn), to give a verdict for; b. e-t af sér, to deny having done a thing; b. or b. vitni, vætti, to bear witness, testify; b. or b. um e-t, to give a verdict in a case; b. e-n sannan at sök, to prove guilty by evidence; b. e-n undan sök, to acquit; b. í sundr frændsemi þeirra, to prove (by evidence) that they are not relations; b. e-m vel (illa) söguna, to give a favourable (unfavourable) account of one; refl. (pass.), berast, to be proved by evidence (þótt þér berist þat faðerni, er þú segir); (8) to set forth, report, tell; b. e-m kveðju (orð, orðsending), to bring one a greeting, compliments (word, message); b. or b. fram erindi sín fyrir e-n, to state (tell) one’s errand or to plead one’s case before one; b. e-m njósn, to apprise one; b. e-t upp, to produce, mention, tell; b. upp gátu, to give (propound) a riddle; b. upp erindi sín, to state one’s errand; b. saman ráð sín, to consult together; eyddist það ráð, er þeir báru saman, which they had designed; (9) to keep, hold, bear, of a title (b. jarlnafn, konnungsnafn); b. (eigi) giptu, gæfu, hammingju, auðnu til e-s, (not) to have the good fortune to do a thing (bar hann enga gæfu til at þjóna þér); b. vit, skyn, kunnáttu á e-t, to have knowledge of, uniderstanding about; vel viti borinn, endowed with a good understanding; b. hug, áræði, þor, traust til e-s, to have courage, confidence to do a thing; b. áhyggju fyrir e-u, to be concerned about; b. ást, elsku, hatr til e-s, to bear affection, love, hatred to; (10) to bear off or away, carry off (some gain); b. sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry off the victory from or in; hann hafði borit sigr af tveim orustum, he had been victorious in two battles; b. hærra (lægra) hlut to get the best (the worst) of it; b. efra (hærra) skjöld, to gain the victory; b. hátt (lágt) höfuðit, to bear the head high (low), to be in high (low) spirits; b. halann bratt, lágt, to cock up or let fall the tail, to be in high or low spirits; (11) with preps.; b. af e-m, to surpass; en þó bar Bolli af, surpassed all the rest; b. af sér högg, lag to ward off, parry a blow or thrust; b. eld at, to set fire to; b. fjötur (bönd) at e-m, to put fetters (bonds) on one; b. vápn á e-n, to attack one with sharp weapons; b. á or í, to smear, anoint (b. vatn í augu sér, b. tjöru í höfuð sér); b. e-t til, to apply to, to try if it fits (b. til hvern lykil af öðrum at portinu); b. e-t um, to wind round; þá bar hann þá festi um sik, made it fast round his body; b. um með e-n, to bear with, have patience with; b. út barn, to expose a child; (12) refl., berast mikit (lítit) á, to bear oneself proudly (humbly); láta af b., to die; láta fyrir b. e-s staðar, to stay, remain in a place (for shelter); b. e-t fyrir, to design a thing (barst hann þat fyrir at sjá aldregi konur); at njósna um, hvat hann bærist fyrir, to inquire into what he was about; b. vápn á, to attack one another; b. at or til, to happen; þat barst at (happened) á einhverju sumri; ef svá harðliga kann til at b., if that misfortune does happen; b. í móti, to happen, occur; hefir þetta vel í móti borizt, it is a happy coincidence; b. við, to be prevented; ok nú lét almáttugr guð við b. kirkjubrunann, prevented, stopped the burning of the church; II. impers., denoting a sort of passive or involuntary motion; (1) with acc., it bears or carries one to a place; alla berr at sama brunni, all come to the same well (end); bar hann (acc.) þá ofan gegnt Ösuri, he happened to come down just opposite to Ö.; esp. of ships and sailors; berr oss (acc.) til Íslands eða annarra landa, we drift to Iceland or other countries; þá (acc.) bar suðr í haf, they were carried out southwards; Skarpheðin (acc.) bar nú at þeim, S. came suddenly upon them; ef hann (acc.) skyldi bera þar at, if he should happen to come there; e-n berr yfir, one is borne onwards, of a bird flying, a man riding; hann (acc.) bar skjótt yfir, it passed quickly (of a flying meteor); (2) followed by preps.; Gunnar sér, at rauðan kyrtil bar við glugginn, that a red kirtle passed before the window; hvergi bar skugga (acc.) á, there was nowhere a shadow; e-t berr fram (hátt), is prominent; Ólafr konungr stóð í lyptingu ok bar hann (acc.) hátt mjök, stood out conspicuously; e-t berr á milli, comes between; leiti (acc.) bar á milli, a hill hid the prospect; fig. e-m berr e-t á milli, they are at variance about a thing; mart (acc.) berr nú fyrir augu mér, many things come now before my eyes; veiði (acc.) berr í hendr e-m, game falls to one’s lot; e-t berr undan, goes amiss, fails; b. saman, to coincide; bar nöfn þeirra saman, they had the same name; fig., with dat.; bar öllum sögum vel saman, all the stories agreed well together; fund várn bar saman, we met; (3) b. at, til, við, at hendi, til handa, to befall, happen, with dat. of the person; svá bar at einn vetr, it happened one winter; þó at þetta vandræði (acc.) hafi nú borit oss (dat.) at hendi, has befallen us; bar honum svá til, it so befell him; þat bar við (it so happened), at Högni kom; raun (acc.) berr á, it is proved by fact; (4) of time, to fall upon; ef þing (acc.) berr á hina helgu viku, if the parliament falls in the holy week; b. í móti, to coincide, happen exactly at the same time; (5) denoting cause; e-t berr til, causes a thing; konungr spurði, hvat til bæri úgleði hans, what was the cause of his grief; ætluðu þat þá allir, at þat mundi til b., that that was the reason; berr e-m nauðsyn til e-s, one is obliged to do a thing; (6) e-t berr undir e-n, falls to a person’s lot; hon á arf at taka, þegar er undir hana berr, in her turn; e-t berr frá, is surpassing; er sagt, at þat (acc.) bæri frá, hvé vel þeir mæltu, it was extraordinary how well they spoke; (7) e-t berr bráðum, happens of a sudden; e-t berr stóru, stórum (stœrrum), it amounts to much (more), it matters a great deal (more), it is of great (greater) importance; (8) absol. or with an adv., vel, illa, with infin.; e-m berr (vel, illa) at gera e-t, it becomes, beseems one (well, ill) to do a thing (berr yðr vel, herra, at sjá sannindi á þessu máli); used absol., berr vel, illa, it is beseeming, proper, fit, or unbeseeming, improper, unfit (þat þykkir eigi illa b., at).

bera (), v. to make bare (hon beraði likam sinn).

bera, f. she-bear, = birna.

ber-bakt, adv. bare-backed, without saddle (ríða -bakt); -beinn, a. barelegged; -brynjaðr, a. wearing a coat of mail with no garment over it; -dreymr, a. having clear dreams as to the future.

ber-fjall, n. bear-skin (cf. ‘bera’).

ber-fœttr, a. bare-footed, barelegged; berfœttr bróðir, bare-footed friar, minorite.

berg, n. (1) rock, boulder; (2) cliff, precipice (framan í bergi).

berg-búi, m. rock-dweller, giant; -danir, m. pl. = -búar; -hamarr, m. rocky precipice; -hlíð, f. the side of a berg, mountain slope; -högg, n. a quarrying tool.

bergi-biti, m. a bit to taste, small bit; -ligr, a. inviting to taste.

berging, f. tasting, taste.

bergisamligr, a. = bergiligr.

bergja (-ða, -ðr), v. to taste, with dat.; þárgunna vildi øngum mat b., Th. would taste no food; b. ölvi, to taste (drink) ale; b. dauða, to taste death; also b. á e-u (enn höfum við eigi á dauða bergt).

bergning, f. = berging (rare).

berg-nös, f. = bergsnös; -rifa, f. fissure in a rock, = bjargrifa; -risi, m. hill-giant; -skor, f. rift in a rocky hill, = bjargskora; -snös, f. a rocky projection; -tollr, m. rock-toll, paid for catching fowl thereon; -vörðr, m. a watch or lookout for rocks and cliffs (halda bergvörð).

ber-höfði, a. indecl. bare-headed; -högg, n. in the phrase, ganga í (or á) -högg við e-n, to enter into open fight with; Jóan gekk á berhögg at banna allar þær úhœfur, interdicted these abuses boldly and openly.

berill, m. vessel, barrel for fluids (mjöðrinn var borinn í berlum).

berindis, adv. openly (rare).

berja (ber; barða, börðum; barðr, bariðr), v. (1) to beat, strike, smite (b. e-n); hár svá fagrt sem barit gull, as beaten gold; b. korn af hálmi, to thresh; b. húð af e-m, to scourge severely; b. e-n grjóti, to stone (= grýta); b. e-n illyrðum, ávítum, to abuse, reproach one; b. á e-m, to attack one with blows, give one a thrashing; b. á hurð, dyrr, at hurðu, at dyrum, to knock, rap at a door; b. sér á brjóst, to smite one’s breast (in repentance); b. til e-s = b. á e-m; b. e-n til e-s, to drive one with blows to do a thing (verða barðr til bœkr); (2) with dat., b. grjóti í andlit e-m, to throw stones in one’s face; b. saman vápnum, skjöldum, to dash weapons, shields against each other; b. (to neglect, slight) guðs boðum; b. e-u niðr (opp. to ljósta e-u upp), to hush up; (3) intrans., hjarta hans barði (beat, throbbed) undir síðunni; (4) impers., skýjagrjóti barði í augu þeim, hailstones dashed in their eyes; þeim barði saman, they dashed against each other; (5) refl., berjast, to fight (við e-n, with or against a person; við veðr, against bad weather; við e-m, for a person); b. á e-t, to assail attack (b. á borgina, á guðs lýð); þótt hann berðist lengi mót (offered resistance).

berja-vin, n. berry-wine.

berkja (-ta, -t), v. to boast, brag.

ber-kyrtlaðr, a. wearing the kirtle only, without cloak or mantle; -leggjaðr, -leggr, a. bare-legged; -liga, adv. (1) openly, barely; (2) quite, altogether (berliga úviljandi); -ligr, a. open, manifest, clear.

berlings-áss, m. pole (-áss digr þrettán alna langr).

ber-málugr, a. outspoken; -mælgi, f., -mæli, n. pl. outspokenness, frankness; -mæltr, a. = -málugr.

bernska, f. childhood (hann var þá í bernsku).

bernsk-liga, adv. childishly; -ligr, a. childish; bernskr, a. childish, childlike.

bernsku-aldr, m. years, days, of childhood; -bragð, n. childish trick; -ligr, a. belonging to childhood, childish; -maðr, m. childish person, youth; -ráð, n. childish design.

berr, a. (1) bare, naked (lík bert ok blóðugt); undir berum himni, in the open air; hvíla á berri jörðu, on the bare ground; (2) open, clear, manifest; segja e-t berum orðum, in plain words verða berr at e-u, to be convicted of a thing; gøra e-t bert, to make known; gøra sik beran í e-u, to reveal, show one’s mind in a thng; vóru berastir í því þrændir, the Th. were most undisguised in it.

ber-serkr (-s, -ir), m. ‘bear-sark’, berserker, a wild warrior of the heathen age.

berserks-gangr, m. fury of the berserkers.

bersi, m., see ‘bessi’.

ber-shjaldaðr, a. without a shield; -syndugr, a. guilty of open sin (bersyndugr maðr); -sögli, f. outspokenness, freedom of speech.

bert, adv. openly, clearly (mæla b.).

ber-yrði, n. pl. = bermæli, bersögli.

bessi (for ‘bersi’, cf. ‘bera’, f.), m. he-bear, Bruin.

besti, n. = bast.

betr, adv. compar., (1) better; b. þœtti mér, I would rather; vánu b., better than expected; hafa b., to get the better of it; (2) more; leggit fram b. hit mikla skipit, bring further forward; þrjú hundruð ok þrír tigir ok sex b., to boot; ef hann orkar (or má) b., if he can do more; ekki máttu sumir inenn b. en fá staðizt, they were just able to keep up against him; svá hár, at engi annarra tók b. en í öxl honum, reached higher than to his shoulder.

betra (), v. to better, improve (b. líf sitt); refl. to become better; impers., þeir sögðu, at konungi betraðist mjök, that the king felt, much better.

betran, f. bettering, improvement.

betranligr, a. improvable.

betr-feðrungr, m. a man better than his father, = feðr-betrungr.

betri, a. compar., beztr, superl. better, best; þeim þótti betra at, they thought it better to; beztr bóndi, an excellent farmer; er mér hefir beztr verit, best (kindest) towards me; with gen., meðan bezt er sumars, during the best part of the summer.

beygja (-ða, -ðr), v. to bend, bow (b. hálsinn fyrir e-m); b. e-m krók, to make it awkward for one.

beyglast (), v. refl. to become bent (spjótit beyglaðist).

beysta (-sta, -str), v. to beat; b. korn, to thresh; b. bakföllum, to pull hard at the oars.

beysti, n. ham, gammon of bacon.

beytill, m. fescue-grass (?), cf. ‘góibeytill’.

bezt (older ‘bazt’), adv., superl. to ‘vel’, best; b. búinn, best equipted; b. allra manna, best of all men.

beztr (older ‘baztr’), a. superl., see ‘betri’.

biblia, f. the Bible; also ‘biflía’.

bið, n. pl. waiting, delay; góðr í bíðum, patient.

biða (), v. to wait; b. e-s, to wait for (þeir biðuðu þeirra).

biða, f. awaiting (rare).

biðan, f. delay, biding.

bið-angr, m. = biðan, biðvangr.

biðill (pl. biðlar), m. wooer, suitor.

biðja (bið; bað, báðum; beðinn), v. (1) to ask, beg a thing of one (b. e-n e-s); with infin., to beg one to do a thing; inn bið þú hann ganga, ask him to step in; with the infin. sign ‘at’, to beg leave; biðr hann at fara norðr á Hálogaland, asked for furlough to go to H.; with ‘at’ and a subj. (biðja viljum vér, at þú sér í liðsbóninni með oss); b. e-s, to beg for a thing (b. miskunnar, matar); b. e-m e-s, to beg for a thing on behalf of one; b. e-m lífs, griða, to beg for one’s life, to sue for quarter for another; b. sér ölmusu, to ask for alms; b. (sér) konu, to ask in marriage; b. fyrir e-m, to intercede (pray) for one; (2) to pray to God (b. til guðs); b. bœn sína (bœnar sinnar, bœn sinni), to say one’s prayer; (3) refl., biðjast fyrir, to say one’s prayers; b. undan, to excuse oneself (from doing a thing).

bið-leika (), v. to wait, stay, tarry (= ‘biða’).

bið-lund, f. forbearance, patience.

biðlundar-góðr, a. patient; -mál, n. a matter that can wait.

bið-lyndi, n., -stóll, m. (rare), = bið-lund.

bið-stund, f. time passed in waiting delay, respite.

biðstundar-tími, m. = biðstund.

bið-vangr, m. = biðangr.

bifast (ð and að), v. refl. (1) to shake, tremble (allr Ása salr undir bifðist); (2) to be moved; vagninn bifast hvergi, cannot be moved.

bif-röst, f. poet., mythical name of the rainbow.

bik, n. pitch (svartr sem b.; biki svartari); bika (), v. to pitch.

bikarr, m. large drinking cup, beaker (cf. ‘sáttar-bikarr’).

bikkja, f. bitch (= grey, tík).

bikkja (-ta, -tr), v. to plunge into water; hann bikkti sér út af borðinu, hann bikkti í sjóinn, he plunged overboard.

bikkju-hvelpr, m. bitch’s whelp; -sonr, m. son of a bitch; -stakkr, m. skin of a bitch.

bil, n. (1) an open space left (b. er þarna); (2) moment; þat bil, that very moment; í því bili, at the same moment, just then.

bila (), v. (1) to give way, break, crack; þá er skipit hljóp af stokkunum, þá bilaði í skarar nökkurar, some of the seams gave way; (2) with dat., flestum bilar áræðit, most people lose heart; with infin., Þórr vill fyrir engan mun b. at koma til einvígis, Th. will by no means fail to meet; (3) impers., hug ok áræði mun mik aldregi b., I shall never be wanting in courage and pluck.

bil-bugr, m. failing of heart, giving way; láta engan -bug á sér sjá, to show no sign of fear, stand firm.

bilt, a. n., only in the phrase, e-m verðr b., one is startled, alarmed; Þór (dat.) varð b. einu sinni (for once Thor’s heart failed him) at slá hann með hamrinum.

bimbult, a. n., in the phrase, e-m er b., one feels uneasy (kerling fær ekki sofnat um nóttina, svá var henni bimbult).

binda (bind; batt, bundum; bundinn), v. (1) to bind, tie, fasten, tie up; b. hest, hund, to tie up a horse, dog; b. skó, þvengi, to tie shoes, thongs; b. stein við háls e-m, to fasten a stone to one’s neck; b. fyrir augu e-m, to blindfold one; (2) to bind in parcels, to pack up (b. varning til skips); b. hey á hest, to truss hay on a horse’s back; b. korn, to tie up sheaves of corn; b. klyf, to tie up a pack; (3) b. e-t um e-t, to bind round; hann batt silkiræmu um fót sér, he bound a strip of silk round his leg; b. um e-t, to put a bandage on; batt Yngvildr um fót honum, bound up his (wounded) leg; b. um sár, to bind up a wound; fig., hefir margr hlotit um sárt at b. fyrir mér, many a man has had wounds to tie up by my means (i. e. inflicted by me); þykkir mér bezt um heilt at b., to bind a sound limb, to keep safe and sound; b. sár = b. um sár; b. hönd e-s, to bind his hand; (4) to make, form, contract, enter into (b. samfélag, vináttu, tengdir, hjúskap); b. sætt ok frið, to make a reconciliation and peace; b. ráð, to resolve; absol. with infin., to fix, engage (bundu þeir Þórir at hittast á ákveðnum stáð); (5) refl., to bind or engage oneself; em ek þó eigi þess búinn, nema fleiri bindist, unless more persons bind themselves, enter the league; b. á hendi (höndum) e-m, to bind oneself to serve another (b. á hendi konungum); b. fyrir e-u, to put oneself at the head of an undertaking; b. (= binda sik) í e-u, to engage in a thing (b. í heitum); b. í banns atkvæði, to bring on oneself the sentence of excommunication; with gen. (b. e-s = b. af or frá e-u), to refrain from a thing; eigi bazt hann ferligra orða, he did not refrain from bad words.

bindandi, f. = bindendi.

bindandis-tími, m. time of abstinence.

bindendi, f. and n. abstinence (b. matar ok drykkjar ok margra annara girnda).

bindendis-kraptr, m. virtue of abstinence; -lauss, a. licentious; -lif, n. life of abstinence; -maðr, m. an ascetic.

bingr, m. bed, bolster (statt upp úr binginum).

birgðir, f. pl. stores, provisions.

birgiligr, a. serviceable, useful.

birgja (-ða, -ðr), v., b. e-n at e-u, to furnish, provide one with a thing (nú vil ek b. bú þitt at málnytuísumar).

birgr, a. well-furnished, provided (at e-u) with a thing- (b. at kosti).

birki-, in compds., birch-.

birkinn, a. birchen; only in ‘birkinn viðr’ = birkiviðr.

birki-raptr, m. birch-rafter; -viðr, m. birch-wood.

birkja (-ta, -tr), v. to bark, strip off the bark from a tree (b. við).

birkja, f. birch-juice.

birna, f. she-bear, = bera.

birta (-rta, -rtr), v. (1) to brighten, light up, illuminate; var birt allt hlýrit (the bow of the vessel was made bright) bæði hvítum steini ok rauðum; stjörnur birta náttina, light up the night; b. blinda, to make the blind see; b. hjörtu vár, to enlighten our hearts; b. rœðu, to elucidate, make it clearer; impers., veðrit (acc.) birtir, it clears up; þokunni (dat.) birtir, the fog lifts; (2) to reveal, manifest, show (skjótt mun ek b. mitt skaplyndi); with dat., b. ást sinni, to manifest one’s love; refl., birtast, to appear (birtist þá skaði þeirra); dagrinn birtist, the day dawns; b. e-m, to appear to one.

birta, f. (1) brightness, fair complexion; (2) = birti.

birtari, m. revealer.

birti, n. brightness, light.

birting, f. (1) brightness; (2) revelation; birtingar tíð, the Epiphany.

birtingr, m. a kind of fish, sea-trout (?).

biskup (-s, -ar), m. (1) bishop; (2) the Jewish high-priest.

biskupa (), v. to confirm (b. börn), = ferma.

biskupa-fundr, m., -mót, n. synod of bishops.

biskupan, f. confirmation, = ferming.

biskupa-Þing, n. council of bishops.

biskup-dómr, m. = biskupsdómr; -liga, adv. episcopally; -ligr, a. episcopal; biskupligt embætti, the office of bishop.

biskups-búningr, m. bishop’s robes; -búr, n. bishop’s larder; -dómr, m. (1) dignity or rank of a bishop; (2) the period during which a bishop holds office, episcopate (í -dómi e-s); (3) episcopal see, bishopric; -dóttir, f. bishop’s daughter; -dœmi, n. = -dómr (3); -efni, n. bishop-elect; -frændi, m. relative of a bishop; -garðr, m. bishop’s manor; -gisting, f.; -herbergi, n. pl. bishop’s apartments; -kør, n., -kosning, f. election of a bishop; -lauss, a. without a bishop (landit er -laust); -maðr, m. one in the service of a bishop; -mark, n. sign of a bishop; -mágr, m. brother-in-law of a bishop; -messa, f. a mass celebrated by a bishop; -mítr, n. bishop’s mitre; -nafn, n. title of a bishop; -ríki, n. episcopal see, bishopric; -sekt, f. a fine to be paid to the bishop; -skattr, m. a duty to be paid to the bishop (in Norway); -skrúð, n., -skrúði, m. bishop’s robes; -sonr, m. son of a bishop; -stafr, m. bishop’s staff, crosier; -stjórn, f. administration of a bishop; -stóll, m. (1) episcopal seat; (2) bishopric; -sýsla, f. (1) = -stjórn; (2) province of a bishop, diocese; -tign, f. dignity or rank of a bishop; -tíund, f. the tithe to be paid to the bishop (in Iceland); -vatn, n. water consecrated by the bishop Guðmund; -veldi, a. episcopal power; -vígsla, f. consecration of a bishop.

bismara-pund, n. a certain weight.

bismari, m. steel-yard (mælir ok pundari ok bismari).

bisund, f. a gold coin, besant (foreign word).

bit, n. (1) bite (at tönnunum er bitsins ván); (2) sharpness, edge (of cutting instruments); (3) pasture = beit (Norse).

bita (), v. (1) to cut into bits; (2) b. út (útbita), with dat., to extend, distend, stretch out.

bit-bein, n. bone of contention (hafa ríki þessi lengi at öfund orðit ok -beinum); -hundr, m. snappish dog.

biti, m. (1) bit, mouthful; biðja bitum, to go begging; (2) eyetooth (upp eru komnir bitar ok jaxlar); (3) cross-beam, cross-girder.

bitill, m. = bitull.

bitlaðr, pp. bitted, bridled; cf. ‘gullbitlaðr’.

bitlingr, m. bit, morsel; stela bitlingum, to steal trifles.

bitr (acc. bitran), a. (1) biting, snapping (b. naðra); (2) cutting, sharp (bitrt sverð); (3) painful, bitter (b. tregi); -leikr, m. bitterness; -ligr, a. sharp, keen (-ligt sverð).

bit-sótt, f. disease (of cattle, sheep) from vermin.

bitull, m. the bit of a bridle.

bíða (bíð; beið, biðum; beðit), v. (1) to abide, wait for, with gen., bíð þú mín hér, wait for me here; þeir biðu byrjar, they waited for favourable wind; b. sinnar stundar, to bide one’s time; b. e-s ór stað (þaðan, héðan), to stand waiting in the same place (there, here); var eigi langt at b., at (it was not long before) sannaðist saga ábóta míns; (2) to suffer, undergo, sustain, with acc., b. bana (dauða, hel), skaða, to suffer death, loss; b. ámæli, to be blamed; b. ósigr, to be defeated; b. enga ró, to feel no peace, be uneasy; b. bót (bœtr) e-s, to recover, overcome; (3) e-t bíðr e-s, is in store for one, awaits one (fagnaðu, vin minn, því at þín bíðr eilífr fagnaðr); (4) impers., e-t (acc.) bíðr, there is, there is to be had, with a preceeding negative; hvárki bíðr þar báru né vinds blæ, there is felt neither wave nor breath of air; varla beið brauð eðr fœðu, was scarcely to be had.

bíðandi, f. biding, waiting, delay.

biðendr, m. pl. those who wait; b. eigu byr, get a fair wind.

bíldóttr, a. spotted on the cheeks (of a sheep).

bíldr, m. an instrument for letting blood, lancet (örit var sem bílds spor yæri, a scar as from a b.).

bíld-ör, f. a kind of arrow.

bílífi, n. luxury, = býlífi.

bíta (bít; beit, bitum; bitinn), v. (1) to bite with the teeth (hundr bítr mann; E. beit skarð ór horninu); b. gras, to graze, also absol. (naut bitu á velli); b. af e-m eyrun, to bite his ears; b. e-t í sundr, to bite asunder or through; b. á vörrinni, kampinum, to bite the lip, the beard; impers., of fish, to bite, take the bait (bítr vel á um daginn); (2) of sharp instruments, weapons; þeir er eigi bitu járn, those whom iron could not bite; sverðit beit eigi, did not cut; e-m bítr, one’s weapon (scythe) cuts well (allt bitu honum annan veg vápnin); fig., beit þetta ráð, was effective; (3) of a ship, to go near the wind; skip, er vér köllum b. allra skipa bezt, the best sailer; impers., beit þeim eigi fyrir Reykjanes, they could not clear or weather Reykjaness; (4) fig., to bite, sting, hurt (þik skulu allir eiðar b., þeir er Helga hafðir unna); sekt, sök bítr e-n, one is convicted or found guilty; þau mál, sem sekt bítr, matters liable to punishment; b. á e-n, to affect, make an impression on one; þetta lét Kjartan á sik b., K. took this to heart; láta e-t eigi á sik b., to be proof against, to be unaffected by a thing; (5) e-t bítr fyrir, is decisive, decides or settles the matter, esp. so as to render it impossible; b. e-m at fullu, to prove fatal to (hafa mik nú at fullu bitit hans ráð); (6) refl., bítast (of horses), to bite, in fighting (var honum mikil forvitni, hvé bítast vildi hestrinn) to bite one another (bítast sem hundar eða hestar).

bjalla, f. bell (hann vígði klukkur ok bjöllur).

bjannak, n. benediction (from Irish beannacht).

bjarg, n. (1) rock, boulder; (2) precipice, cliff (by the sea).

bjarga (berg; barg, burgum; borginn), v. (1) to help, save, with dat.; nema Þ. byrgi honum, unless Th. helped him; sá er öldum bergr, who saves mankind (viz. against the giants, i. e. Thor); guðs son er öllum heimi barg, who saved the whole world; impers., e-m er borgit, one is saved, comes safe and sound out of danger (brutu skip sitt ok týndu fé öllu, en mönnum varð borgit flestum); b. skipshöfn, to rescue the shipwrecked; b. skipi, to haul a ship out of the reach of the tide; b. hval, to secure a dead whale (by dragging it ashore); b. konum, to help labouring women (cf. ‘bjargrúnar’); b. kúm, to attend cows calving; b. nám, to render the last service to dead bodies (cf. ‘nábjargir’); b. sök, máli, to succeed in winning a case, a suit; (2) refl., bjargast, to keep up the heart, esp. against cold or hunger; Oddr bargst vel á fjallinu (in a snow storm); b. sjálfr, to gain one’s bread; b. á sínar hendr, to support oneself with one’s own hands; b. úti, to find one’s food (graze) in the field (of cattle); Snorri góði fann, at nafni hans bargst lítt við ostinn, that he got on slowly with eating the cheese; verði þér nú at b. við slík sem til er, you must now put up with what you can get.

bjarga (), v. (rare), = preceding (bjargat mun málinu verða).

bjargar-vist, f. a situation which yields food and clothing.

bjarg-aurar, m. pl. means enough for support.

bjarg-gengr, a. clever at climbing on fowling cliffs (cf. ‘ganga í bjarg’).

bjarg-hagr, a. a dexterous carpenter or smith for household work.

bjarg-högg, n. instrument for hewing steps in a rock.

bjarg-kostr, m. means of support; -kviðr, m. verdict of acquital; -leysi, n. starvation, destitution; -ráð, n. (1) means of salvation; (2) advice given to an outlaw with intent to save his life.

bjarg-rifa, f. rift in a rock, = bergrifa.

bjarg-rúnar, f. pl. runes for helping women in labour; -rýgr (rýgjar, -rýgir), f. midwife.

bjarg-skora, f. rift in a rocky hill, = bergskor.

bjargs-maðr, m. a self-supporting person.

bjarg-snös, f. = bergsnös; -steinn, m. boulder, craig.

bjarg-vel, adv. well enough.

bjarg-vættr, f. helping sprite, good genius.

bjarkan, n. the runic letter B.

bjarkeyjar-réttr, m. town-law.

Bjarmar, m. pl., name of a people or tribe of the Russian empire, the Perms of the present day.

bjarnar-báss, m. = bjarnbáss; -hamr, m. the hide, shape of a bear; -híð, n. a black bear’s lair; -hold, n. bear’s flesh; -hrammr, m. bear’s paw; -slátr, n. meat of a slaughtered bear.

bjarn-báss, m. a pit for catching bears; -dýr, -dýri, n. bear; -eggjan, f. brutal provocation; -feldr, m. bear-skin cloak; -fell, n. bear’s fell, bear’s skin; -gjöld, n. pl. reward for killing a bear; -húnn, m. bear’s cub; -igull, m. a kind of sea-urchin; -ólpa, f. = bjarnskinnsólpa; -skinn, n. bearskin.

bjarnskinns-ólpa, f. a bearskin cloak.

bjarn-staka, f. bearskin; -sviða, f. large knife for killing bears; -veiðar, f. pl. bear-hunting (fara á -veiðar); -ylr, m. bear’s warmth, the vital warmth of an ice-bear.

bjart-eygðr, -eygr, a. bright-eyed; -haddaðr, a. fair-haired; -leikr, m. brightness; -leitr, a. fair-complexioned; -liga, adv. clearly, plainly; -litaðr, a. light-coloured.

bjartr, a. (1) bright, shining (bjart ljós, sólskin); (2) illustrious (með björtum sigri).

bjart-viðri, n. clear weather.

bjálfi (or bjálbi), m. fur, skin, esp. in compds., hreinbjálfi, geitbjálfi.

bjálki, m. balk, beam.

bjóð, n. (1) small table; (2) small bowl.

bjóða (býð; bauð, buðum; boðinn), v. (1) to offer; þeir höfðu boðit honum laun, they had offered him rewards; Þ. bauð at gefa (offered to give) Gunnlaugi hestinn; b. grið, to offer pardon; b. e-t til lífs sér, as a ransom for one’s life; b. e-t fram, to proffer, produce (b. fram vitni); b. e-t upp, af hendi, to give up, leave off; þá býðr hann upp hornit, gives up the horn, will not drink more; b. e-t undan e-m, to offer to take a thing off one’s hands (er þá kostr at b. undan þeim manni varðveizluna fjárins); b. e-t við, to make a bid; b. við tvenn verð, to bid double; refl., bjóðast, to offer oneself, volunteer one’s service; Þóroddr bauzt (offered himself) til þeirrar farar; (2) to do a thing to one, in a bad sense; b. e-m ógn, to wage war against one; b. e-m ójöfnuð, ofriki, to treat unfairly, oppress; b. e-m ógn, to affright, terrify; b. e-m rangt, to treat one unjustly; (3) to bid, invite (b. e-m til sín or heim); b. mönnum til boðs, to bid guests to a banquet, wedding; (4) to bid, order; sem lög buðu, as the law prescribed; b. e-m erendi, to commit a thing to one’s charge; b. e-m varnað á e-u, to forbid; b. e-m af landi, to order one out of the land; b. e-m af embætti, to depose one; b. út liði, skipum, to levy, troops, ships; b. e-m um, to delegate to one, to commit to one’s charge (þeim manni er biskup hefir um boðit at nefna vátta); (5) to proclaim, announce; b. trú (kristni), to proclaim, preach a religion (the Christitian faith); b. messudag, to proclaim a holy day; (6) of a mental state, to have presentiment of; e-m býðr e-t í hug (skap), one has a fore boding, presentiment of; mér býðr e-t fyrir, I forebode; mér býðr hugr við e-u, I abhor, dislike; impers., mér býðr ávallt hita (acc.), er ek kem í þeirra flokk, I feel uneasy whenever …; mér bauð ótta, I felt a fear; bauð þeim mikla þekt (they felt much pleasure), er þeir sá líkit; ef yðr býðr svá við at horfa, when you are in such a frame of mind; (7) býðr e-m, it beseems, becomes one; sem konungsbarni býðr, as befits a princess; eptir þat fór vígsla fram eptir því sem býðr, as it is due, or proper.

bjór-blandaðr, pp. mixed with beer.

bjórr, m. beer (öl heitir með mönnum, en með Ásum b.).

bjórr (-s, -ar), m. (1) triangular cut off piece of skin (bjórar þeir, er menn sníða ór skóm sínum fyrir tám eða hæl); (2) triangular strip of land, = geiri (b. lá ónuminn fyrir austan Fljót); (3) front wall, party wall; engi var bjórrinn milli húsanna, there was no partition between the houses; (4) a sort of tapestry of triangular shape (var stofan vel tjölduð ok settir upp bjórar).

bjórr (-s, -ar), m. beaver, esp. the beaver’s skin (b. ok safali).

bjór-reifr, a. cheerfull from beer drinking; -sala, f. vending of beer; -salr, m. beer-hall.

bjór-skinn, n. beaver skin; -skinnfeldr, m. cloak made of beaver skin.

bjór-tunna, f. barrel of beer; -veig, f. beer; -verpill, m. beer-cask.

bjúga (pl. bjúgu), n. sausage (cf. ‘mörbjúga’).

bjúg-leikr, m. crookedness; -leltr, a. of crooked countenance; -nefjaðr, a. hook-nosed, = nefbjúgr.

bjúgr, a. bowed, hooked, crooked, bent; hann var b. á baki, he sat bent or bowed (from age) on horseback; hvárt er yðr þykkir bjúgt eða beint, whether it seems to you crooked or straight, whether you like it or not.

bjöð, f. flat land; áðr Börs synir bjöðum of yptu, ere the sons of B. raised the ground.

björg (gen. bjargar, pl. bjargir), f. (1) help, deliverance, out of need or danger, esp. help (food, shelter, transport) given to an outlaw (veita e-m b., einnar nætr b.); lögmæt b., lawful point of defence (in pleading in the Court); (2) means of subsistence, stores, provisions (fjögurra missera b.).

björk (gen. bjarkar), f. birch, birchtree.

björn (gen. bjarnar, pl. birnir, acc. björnu), m. bear (hvítabjörn, the white bear; híðbjörn, skógbjörn, urðbjörn, viðbjörn, the black bear).

blað, n. (1) leaf of a plant; (2) leaf in a book; (3) blade of a knife (knífsblað), of an oar (árarblað); (4) skirt of a kirtle, shirt, cloak (kyrtilblað, skyrtublað, feldarblað).

blaðra (), v. (1) to flutter to and fro, as a leaf in the wind (sá þeir, at tungan blaðraði); (2) with dat., to move (the tongue) to and fro (hann blaðraði tungunni ok leitaði við at mæla); to wag the tail (b. halanum); (3) absol., to utter inarticulately (blaðrar ok bendir hann); with acc. (blaðrandi þessi orð).

blaðra, f. bladder; brain.

blak, n. slap (with the open hand).

blaka ( and -ta), v. (1) to flutter, wave (of the leaves of a tree); (2) with dat., b. vængjunum, to flap the wings; (3) with acc., b. e-n, to give one a slap.

blaka, f. (1) veil (cf. ‘silkiblaka’); (2) fan.

blakk-fjallr, a. with black hide (birnir blakkfjallir).

blakkr, a. black, dun-coloured (beittu, Sigurðr, enn blakka mar).

blakkr, m. poet. a dun-coloured horse.

blakra (), v. to flutter with the wings.

bland, n. (1) mixture; í b. við e-n, in company with; í b. með e-m, among; (2) sexual intercourse (hafa konu í b. = til lags við sik).

blanda (blend; blétt, bléndum; blandinn), v. to blend, mix, e-t e-u, with a thing (b. mjöð, drykk, eitri); b. e-t saman, to mix together (b. saman hvítt ok rautt); more common, b. e-u við e-t; b. vatni við vín, to mix wine with water; b. mötuneyti (dat.,) við e-n, to eat together with one; refl., blandast við e-n, to have intercourse with one, esp. of sexual intercourse (blandast við konur af heiðnum þjóðum).

blanda (), v. = prec.

blanda, f. mixture of two fluids (fór fyrst ór blóð, síðan blanda), esp. sour whey mixed with water.

blandan, f. mixing, blending.

blandinn, pp. (cf. ‘blanda’, v.) mixed; Helgi var b. mjök, had a mixed creed; hón er blandin mjök, she is a woman of mixed report.

blauðast (), v. refl., = bleyðast.

blauð-hugaðr, a. = blauthugaðr; -liga, adv. cowardly.

blauðr, a. (1) weak, cowardly; bíð nú, ef þú ert eigi b., if thou art not a coward; (2) feminine, opp. to ‘hvatr’, but only used of animals, dogs, cats, fishes; hafit nú hendr á hundinum, þótt b. sé, take the dog, though it be a bitch.

blaut-barn, n., in the phrase, frá -barns beini = frá blautu barns beini, see ‘blautr’; -fiskr, m. fresh fish; -holdr, a. having soft, smooth flesh (mærin var væn ok -hold); -hugaðr, a. faint-hearted (opposed to ‘harðhugaðr’); -klæddr, pp. clothed in soft raiment (eða vildut þér sjá -klæddan mann?); -leikr, m. softness; -lendr, a. soft, moist-soiled; -liga, adv. effeminately (klæddr -liga); -ligr, a. soft, voluptuous (blautligir kossar) blautlig kvæði, amorous ditties.

blautr, a. (1) soft (b. sem silkiræma); b. fiskr, fresh fish, opp. to ‘harðr fiskr’; frá blautu barns beini, from very babyhood; (2) effeminate, timorous, weak (fár er gamall harðr, ef hann er í bernsku b.); (3) wet, soaked (þar vóru vellir blautir, því at regn höfðu verit).

blá-ber, n. blueberry, bilberry; -brúnaðr, a. bluish brown; -djúp, n. the blue deep sea; -eygðr, -eygr, a. blue-eyed; -fastr, a. quite immovable; -fáinn, -fár, a. with a bluish polish; -feldr, m. cloak of blue fur; -flekkóttr, a. speckled with blue; -hvítr, a. bluish white; -kápa, f. blue cloak; -kinn, f. blue cheek; -klæddr, pp. dressed in blue; -leitr, a. blue-faced, black-faced; -lendingr, m. Ethiopian; -lenzkr, a. Ethiopian, from Bláland, Ethiopia; -maðr, m. a black man, negro.

bláman, f. the livid colour of a bruise.

blá-mengdr, -mengjaðr, a. blue-mingled; -merktr, pp. marked with blue.

blámi, m. lividness, = bláman.

blána (), v. to become blue or livid (þrútna ok b. í andliti).

blár, a. (1) blue, livid (b. ok bóðugr); (2) black (b. sem kol); falda blá, to wrap the head in black.

blá-rendr, a. blue-striped (-rendar brœkr).

blása (blæs; blés, blésum; blásinn), v. (1) to blow, of the wind; blásandi byrr, a spanking breeze; (2) to blow with the mouth (hann blés í kross yfir drykk sínum); to pant (hestrinn tók at frýsa ok b.); b. við, to draw a deep breath, to sigh (jarl blés þá við mœðiliga); fig., b. móti e-m, to be unfavourably disposed towards one; (3) with dat., to set in motion by blowing or breathing; blés mœðiliga öndinni, breathed hard; b. e-m e-u í brjóst, to inspire, suggest a thing to one (guð blés henni því í brjóst); b. eldi, eitri, of serpents; (4) to blow with a musical instrument; b. lúðri, horni, to blow the trumpet, horn; b. liði (troops) til landgöngu; b. til stefnu, to a meeting; b. herblástr, to sound an alarm; (5) to melt, cast (b. gullmálm, rauða); yxn tveir ór eiri blásnir (cast); (6) to blow up, inflate (sem belgr blásinn); (7) impers., blés upp fótinn, kviðinn, the leg, belly, swelled up; of land, to be laid bare, stripped of the turf (hafði blásit hauginn ok lá silfrit bert).

blásari, m. blower of a trumpet or horn.

blá-silfr, n. bad silver, opp. to ‘skírt silfr’.

blásinn, pp. (1) inflated (belgr b.); (2) swollen (sýndist fótrinn b.); (3) stripped of turf, bare, barren (mel-torfa blásin mjök).

blá-stafaðr, a. blue-striped (segl blástafat).

blástr (gen. blástrar and blástar, dat. blæstri and blæsti), m. (1) blast, blowing of the wind; (2) blowing of an animal, hissing of a serpent (heyrði blást drekanna); (3) breathing, breath (málit gørist af blæstrinum); (4) blast of a trumpet; (5) blowing of a bellows; (6) swelling of the body or a limb, mortification.

blástr-belgr, m. bellows; -horn, n. trumpet, horn; -járn, n. blast iron (cast, not wrought); -pipa, f. flute; -samr, a. windy; -svalr, a. cold-blowing.

blá-svartr, a. raven-black; -tönn, f. blue-black tooth, a nickname.

bleðgi or blegði, m. wedge, plug.

bleðja (bleð, bladda, bladdr), v. (1) to pick off (leaves or fruit); fig. to kill off one by one (b. hirðina or b. hirðina af); (2) to tear asunder (b. klæði sín); (3) to cover, as with a leaf (b. ásjónuna).

bleik-álóttr, a. fawn-coloured with a dark stripe down the back (-álóttr hestr); -hárr, a. fair-haired; -hvítr, a. yellowish white.

bleikja (-ta, -tr), v. to bleach (b. lérept); b. hadda sína, to wash the hair (said of women).

bleikja, f. chalk or white clay.

bleikr, a. pale, whitish; bleikt hár, fair hair; b. á hár, fair-haired; (wan, pallid) ok blóðlauss; b. sem nár, deadly pale; b. sem bast, pale as bast.

blek, n. ink; -horn, n. inkstand.

blekki-liga, adv. delusively; -ligr, a. delusive (blekkilig er þessa heims hamingja).

blekking, f. derision, fraud.

blekkinga-maðr, m. deceiver.

blekkingar-andi, m. lying spirit.

blekkja (-ta, -tr), v. to impose upon, deceive; refl., blekkjast, to be disappointed.

blek-skortr, m. lack of ink.

blendingr, m. (1) blending, mixture; (2) a being half man and half giant (b. en ekki fullkomit troll).

blesóttr, a. having a blaze or white mark, on the forehead (b. hestr).

blest-mæltr, blestr, a. lisping.

bletsa (), v. = bleza.

bleyða, f. craven, = bleyðimaðr.

bleyða (-dda, -ddr), v. to dishearten, humble (ef þú bleyðir hjarta þitt); refl., bleyðast, to lose heart or courage (= verða blauðr).

bleyði, f. cowardice; -maðr, m. coward; -mannligr, a. cowardly, craven; -mark, n. mark of cowardice; -orð, n. charge of cowardice; leggja -orð at baki e-m, to charge one with being a coward (blauðr); bera bleyðiorð fyrir e-m, to be called a coward by one.

bleyta, f. mud, mire.

bleyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to make soft, moisten (b. húð); b. hjarta, skaphöfn e-s, to soften one’s heart, temper.

bleza (), v. to bless (blezaði guð þá hinn sjaunda daginn); also with dat. (guð blezaði bæði fuglum ok fiskum).

blezaðar-fullr, a. rich in blessing.

blezan, f. blessing, benediction.

blezanar-andi, m. spirit of blessing; -orð, n. pl. words of blessing.

bliat or bliaz, n. a kind of costly stuff (for. word).

blik, n. (1) gleam, sheen; (2) bleaching (liggja á bliki); (3) vizor of a helmet.

blika (), v. to gleam, twinkle (of shields).

blik-hvítr, a. white-gleaming (of a shield).

blikna (), v. to grow (turn) pale or pallid (b. af hræzlu, hugleysi).

bliknan, f. growing pale.

blikra (), v. impers., e-m blikrar, one feels uneasy or anxious.

blinda (), v. to blind, derive of sight (dróttinn blindaði augu þeirra); hann blindar sjálfan sik allra sanninda, he blinds himself lo all truth.

blindi, f. blindness.

blindingr, m. hidden peg, dowel.

blind-leiki, -leikr, m. blindness.

blindr, a. blind; b. báðum augum, blind of both eyes; hann háfði verit b. borinn, born blind; with gen., b. ens sauna um e-t, blind as to the truth or reality about a thing; e-m er e-t blint, it is obscure, hidden to one; Einarr lét sér þat blint vera, E. professed ignorance about it.

blíða, f. friendliness, gentleness; hófst þá enn at nýju b. (friendly relations) með þeim mágum.

blíða (-dda, -ddr), v. = blíðka.

blíðast (), v. refl. = blíðkast.

blíðindi, n. pl. comforts, delights.

blíðing, f. enticement, allurement.

blíðka (), v. to soften, mitigate (b. e-n með gjöfum); refl., blíðkast, to grow mild; b. e-m, to insinuate oneself into one’s favour.

blíðkan, f. caressing, caresses.

blíð-látr, a. displaying friendliness or kindness; -leikr, m. (1) friendliness, gentleness; (2) mildness, blaminess (-leikr loptsins); -leitr, a. of mild countenance; -liga, adv. kindly, with kindness (taka, fagna e-m -liga); -ligr, a. (1) gentle, friendly (-ligr í yfirbragði); (2) delightful; -lundabr, a. of gentle disposition; -leati, n. caressing; -mæli, n. pl. fair words, blandishments; -mæltr, a. affable, bland.

blíðr, a. (1) gentle, friendly (vera b. ok þekkr við menn); (2) plesant, agreeable; þat er þér blíðara, that pleases you better; (3) mild, balmy (blítt veðr).

blíðskapar-orð, n. friendly word.

blíð-skapr (-ar), m. friendliness, kindness; caresses (eiga -skap með konu).

blíðu-bragð, n. friendly mien (= blítt yfirbragð); caressing; -fullr, a. friendly.

blíð-viðri, n. mild weather; -yrði, pl., = blíðmæli.

blígja (-ða, -t), v. to gaze (blígja augum).

blíkja (blík; bleik, bliku; -), v. an obsolete verb, = blika.

blístra, f. the mouthpiece of bellows.

blístra (), v. to whistle; b. í spor e-m or e-s, to whistle after one who has run away.

blístran, f. whistling (with the mouth).

blota-maðr, m. effeminate person.

blotna (), v. to become soft or moist; fig., to give way, yield (b. við e-t, fyrir e-m).

blóð, n. (1) blood; rann honum mjök b., he lost much blood; nema (taka) e-m b., to bleed one; vekja e-m b., to draw blood of one; ganga blóði, to have a hemorrhage or dysentery, blanda bloði saman, to enter into foster-brothership by mixing blood together; (2) offspring, blood-relations.

blóð-band, n. bandage to stop bleeding, esp. pl. (-bönd); -bogi, m. gush or jet of blood; -bolli, m. = blótbolli; -drefjar, f. pl. scattering of blood; -dreif, f. sprinkling (streak) of blood; -drekkr, m. one who drinks blood; -drif, n. flowing of blood; -dropi, m. drop of blood; -drykkja, f. drink of blood; -drög, n. pl., = -dreif; -fall, n. hemorrhage.

blóðfalls-sótt, f. the bloody flux, dysentery.

blóð-flekkr, m. fleck or stain of blood; -fors, m. gush of blood; -fullr, a. full of blood.

blóðga (), v. to make bloody, to smear with blood; refl., blóðgast, to become bloody.

blóð-kýll, m. blood-bag; fig., blood-sucker; -lauss, a. bloodless; -lát, n. (1) loss of blood; (2) blood-letting, bleeding; -látinn, pp. (that has been) bled; -lifr, f. clotted blood; -ligr, a. bloody; -lœkr, m. stream of blood; -maðkr, m. maggot bred in putrefying blood; -nætr, f. pl. ‘blood-nights’, in the prov., ‘blóð-nætr eru hverjum bráðastar’, referring to the fierce desire to revenge a homicide newly committed; -ormr, m. poet. ‘blood-serpent’, sword; -rauðr, a. blood-red; -rás, f. hemorrhage; -refill, m. point of a sword; -reiðr, a. very wrathful (= dreyrrauðr af reiði); -reitr, m. field of blood; -rekinn, pp. stained with blood; -risa, a. indecl. bruised and blootly (blár ok blóðrisa); -segi or -sigi, m. clot of blood; -sjúkr, a. dysenteric.

blóðs-litr, m. colour of blood.

blóð-sótt, f. dysentery; -spýga, f. spitting of blood.

blóðs-teigr, m. = blóðreitr.

blóð-stjarna, f. the bloody star, Venus; -stokkinn, pp. bespattered with blood; -storkinn, a. stiff with gore, gory; -straumr, m. stream of blood.

blóðs-úthelling, f. shedding of blood.

blóð-tjörn, f. pool of blood.

blóðugr (acc. blóðgan), a. bloody.

blóð-vaka, f. drawing of blood (svá hart, at -vaka yrði); cf. ‘vekja e-m blóð’; -varmr, a. warm-blooded; -ær, f. a ewe fit for slaughter; -örn, m. ‘blood eagle’, in the phrase, rísta -örn á baki e-m, a cruel method of putting captured enemies to death in the heathen times; -øx, f. ‘bloody axe’, a nickname.

blóm, n. bloom, blossom, flower; fig., í œsku blómi, in the flower of youth.

blóma-kinn, f. ‘red cheek’, a nickname; -ligr, a. blooming, shining; -mikill, a. rich-blossoming.

blómandi, pr. p. blooming, flourishing (b. grös).

blóma-samligr, a. = blómaligr.

blóm-berandi, pr. p., -beranligr, a. bloom-bearing, flourishing.

blómga (), v. to fertilize; refl., blómgast, to blossom, bloom; fig., to thrive, flourish, prosper (réttir siðir skyldu b. fagrliga um norðrlönd); blómgaðr, pp. which has blossoms upon it; blómgan, f. the fact of blooming or flourishing; blómgandi, pr. p., blómganligr, a. blooming, flourishing.

blómi, m. = blóm; fig., standa (vera) með blóma, miklum blóma, to thrive, prosper, flourish; í blóma aldrs síns, in the flower of his age.

blómstr (-rs), m. = blóm (allan akrsins b.).

blóra-maðr, m. a person to put the blame upon.

blót, n. (1) sacrifice, sacrificial feast or banquet (efna, efla b.); (2) idol worship in general; (3) idol, = blœti (öll b. braut hann niðr); (4) swearing, cursing.

blóta (blœt; blét, blétum; blótinn), v. (1) to worship, to worship with sacrifice, with acc. of that which is worshipped; b. hof, lund, fors, heiðit goð, álfa, heiðnar vættir, lifandi menn, to worship temple, grove, waterfall, &c.; very rare with dat. (b. goðum); (2) to sacrifice, with dat. of the object sacrificed (b. mönnum ok fé); absol., b. til friðar, sigrs, langlífis, árs, byrjar, to make a sacrifice for peace, victory, long life, good season, fair wind.

blóta (), v. (1) = blóta (blœt, &c.); (2) to curse, with dat. = ‘banna’ (bið þú fyr þeim, er þér blóta); absol., to swear; refl., blótast, to go about swearing.

blótan, f. (1) sacrificing; (2) cursing, swearing.

blót-auðigr, a. rich in sacrifices (-auðigt hof); -biskup, m. heathen priest; -bolli, m. sacrificial bowl; -dómr, m. idolatry; -drykkja, f. sacrificial feast; -fé, n. sacred or accursed goods; -girni, f. inclination for idolatry; -goði, m. heathen sacrificing priest; -gröf, f. sacrificial pit; -guð, n. heathen god; -gyðja, f. heathen priestess; -haugr, m. sacrificial mound or cairn; -hof, n. heathen temple; -hús, n. heathen house of worship; -höfðingi, m. heathen chief; -hörgr, m. stone altar for sacrifice; -kalfr, m. calf worshipped with sacrifices; -kennimaðr, m. heathen priest; -klæði, n. pl. garments worn at sacrifices; -kona, f. idolatress; -koppr, m. = -bolli; -lundr, m. sacred grove, heathen place of sacrifice; -maðr, m. heathen worshipper, idolater; -matr, m. food eaten at the sacrificial feast.

blótnaðr, m. sacrificing to heathen Gods, idolatry.

blót-naut, n. (1) an ox worshipped as in idol; (2) a bull to be sacrificed; -neyti, n. (rare) = -naut; -risi, m. a giant worshipped as an idol.

blótskapar-tími, m. the time of heathenism.

blót-skapr (-ar), m. (1) heathen worship, idolatry; (2) things belonging to worship; (3) sacrifice; -skógr, m. sacred or sacrificial forest; -spánn, m. chip used in divination; fella -spán, to consult the gods; -staðr, m. a place of heathen sacrifice; -stallr, m. heathen or sacrificial altar; -tré, n. sacred tree; -stöpull, m. a pillar on which an idol stands; -trygill, m. small sacrificial trough (trog); -veizla, f. sacrificial banquet; -viðr, m. = -lundr; -villa, f. heathenish or idolatrous heresy; -völlr, m. heathen sacrificial field.

blunda (), v. to shut the eyes (b. báðum augum).

blundr, m. dozing, slumber (occurs as a nickname).

blundshaka (), v. to blink with the eyes; stafir, m. pl. soporiferous runes; bregða stöfum, to break the slumberspells.

blygð, f. shame; blygða (), v. to put to shame, seduce.

blygðarlauss, a. blameless.

blys, n. torch.

blý, n. lead (søkkva sem b.); -band, n. leaden band; -kleppr, m. plummet; -ligr, a. leaden; -skeyti, n. leaden missile; -steyptr, pp. cast in lead; -stika, f. leaden candlestick; -stokkr, m. leaden box; -þekja (see þekja), v. to roof with lead; þungi, m. leaden weight.

blæja, f. (1). fine coloured cloth (hon hafði knýtt um sik blæju ok vóru í mörk blá); (2) cover of a bed; koma undir eina blæju, to be married; (3) burial sheet (svipti hon blæju af Sigurði); (4) cover of an altar table.

blæju-endi, m. the end of a ‘blæja’; -horn, n. corner of a b.; -hvalr, m. a kind of whale.

blær, m. gentle breeze, puff of air; kenna blæ (to feel a draught) á andliti sér.

blœða (-dda, -tt), v. to bleed; blœddu nasar hans, he was bleeding, at the nose; impers., e-m blœðir, one bleeds or loses blood (engum blœdi hans manna).

blœsma, a. indecl. at heat (of ewes and goats).

blœti, n. a thing worshiped, idol.

blöðrusótt, f. stone in the bladder.

blöskra (), v. to blink with the eyes, to, flinch (hann blöskraði ekki); also impers., e-m blöskrar.

boð, n. (1) bid, offer; bjóða b. fyrir e-n, to make bids or offers for one; hvat er í boði, what is the offer; eiga b. á jörð, to have the right of being offered an estate, before it is sold to another; (2) banquet, wedding feast; hafa e-n í boði sínu, to entertain one at one’s feast; fóru þeir allir til boðsins, to the wedding feast; (3) bidding, order, commandment; ganga undir b. e-s, to submit to one’s bidding; eptir boði e-s, at or by one’s order; (4) message; gera e-m b., to send to one, send one word; a summons, a sign or token of summons, being an arrow, axe or the like to call people to battle or council (hefja boð).

boða (), v. (1) to announce, proclaim; b. kristni, to preach Christianity; b. helga trú, to proclaim the holy faith; (2) to bid, order, with dat., konungr boðaði honum á sinn fund or til sín, the king bade him come to him; b. e-m saman, to call together, to summon; (3) to bode, signify (hvat þetta mundi b.).

boða-fall, n. dash of a breaker (boði) on a reef or shoal.

boðan, f. announcement, preaching, proclaiming (boðan nafns hans); hátíð dróttinligrar boðanar, the feast of the Annunciation.

boðanar-nótt, f., nótt sællar guðs móður Marie, the night before the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary; -tíð, f. time of announcement.

boðari, m. proclaimer, announcer.

boða-slóð, f. the surf of breakers (cf. ‘boði’ 2).

boð-burðr, m. carrying, of the message arrow (cf. ‘boð’ 4); -fall, n. neglect to send on the boð (4); -fasta, f. a fast ordered by the canonical law; -ferð, f. the course of a boð (4); -greizla, f. = boðburðr.

boði, m. (1) announcer, messenger (cf. ‘sendiboði, fyrirboði’); (2) a breaker (on hidden rocks).

boðinn, pp. (cf. ‘bjóða’), vera b. ok búinn til es, to be ready and willing to do a thing.

boð-leggja (see leggja), v. = lögbjóða; -leið, f. = -ferð; -ligr, a. fit to be offered; -orð, n. order, bidding, commandment (guðs -orð).

boðorða-breytni, f. alteration of an ordinance; -brot, n. breach (neglect) of an order; -maðr, m. public officer.

boð-reizla, f. = boðgreizla; -rífr, a. ready to make an offer.

boðs-fólk, n. guests, = boðsmenn.

boð-skapr (-ar), m. bidding, order; -skopti, m. = -slotti; -skurðr, m. message, summons to a meeting; -sletta, f., -slotti, m. intruder at a feast, uninvited guest; -slóð, f. = boðleið.

boðs-maðr, m. guest at a feast.

boð-sœmiligr, a. fit for wearing at a feast (-sœmilig klæði).

boga-háls, m. the tip of a bow (bogi), where the string, is fastened; -mynd, f. form of a bow; -skot, n. bowshot, shooting with a bow; -strengr, m. bowstring; -vápn, n. bow (used as a weapon).

bogi, m. (1) bow; skjóta af boga, to shoot with a bow (cf. álmbogi, handbogi, hornbogi, lásbogi, ýbogi); (2) arch (of a bridge), vault; fig., bera mál ór boga, to disentangle a case; (3) gush, jet (cf. ‘blóðbogi’).

boginn, pp. (from a lost strong verb, bjúga), bowed, bent, curved; b. af elli, bent with age.

bog-limir, m. pl. ‘curved limbs’, arms and legs; maðr, m. bowman, archer; mannliga, adv. bowmanlike.

bogmanns-merki, n. the zodiacal sign Sagittarius.

bogna (), v. (1) to become curved, to bend; (2) to give way, yield (b. við, b. fyrir eu).

bogra (), v. to creep along bowed or stooping; þá boru bograr hann inn, he creeps in through that hole; b. fyrir e-m, to bow before one.

bog-styrkr, a. strong at the bow; sveigir, m. bowswayer, archer (cf. sveigja boga’).

bokki, m. ‘buck’, fellow; Höttr heiti ek, b. sæll, my dear fellow!; stœrri bokkar, bigger men.

bokkr, m. = bukkr.

bola (), v. to cut to pieces (b. í sundr, brytja ok bola).

bol-fimligr, a. agile of body.

Bolgara-land, n. Bulgaria.

Bolgarar, m. pl. the Bulgarians.

bol-hlíf, f. covering for the body.

boli, m. bull, = graðungr.

bol-járn, n. = boløx.

bol-klæði, n. pl. body-garments.

bolli, m. (1) small vessel, bowl; (2) a measure = ¼ askr.

bolr, m. = bulr; (1) the bole or trunk of a tree; (2) the trunk of the body; ganga milli bols ok höfuðs á e-m, to pass between one’s trunk and head, to slay one.

bols-vöxtr, m. = bolvöxtr.

bolungr, m. = bulungr.

bol-vöxtr, m. the growth, form of the body (far þú af klæðum ok vil ek sjá vöxt þinn).

bol-øx, f. woodaxe.

bops, n. bump, thump (mikit fall, svá at b. kvað í skrokkinum).

bora, f. bore, hole; bora (), v. to bore, to bore holes in; b. rauf, to bore a hole; refl., borast fram, to push one’s way through a crowd.

borð, n. (1) board, plank; (2) the side of a ship (hlóðu skipin sem b. báru); borð á stjórn = stjórnborði; hlaupa (steypast, detta) fyrir b., overboard; mikill borði, prop. = borðhár, borðmikill, of a ship floating high out of the sea, fig., proud of mind (= skapstórr); bera e-n (hlut e-s, mál e-s) fyrir borð, to neglect, slight one; verða (allr) fyrir borð borinn, verða allr fyrir borði, to be (quite) thrown overboard, i.e. slighted; ganga at borði við e-n, to submit, yield to, to come to terms with one; e-n brestr á borði, one fails, is beaten; á annat borð, on the other hand; otherwise, else; þykkir vera harðr á annat b., a hard one to pull against; (3) the inner margin of a vessel between the rim and the liquid (er nú gott berandi b. á horninu); (4) board, table (used for meals); fara, ganga, koma til borðs or undir b., to go, come to table; setjast yfir b., undir b., to sit down at table; sitja yfir b. or borðum, to sit at table; rísa (standa upp) frá borði, to rise from table; ryðja b., to clear the table; þjóna fyrir borðum, to wait at table; setja e-m b., to set a table before one; borð eru uppi or upp tekin, the tables are set up; but ‘borð eru upp tekin’ may also mean the tables are removed, = borð eru ofan; (4) board, food, maintenance at table (veita, halda e-m b.); (5) chessboard; bjóða e-m undir b., to invite one to play at chess.

borða (), v. (1) to sit down at table; (2) to set a table, serve up (b. fyrir þurftugum).

borða-hríð, f. the time that a meal lasts; -munr, m. difference in the height of ships; -stund, f. = -hríð; -víti, n. table-sconce.

borð-búnaðr, m. table-service (cloth, dishes, &c.); -diskr, m. dish, plate; -dúkr, m. tablecloth; -fastr, a. maintained at one’s table; -fjöl, f. thin board; fœri, n. in the phrase, taka sér fœri = ganga ørna sinna (1); hald, n. taking, food, maintenance at table; hár, a. rising high out of the sea (of a ship); hús, n. a room where the plate is kept; hæð, f. the heighit of a ship out of the water.

borði, m. textile fabric, tapestry (tjalda höll, kirkju, borða) slá borða, rekja borða, to weave; sitja við borða, to sit weaving; byrða et á borða, to ornament tapestry with figures woven in it.

borð-ker, n. a cup used at table; -kista, f. a box for keeping the table service; -klerkr, m. clerical attendant at table; -knífr, m. table knife; -lægr, a., (viðr, timber) fit for cutting into planks; -maðr, m. table-companion; -mikill, a. = -hár; -munr, m. = borðamunr; -prestr, m. a priest who says grace at a bishop’s table; -prýði, f. ornaments of a table; -sálmr, m. ‘boardpsalm’, grace; -skutill, m. a small movable table, esp. for a single person.

borðs-tilganga, f. going to table (at mealtimes).

borð-stokkr, m. gunwale.

borð-sveinn, m. attendant at table, waiter; -tafl, n. chessboard; -veggr, m. a plank wall; -vegr, m. = -stokkr; -vers, n. verse of grace (cf. borðsálmr); -viðr, m. boards, planks; -þak, n. covering of planks; -þakiðr, pp. covered, lined with planks; -þili, n. the bulwarks of a ship.

borg (-ar, -ir), f. (1) a small dome-shaped hill; (2) stronghold, fortification, castle; (3) fortified town, city.

borga (), v. to be a surety, guarantee, for; b. e-m e-t, to guarantee something to one; b. fyrir en, to become bound for, to be security for (anza ek lítt, þóti þú játir at lúka, ef engi borgar fyrir þik).

borgan, f. guarantee, surety, security; ganga í b. fyrir en = borga fyrir en.

borganar-maðr, m. a guarantee, a surety.

borgar-armr, m. arm, wing of a fort; -auðn, f. destruction of a castle or fortified town; -gata, f. a road leaving to a borg; -greifi, m. burggrave, governor of a town; -gørð, f. building of a fort; -hlið, n. gate of a fort; -hreysi, n. ruins of a fort; -höfðingi, m. leading citizen.

borgari, m. inhabitant of a borg, burgher.

borgar-klettr, m. a rock on which a fort is built; -kona, f. townswoman; -lið, n. garrison; -lím, n. lime for building a fort; -lýðr, m. townsfolk; -maðr, m. (1) garrisoner; (2) townsman, citizen; (3) fellowcitizen (maðr engla); -múgr, m. the mob of a city; -múrr, m. city-wall; -port, n. = -hlið; -siðr, m. citymanners, urbanity; -smíð, f. building of a fort or town; -staðr, m. site of a town; -veggr, m. wall of a fort or town.

borga-skipan, f. a list of cities.

borg-firzkr, a. belonging to the district Borgarfjörðr, in the west of Iceland.

borg-hlið, f. = borgarhlið.

borgin-orðr, a. cautious in words, reserved.

borgit, pp. n., from bjarga; e-m er b., one is safe; era hera at borgnara þótt hœna beri skjöld, a hare is none the better off than a hen shield him.

borg-staðr, m. = borgarstaðr.

borg-veggr, m. = borgarveggr.

botn (gen. botns or botz, pl. botnar), m. (1) bottom (of a vessel, of a haycock, of the sea); (2) the head of a bay, firth, lake, valley (fjarðar-, vatns-, dals-botn).

botn-hola, f. pit, in the phrase, vera kominn í -holu, to have got into a scrape.

bóandi, m., see ‘búandi’.

bófi, m. knave, rogue, used as a nickname.

bógr (gen. bógar, dat. bœgi; pl. bœgir, acc. bógu), m. shoulder (of an animal).

bók (gen. bókar and bœkr; pl. bœkr), f. (1) beech, beechtree; (2) poet. textile fabric with figures woven in it (bœkr þínar enar bláhvítu); (3) book; lesa á b., to read a book; rita á b., setja á bœkr, to set down in writing, to put on record; kunna (festa) et útan bókar, to know (to get) by heart; heilög b., the divine book, the Bible; (4) the gospel (vinna eið at bók; cf. ‘bókareiðr’); (5) Latin; kenna e-m á bók, to teach one Latin; nema á b., to learn Latin; setja en til bókar, to put one to school (in order to make him a priest); hann heitir á b. (in Latin) Jaskonius; svá segir (er sagt) í bókum (in Latin books); (6) lawbook, code of law (lögbók, Jónsbók).

bóka (), v. to affirm by oath on the book (Gospel); bókaðr eiðr = bókareiðr.

bóka-fullting, n. help derived from books; -gørð, writing (transcription) of books; -kista, f. book-box; -lán, n. lending of books; -lesning, f., lestr, m. reading of (Latin) books; -list, f. booklore.

bókar-blað, n. leaf of a book; -eiðr, m. oath upon the gospel; -eiðstafr, m. wording of a bókareiðr; -gørð, f. bookwriting; -lag, n. lawful price fixed in the code; -skeyting, f. conveyance of an estate by help of the Iawbook; -tak, n. the touching of the gospel (in taking an oath); -verð, n. the price of a book; -vitni, n. evidence confirmed by a bókareiðr (= bókat vitni).

bóka-skilningr, m. book-learning.

bóka-stóll, m. a reading, desk, lectern.

bók-fell, n. parchment, vellum; -fróðr, a. book-learned; -frœði, f. book-knowledge, book-lore, learning; -lauss, a. bookless, unscholarly; -laust, adv. by heart (allar ritningar helga man hann laust); -lestr, m. = bókalestr; -ligr, a. literary; ligar listir, the liberal arts; -list, book-lore, learng; -lærðr, pp. book-learned; -mál, n. (1) book language, learned language, Latin (á bók nam ek aldri ok eigi heyrða ek frá máli sagt); (2) the canon law; blót þau, sem fyrirboðin eru at máli, in the canon of the church; (3) the Justinian calendar; at máli, according to the calendar; -mánaðr, m. calendar month, opp. to the Icel. months; -nám, n. book training, study (vera at námi, setja en til náms); -næmi, n. = nám; -rúnar, f. pl. runes engraved on beechwood; -saga, f. written narrative; -setja (see setja), v. to commit to writing; -skygn, a. seeing well enough to read a book; -speki, f. book-wisdom, book-knowledge; -stafr, m. character, letter; -sögn, f. = -saga; -tal, n. = -mál 3; -vit, n. learning, erudition; -víss, a. = -lærðr.

ból, n. (1) lair or lying place (of beasts and cattle); (2) couch, bed (tóku sumir heyhjálma nökkura ok gerðúu sér af b.); (3) farm, esp. in Norway, = bólstaðr, bœr, jörð.

bóla, f. (1) the boss of a shield; (2) blain, botch.

ból-festa, f. estate held by a lease, leasehold.

bólginn, a. swollen; b. bræði, b. af reiði, swollen with anger.

bólgna (), v. to swell, become swollen.

bólna-sótt, f. (1) disease of blains or boils; (2) smallpox.

bólstaðar-gørð, f. the building of a homestead.

ból-staðr, m. (1) abode, homestead (hón í þar staði mikla); (2) farm.

bólstr (gen. bólstrs, pl. bólstrar), m. bolster, pillow (hníga við bólstri).

bón, f. request, petition = bœn.

bónar-maðr, m. beggar-man.

bónda-bani, m. slayer of a woman’s husband; -dóttir, f. daughter of a bóndi; -eiðr, m. a bóndi’s oath of allegiance; -far, a bóndi’s ferryboat; -fé, n. district fund; -fólk, n. peasantry, farmers; -fylking, f. host of peasants; -herr, m. army of peasants; -hlutr, m. one fourth of the tithe to be distributed among the peasants; -kirkja, f. the church belonging to the bóndi in Thingvalla; -kirkjugarðr, m. the churchyard belonging to the kirkja; -lauss, a. husbandless, widowed; -lið, n. = -herr; -múgr, m. crowd, host of peasants; -nafn, n. the name, title of bóndi; -réttr, m. the right of a bóndi; -safnaðr, m. = bónda-múgr; -skapr, m. the estate of the bœndr, opp. to the clergy; -son, m. son of a bóndi; -tala, f., vera í -tölu, to be counted among bœndr; -ungi, m. young farmer; -val, n. the élite of bœndr; var þá gott val, there were choice bœndr to be found; -ætt, f. a bóndi’s extraction (hann er ættar).

bóndi (pl. bœndr, gen. bónda), m. (1) husbandman, farmer, peasant (dóttir eins lítils bónda); a yeoman, franklin, landowner (hinir stœrri bœndr); (2) master, head of a household (= húsbóndi); (3) husband (nú er b. dauðr, en kona lifir eptir).

bón-hús, n. = bœnhús (rare); -leið, f. begging path; fara leið, to go begging from house to house; -orð, n. (1) request, petition; (2) wooing, courtship; hefja, vekja orð, to make a proposal.

bónorðs-ferð, -för, f. wooing journey; fara -för, to go awooing; -mál, n. the business of wooing.

bón-ríki, n. importunity or persistence in begging.

bót (pl. bœtr, also poet. bótir), f. (1) bettering, cure, remedy; fá b. sinna meina, to get cure for one’s evils; ráða e-u b., ráða es bœtr, to remedy, retrieve; vinna e-m b., to relieve one (in sickness); bíða es b., to get over, recover (a loss, misfortune); bera et til bóta, to amend; þótti mikilla bóta ávant, at; much seemed wanting that; et berr til bóta (impers.), it is a comfort, satisfaction; (2) atonement, compensation, esp. pl. = mannbœtr, weregild; sœtar syndir verða at sárum bótum, sweet sins are turned to sore penance; (3) patch (svört bót var á millum herða honum).

bóta-lauss, a. without redress or compensation (hafa sár laust; vígin vóru laus); -maðr, m. a person who has to receive ‘bœtr’ for hurt and damage suffered (opp. to úbótamaðr); -verðr, a. worth redress.

bóti, m. boot (for wearing).

bót-lausliga, adv. irreparably; -lauss, a. irreparable; -sama (), v. to repair (sama um búðir, hús); -þarfa, a. indecl. needing ‘bœtr’ or satisfaction.

bót-leysi, n. ‘bootlessness’; lemja e-n til -leysis, past reparation.

braga (), v. to flicker, flash (of the northern lights).

bragar-full, n. toast, esp. at a funeral banquet; -laun, n. pl. gift for a poem.

bragð, n. (1) sudden or brisk movement; moment; bragðs, af bragði, at once; af (or á) skömmu bragði, shortly, quickly, in a short time; (2) fig., in many phrases, verða fyrri (skjótari) at bragði, to make the first move, to be beforehand with (þeir hafa orðit fyrri at bragði at stefna en vér); vera í bragði með e-m, skerast í b. með e-m, to lend one a helping hand; taka et bragðs or til bragðs, to take some step (to get out of difficulties); úviturligt b., a foolish step; úheyriligt b., an unheard of proceeding; gerðist þar at sví mikit b., at, it went so far that; lítit b. mun þá at (it must be very slight), ef þú finnr ekki; (3) trick, scheme, device, chiefly in pl.; beita en bröðum, hafa brögð við en, to deal cunninly with, impose upon; ferr at fornum brögðum, in the old way; búa yfir brögðum, to brood over wiles; leika e-m b., to play or serve one a trick hefir hann miklu bragði á oss komit, he has played a bad trick upon us; (4) countenance, look, expression þannig ertu í bragði sem, thou lookest as if; með betra bragði, in a better mood; bleyðimannligr í bragði, having the look of a coward; Sturla gerði þat b. á (made as if), at hann hefði fundit Pál prest; (5) embroidered figure (hekla saumuð öll brögðum).

bragða (), v. (1) to move, stir (þat bragðar alit, sem kvikt er); (2) to flicker, flash (of light).

bragða-drykkr, m. poisoned drink.

bragða-karl, m. sly fellow.

bragð-alr, m. ‘twirling awl’, a kind of fire-drill; bragðals-eldr, m. fire produced by a bragðalr.

bragð-illr, a. ill-looking; -ligr, a. expedient, suitable; -mikill, a. expressive-looking; -samr, a. crafty; -vísi, f. craft, subtlety; -vísliga, adv. cunningly; -vísligr, a. cunning.

bragnar, m. pl. poet. heroes, men.

bragr, m. (1) poetry, = skáldskapr; (2) the best, foremost (Ása bragr = Thor; bragr kvenna); most eloquent.

brak, n. creaking noise, crack.

braka (), v. to creak, crack (brakaði mjök í skipinu).

brakan, f. creaking, cracking.

brakki, m., brakun, m. intermediary, broker.

branda-dyrr, f. pl. main entrance, front door, so called because of the ‘brandar’ (ships’ beaks) fixed as ornaments over or beside it.

brand-gás, f. common sheldrake.

brand-krossi, m. the name given to a brandkrossóttr uxi.

brand-krossóttr, a. brindled brown with a white cross on the forehead.

brandr (-s, -ar), m. (1) brand, firebrand (brandr af brandi brennr); (2) ship’s beak (= svíri); fellr brattr breki bröndum hæri, the waves break high above the ‘brandar’; (3) ships’ beaks put up as ornaments over or at each side of the chief entrance of dwellings (brandana af knerrinum lét hann setja yfir útidyrr sínar); (4) the blade of a sword (brast sverðit undir hjaltinu ok fór brandrinn grenjandi niðr í ána).

brand-reið, f. gridiron, brander (steikja á -reið).

brand-øx, f. a sort of axe.

branga, f. (Hamðismál 20)?

brasta (), v. to bluster, swagger (þeir brasta illmikit).

bratt-gengni, f. skill in climbing; -gengr, a. skilful in climbing; -leitr, a. with prominent forehead; -lendi, n. steep ground.

brattr, a. (1) steep; brött brekka, a steep slope; brattar bárur, high waves; bera bratt halann, to carry the tail high; reynt hefi ek fyrr brattara, I have been in a worse plight; (2) sudden, = bráðr (brött fyrirætlan).

bratt-steinn, m. stone column.

brauð, n. bread; hleifr brauðs, a loaf of bread.

brauð-bakstr, m. breadbaking; -diskr, m. breadplate; -gørð, f. breadmaking; -hleifr, m. a loaf of bread; -járn, n. girdle, griddle (for baking bread); -kass, m. bread-basket; -laupr, m., meiss, m. bread-box; -moli, m. crumb of bread; -ofn, m. bread-oven; -skífa, f. slice of bread; -sufl, n. whatever is eaten with bread.

braukun or brökun, f. ? violent behaviour (b. berserkja).

braut (pl. brautir), f. (1) road (cut through rocks, forests, &c.); ryðja b., to cut a road; (2) as adv. away, either with or without the prep. ‘á’ or ‘í’ (fara, ganga, komast b. or á b., brauta; vera í b. or brautu; kasta e-u í b., hverfa í b., vera í b. or brautu). Cf. brott, burt.

braut, m. compds., see ‘brott’.

brauta-mót, n. meeting of roads.

brautar-gengi, n. help, furtherance.

brautingi (-ja), m. a wayfairer, tramp, begger; bráð eru brautingja erendi, the wanderer’s errand is urgent.

brá (gen. brár, pl. brár), f. eyelash.

bráð, f. meat, raw flesh; varmar bráðir, the corpses of the newly slain.

bráð, n. tar, pitch.

bráð, f. haste, only used in adverb. phrases, í b., soon, shortly, = bráðliga; bæði í b. ok lengðar, now and ever.

bráða-bugr, m., in the phrase, gøra -bug at e-u, to hasten to do a thing, do it without delay; -fangs, adv. at once, = bráðfengis.

bráða-hola, f. a hole where the wild beasts, carry their prey (bráð).

bráða-hrið, f. sudden storm.

bráða-lauss, without prey (haukar bráðalausir).

braðan, adv. soon, shortly, = brátt.

bráða-sótt, f. sudden illness, plague; -þeyr, m. sudden thaw.

bráð-dauði, m. sudeen death; -dauðr, a., in the phrases verða dauðr, to die suddenly; -endis, adv. of a sudden; -fara, a. indecl., verða -fara, to travel in haste; -feginn, a. exceedingly glad; -feigligr, a. rushing to death; -fengis, adv. suddenly, at once; -fengr, a. quick to act, prompt; -geðr, a. hottempered, hasty (-geð er bernskan); -gerr, a. matured early in life, precocious; -gerviligr, a. of early promise; -hættligr, a. most dangeous; -kallaðr, pp., verða -kallaðr, to die suddenly; -kjörit, pp. n. hastily chosen; -komliga = bráðliga; -la, adv. = bráðliga.

bráð-lauss, a. not pitched.

bráð-látinn, pp. = bráðdauðr; -látr, a. eager, impatient; -liga, adv. hastily, at once; -liga er, as soon as; -ligr, a. sudden (-ligr dauði); -litit, pp. n., gera -litit á e-t, to look hastily at a thing; -lyndi, a. hot temper, hastiness; -lyndr, a. hot-tempered, hasty; -læti, n. impatience; -mælt, pp. n. hastily spoken.

bráðna (), v. to melt, of snow, &c.

bráð-orðr, a. hasty of speech.

bráðr (neut. brátt), a. (1) sudden (b. bani); (2) hasty, hottempered; þú hefir verit hølzti b. (too eager, too rash) í þessu máli.

bráð-ráðinn, pp. hastily or rashly decided; -reiðr, a. very wrathfull; -ræði, n. rashness; -sjúkr, a. taken suddenly ill; -skapaðr, a. of hasty disposition (= skapbráðr); -skeyti, n. hastiness, rashness; -skeytiligr, a. rash; -skeyttr, a. heedless, rash; -sýnn, a. seen at a glance.

bráðum, adv. soon, shortly.

bráðung, f. haste; bráðungar þarf við, one must make haste; af bráðungu, in a hurry.

bráð-þroskaðr, pp. early matured or grown-up.

brá-hvítr, a. with white eyelashes.

bráss, m. cook? (tóku þeir brás Búðla ok brugðu til knífi).

brátt, adv. soon; b. er, as soon as.

breða-fönn, f. a great heap or drifted mass of snow.

bréf, n. letter, witten deed.

bréfa (), v. to give an account, to write (b. af e-u).

bréfa-bók, f. registerbook; -brot, n. breach of ordinances; -gørð, f. letterwriting; -maðr, m. letter carrier, public courier; -sveinn, m. letterboy.

bréf-laust, adv. without a written document.

bregða (bregð; brá, brugðum; brugðinn), v. with dat. (1) to cause to move (quickly); b. sverði, knífi, to draw a sword, knife; b. fingri, hendi í e-t, to put (thrust) the finger, hand, into; hón brá hárinu undir belti sér, she put (fastened) her hair under her belt; b. kaðli um e-t, to pass a rope round a thing; b. augum sundr, to open the eyes; b. e-m á eintal, to take one apart; b. sér sjúkum, to feign illness; (2) to deviate from, disregard (vér höfum brugðit af ráðum þínum); (3) to alter, change; b. lit, litum, to change colour, to turn pale; b. e-m í e-s líki, to turn one (by spell) into another shape (þú brátt þér í merar líki); (4) to break up, leave off, give up; b. tjöldum, to strike the tents; b. samvist, to leave off living together; b. ráðahag, to break off an engagement (wedding); b. boði, to countermand a feast; b. sýslu, to leave off working; b. svefni, blundi, to awake; b. tali, to break off talking; b. orrustu, kaupi, to break off a battle, bargain; (5) to break (b. trúnaði, heiti, sáttmáli); (6) b. e-m e-u, to upbraid, reproach one with a thing (Kálfr brá mér því í dag); (7) with prepp., b. e-m á loft, to lift one aloft; b. e-u á, to give out, pretend (hann brá á því, at hann mundi ríða vestr til Miðfjarðar); absol., b. á e-t, to begin (suddenly) doing a thing; b. á leik, to begin playing or sporting; Kimbi brá á gaman, took it playfully, laughed at it; þeir brugðu á glímu ok á glens, they started wrestling and playing; hestrinn brá á leik, broke into play, ran away; hönd bregðr á venju, is ready for its old work; þá brá Ingimundr til útanferðar, I. started to go abroad; b. e-u undan, to put it out of the way, to hide it; b. upp hendi, höndum, to hold up the hand; b. e-u við, to ward off with (b. við skildi); fig. to put forth as an example, to praise, wonder at (þínum drengskap skal ek við b.); absol., b. við, to start off, set about a thing without delay; brá hann við skjótt ok fór, he started off at once and went; (8) refl., bregðast, to fail, come to naught (þat mun eigi b.); b. e-m, to deceive, disappoint one (Gunnar kvaðst aldri skyldu b. Njáli né sonum hans); þeim brást frumhlaupit, they failed in the onslaught; b. brögðum, to play one another tricks; b. orðum, brigzlum, to upbraid one another; b. við, to make a sudden motion with the body (Hrútr brást skjótt við undan högginu); b. við fast, to turn sharply; b. á beina við e-n, to show hospitality towards; b. reiðr við e-t, to get angry at; b. úkunnr við e-t, to be startled at the novelty of a thing; (9) impers., e-u bregðr, it ceases, fails; svá hart, at nyt bregði (to drive the ewes) so fast that they fail to give milk; veðráttu brá eigi, there was no change in the weather; of a sudden appearance, kláða brá á hvarmana, the eye-lids began to itch; þá brá ljóma af Logafjöllum, then from L. there burst flashes of light; ljósi bregðr fyrir, a light passes before the eye; with preps., bregðr af vexti hans frá öðrum selum, his shape differs from that of other seals; e-m bregðr í brún, one is amazed, startled (nú bregðr mönnum í brún mjök); e-m bregðr til e-s, one person takes after, resembles another; en því bregðr mér til foreldris míns, in that I am like my father; þat er mælt, at fjórðungi bregði til fóstrs, the fostering makes the fourth part of a man; e-m bregðr við e-t = e-m bregðr í brún; brá þeim mjök við, er þeir sá hann inn ganga, it startled them much when they saw him come in; en þó brá fóstru Melkorku mest við þessi tíðindi, this news most affected M.’s nurse.

breiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to spread; b. borð, to lay the cloth on the table; b. fáðm, to stretch out the arms; b. út, to lay out for dryinig, as hay; b. út hendr, to stretch out the hands; b. et yfir en, to cover one with a thing, chiefly of the bedclothes.

breidd, f. breadth.

breið-dœlskr, a. from Broaddale; Breið-firðingr, m. a man from Broadfirth; breið-firzkr, a. belonging to Broadfirth.

breiðka (), v. to grow broad, to broaden.

breið-laginn, a. broadish; -leikr, m. broadness, breadth; -leitr, a. broadfaced.

breiðr (neut. breitt), a. broad; á breiðan, in breadth, = í breidd; standa breitt, to spread over a wide space; sitja breitt, with the legs wide apart.

breið-skeggr, a. broad-bearded, as a nickname; -vaxinn, pp. Broadframed stout, squarebuilt; -øx, f. axe with a broad blade.

brek, n. claim, demand (eru Brynhildar brek of mikil).

breka (), v. to keep asking (látum barn hafa þat er brekar).

brek-boð, n. fraudulent bidding.

breki, m. poet. breaker.

brekka, f. slope; leiða þræl í brekku (viz. þingbrekku), to proclaim a bondsman free.

brekku-brún, f. the edge of a slope; -megin, n. (1) strength to climb a hill; (2) the steepest part of a slope; -munr, m. difference in height.

brek-laust, adv. without fraud; -ráð, n. pl. an attempt at fraudulent acquisition; -sekt, f. fraudulent outlawry (in order to disable one from pleading his case); -vísi, f. importunity, importunate solicitation.

brenna (brenn; brann, brunnum; brunninn), v. (1) to burn with a flame (logi, ljós, eldr, kerti brennr); (2) to be consumed by fire (á Flugumýri brann fé mikit); nú breðr (= brennr) víðara en hann vildi, the fire spreads wider than he wished; b. inni, to perish by fire; b. upp, to be burnt up (á þeiri nátt brann upp allt Danavirki); hlutr e-s brennr við, one gets the worst of it; brann brátt þeirra hlutr við, it soon grew too hot for them; rautt mun fyrir b., mun nökkut fyrir b., things will brighten up or improve.

brenna (-da, -dr), v. (1) to burn (b. bál); (2) to destroy by fire (b. bœ, hof, skip at köldum kolum); b. e-n inni, to burn one to death in his house; b. e-t upp, to burn up; (3) to cauterize (as a surgical operation); b. e-n við bölvi, to burn one to cure his malady; b. e-m díla, to burn spots on one’s back; fig. to brand one’s back; b. e-m illan díla, to inflict a severe injury upon one; (4) to produce by burning (b. e-t til líms); b. kol, to burn wood for charcoal; b. salt, to produce salt by burning (sea-weed); (5) to purify (silver or gold) by burning; brent silfr, pure silver (eyrir brendr, mörk brend).

brenna, f. the burning of a house or person (þá er b. var á Flugumýri; Njáls brenna).

brenniligr, a. that burns well (eldr b.).

brenni-steinn, m. = brennusteinn.

brennu-maðr, m. incendiary; -mál, n. action for fire; -saga, f. the story of the buring (of Njál); -staðr, m. the place where a fire has been; -steinn, m. brimstone, sulfur.

brennusteins-logi, m. sulfur flame; -vatn, n. sulfur well; -þefr, m. smell of brimstone, sulfurous smell.

brennu-sumar, n. summer of fires; -vargr, m. an outlawed incendiary.

bresta (brest; brast, brustum; brostinn), v. (1) to burst, to be rent (steinninn brast); þá brast í sundr jörðin (the earth burst) undir hesti hans; (2) to break, snap, with a noise (brast í sundr boginn); (3) to crash, of the sound alone; þá brast strengr, they twanged the bowstring; (4) to burst forth (skriða brast); eldr brestr upp, fire breaks out; blóð brestr út, blood bursts out; (5) to rise, begin; flótti brestr, the ranks break in flight; bardagi brestr, the battle breaks out, begins; (6) impers., e-n brestr e-t, one lacks, falls short of (eigi brestr mik áræði); ef oss brestr á, borði, if we fall short, get the worst of it; þat mun aldri b. (it will never fail), at.

brestr (-s, -ir), m. (1) crash (varð þar við hár b.); (2) chink, crack (b. hafði verit á hringnum); berja í brestina, to excuse or cover up the faults; (3) want, loss (hvárt ábati eðr b. í varð).

Bretar, m. pl. the Welsh.

Bretland, n. Wales; syðra Bretland, Brittany.

bretta (-tta, -ttr), v. to turn upwards (b. hala sinn).

breysk-leikr, m. infirmity, weakness (líkamsins -leikr); -ligr, a. frail, weak (mannsins -lig náttúra).

breyskr, a. (1) brittle (b. leirpottr); (2) weak, infirm.

breyta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to change, alter (b. átrúnaði); refl., breytast; hafa þau eigi breyzt síðan, they have not changed since; (2) to vary; b. háttum, to vary the metre; b. hári sínu, to dress one’s hair; réttr ok breyttr, plain and artificial; (3) absol. to conduct oneself, do, act; munum við báðir í brott komast, ef við breytum svá, if we do so; b. eptir e-m, to imitate; b. til e-s, to attempt.

breyti-liga, adv. strangely; -ligr, a. strange; breyting, f. change.

breytinn, a. (1) variable; b. í búningi, fashionable in dress; (2) courteous, attentive (b. í öllum atvikum við konurnar).

breytni, f. change; gera b. á um e-t, to make an alteration in a thing; b. í klæðnaði, fashion.

brezka, f. the Welsh language.

brezkr, a. Welsh.

brigð, f. (1) right to reclaim (chiefly of landed property); fyrnist þá eigi brigðin, then the right of reclamation will not be lost; (2) n. pl. change (engi brigð mun ek hér í gera); kaupa et í b. við annan mann, to purchase a thing already bought by another.

brigða (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to try to recover (lost property) by lawful procedure (b. land, fé); (2) with dat. to annul, make void (b. kaupi, dómi, sáttmali); b. e-m frelsi, to revoke one’s liberty.

brigðar-maðr, m. reclaimer of lost property.

brigði, n. pl. (1) = brigð, f.; (2) = brigð, n. pl. (gera b. á e-u).

brigði-ligr, a. (1) variable; (2) corruptible, perishable (-ligr líkami).

brigð-kaup, n. void bargain; -liga, adv. variably; -ligr, a. = brigðiligr; -lyndi, n. ficklemindedness; -lyndr, a. fickle-minded; -meali, n. breach of promise.

brigðr, a. fickle, faithless.

brigð-ræði, n. fickleness, cunning.

brigðull, a. variable, inconstant.

brigzl, n. = brigzli.

brigzla (), v. to upbraid (e-m e-u or e-t) one with a thing; at honum sé því brigzlat, that it be thrown in his teeth.

brigzla-lauss, a. blameless.

brigzlan, f. reproach, blame.

brigzlanar-hlátr, m. reproachful or scornful laughter.

brigzli, n. reproach, blame; fœra e-m e-t í b., hafa e-m e-t at brigzlum, to upbraid one with a thing, to throw a thing in one’s teeth; eilíft b., everlasting reproach.

brim, n. surf (sker ok b.).

brim-dýr, n. poet. ship; -gangr, m. dashing of the surf.

brimill, m. a big, sort of seal, male seal; also as a nickname.

brim-lauss, a. surf-less, calm; -leysa, f. calm (smooth) sea; -leysi, n. = -leysa; -orri, m. a kind of duck; -rúnar, f. pl. poet. ‘surf-curbing’ runes; -sorfinn, pp. surf-worn (-sorfit grjót); -stormr, m. surf-raising gale; -svín, n. poet. ship, vessel; -tog, n. a rope to tug a boat through the surf.

bringa, f. (1) chest (hárit tók ofan á bringuna); e-m skýtr (or slær) skelk í bringu, one gets frightened; (2) brisket (of an animal).

bring-spalir, f. pl. = -spelir (acc. -spölu), m. pl. the ‘breast rails’, the lower part of the chest (bar sverðit a kviðnum fyrir neðan bringspölu).

bringu-bein, n. the breast-bone; -breiðr, a. broadchested; -sár, n. a wound in the chest; -teinar, m. pl. = bringspelir.

brík (-ar, pl. brikr), f. (1) thin board; (2) low wooden screen; (3) short bench, near the door.

bríkar-búningr, m., -klæði, n. covering for an altarscreen.

brími, m. poet. fire.

brímir (gen. -is), m. poet. sword.

brjá (brjáða, brját), v. to sparkle flicker, gleam.

brjándi, f. or n. flickering, gleam.

brjósk, n. cartilage (sem brjósk væri þar, sem bein skyldu vera).

brjóst, n. (1) the front of the chest, breast (hyl vel b. þitt); (2) woman’s breast; fœða barn á brjósti, to feed a child at the breast; (3) fig. the seat of the affections and emotions, mind, heart, feeling, disposition; mun han vera þrályndr í skapi sem faðir hans, en hafa b. verra, a harder heart mun hann optar mér í brjósti (in my mind) en þér; (4) the front (of wave or a battalion); (5) breastwork, protection (hann er sjálfr b. ok hlífiskjöldr kristni sinnar); vera b. fyrir em, to be one’s defender, to shield one; (6) vinna eið fyrir brjóst e-s, on one’s behalf.

brjóst-afl, n. strength of chest; -barn, n. a child at the breast, suckling; -björg, f. breast-plate; -bragð, n. compassion; -búnaðr, m. breast ornament, brooch; -drekkr, m. suckling, = spendrekkr; -fastligr, a. faihful; -fastr, a. fixed in the heart; -festa (-sta, -str), v., festa sér et, to impress on one’s mind; -friðr, m. peace of mind; -gjörð, f. saddlegirth; -gœði, f. compassion; -heill, a. having a sound chest; -kaldr, a. hostile; -kirkja, f. the heart; -kringla, f. brooch; -leysi, n. febbleness of mind; -megin, n. strength of mind or heart; -mikill, a. broadchested; -mœði, f. shortness of breath, weariness; -reiðr, a. enraged; -reip, n. breastrope, girdle; -samligr, a. = -fastligr; -stofa, f. front room; -sullr, m. a boil in the lungs; -sviði, m. heartburn; -vit, n. mother wit; -vitra, f. = -vit; -þili, n. front wall, = bjórþili; -þungt, a. n., e-m er -þungt, suffers from difficult breathing.

brjóta (brýt; braut, brutum; brotinn), v. (1) to break; b. fót sinn, to break one’s leg; b. tennr ór höfði manns, to break the teelh out of the head; b. mann um stein, to break a man on a stone; b. e-n í hjóli, to break on the wheel; (2) to break open (b. haug, búr); (3) to destroy, demolish (b. hof, skurðgoð, kastala); b. skip, to break one’s ship, be shipwrecked; (4) to break, violate, transgress (b. heit, lög); en þér konungr brutuð lög á Agli, you broke the law in Egil’s case; (5) to force, compel (b. menn til kristni); b. e-n til hlýðni, to force to submission; (6) in various fig. phrases; b. odd af oflæti sínu, to break the point of one’s pride, to humble oneself; b. straum fyrir e-m, to break the stream before one, to bear the brunt of battle; (7) with preps., b. af brúna, to break off the bridge; b. af við e-n, to wrong one; b. á bak, to force or drive back (b. fylking á bak); to neglect, disregard (b. á bak ráð e-s); b. niðr, to demolish, break down (b. niðr hús); b. niðr blótskap, villu, to put down, abolish; b. sik niðr við jörðu, to bow down to the earth; b. saman, to fold (b. saman skikkju); to unite (b. saman et forna lögmál ok nýja); b. sundr, í sundr, to break asunder (b. sundr silfrker); to unfold (clothes); b. (land, þjóð) undir sik, to subdue; b. upp, to break up (þeir brutu upp þilit); to force or break open (b. upp hurð, búr, kirkju, bréf); to unpack (b. upp gersemar sínar); b. upp vistir, to bring out the victuals (for the mess); b. upp vápn, to get out the weapons, prepare for battle; (8) refl., brjótast á e-t, to break in upon; Önundr brauzt á hurðina, tried to break in the door; b. á milli, to break out between; b. fram, to break forth; b. í haug, to break into a cairn; b. í e-u, to exert oneself in a thing; þessi maðr brýzt í miklu ofrefli, struggles against great odds; b. um, to make a hard struggle (björn brauzt um í vök); b. við e-t, to fight or struggle hard against; b. við ofrefli, to fight against odds; b. við borgargørðina, to exert oneself in making the burg; b. við e-u, to struggle against (b. við forlögunum, gæfu sinni); (9) impers. in a passive sense; skipit (acc.) braut í spán, the ship was broken to pieces; þá braut kirkju (acc.), the church was blown down; strauminn braut á öxlinni, the current broke against his shoulder.

brjótr, m. one that breaks, destroyer.

brodda (), v. to prick, goad, incite (broddaðr af óhreinsan).

broddhögg, n. a blow from a pike.

broddr, (1) spike; (2) a kind of shaft = broddör; (3) sting (of an insect); (4) prick, goad; (5) the front of a column or body of men, opp. to ‘hali’, the rear (b. fylkingar); (6) vera í broddi lífsins, to be in the prime of life.

brodd-skot, n. a shot with a shaft (broddr); -spjót, n. a kind of pike (the blade ending in a four-edged point); -stafr, m., -stöng, f. a (mountaineer’s) staff, pole, with an iron spike; -ör, f. a shaft with fouredgepoint, = broddr 2.

brokkari, m. cart-horse, trotter.

brokunar-maðr, m. an intermediary, a broker, = brakki.

brosa (-ta, -at), v. to smile; b. at e-u, to smile at; b. við, to smile in reply (Guðrún leit við honum ok brosti við).

brosa, f. smile (svara með brosu).

brosan, f. smiling, smile.

bros-leitr, a. with smiling face; -ligr, a. ridiculous.

brosma, f. a fish of the cod-kind.

brot, n. (1) breaking (cf. ‘skipbrot’); sigla til brots, to run ashore under full sail; (2) fragment, broken piece; (3) fracture (beinbrot); (4) a shallow place in a river or a firth; (5) lever; (6) spasm, convulsion, falla í brot, to have an epileptic fit.

brota-silfr, n. old silver broken to be recast.

brot-fall, n. epileptic fit; -fallinn, pp. epileptic, afflicted with epilepsy.

brotfalls-sótt, f. epileptic disease.

brot-feldr, a. = -fallinn; -geiri, m. an angular strip of land.

broti, m. heap of trees felled in a wood (fella brota).

brot-ligr, a. guilty of an offence.

brotna (), to break, be broken; skip brotnar í spán, the ship is broken to pieces.

brotning, f. breaking.

brott, adv. away, off, = braut, burt; also á b., í b. (fara b. or á b., hlaupast á b. or í b.).

brott-búinn, a. ready to start; -búningr, m. preparations for departure.

brottfarar-leyfl, n. leave to go away; -öl, n. parting banquet.

brott-ferð, f. departure.

brottferðar-öl, n. = brottfararöl.

brott-flutning, f. carrying off; -fúsliga, adv. with eagerness to depart; -fúss, a. eager to depart; -fýsi, f. eagerness to get away; -fœrsla, f. transformation; -för, f. = -ferð; -ganga, f. departure; -hald, n. going away (skip var búit til halds); -hlaup, n. running away; -hvarf, n. disappearance; -höfn, f. taking off; -kváma, f. coming away; -laga, f. retreat (after a seabattle), opp. to ‘atlaga’; -reið, f. ridingaway; -rekstr, m. driving away, expulsion; -sending, f. sending away; -sigling, f. sailing away; -sniðning, f. cutting, away or off; -söngr, m. divine service performed elsewhere than at the parish church; -taka, f., tekning, f. taking away, removal; -tœkiligr, a. removable.

brottu, adv., á b., í b., away = braut, brott (er vér vorum brottu; meðan jarl væri í brottu).

brott-varp, n. throwing away; -vist, f. absence; -visan, f. dismissal.

bróðerni, n. brotherhood.

bróðir (gen., dat., and acc. bróður, pl. brœðr), m. (1) brother; (2) friar.

bróður-arfr, m. a brother’s inheritance; -bani, m. the slayer of a brother; -baugr, m. weregild due to the brother; -bloð, n. a brother’s blood; -bœtr, f. pl. weregild for a brother; -dauði, m. a brother’s death; -deild, f. = -hluti; -dóttir, f. a brother’s daughter, niece; -dráp, n. the slaying of a brother; -gildr, a. equal in right to a brother; -gjöld, n. pl. = -bœtr; -hefnd, f. revenge for the slaying of a brother; -hluti, m. the share (as to weregild or inheritance) of a brother; -kona, f., kván, f. a brother’s wife; -leikr, m. brotherhood; -ligr, a. brotherly, fraternal (bróðurlig ást).

bróðursonar-baugr, m. weregild for a brother’s son.

bróður-sonr, m. a brother’s son, nephew.

brók (-ar, pl. brœkr), f. (1) one leg of a pair of breeches (ok lét hann leika laust knéit í brókinni); (2) breeches (but the pl. ‘brœkr’ is more common); vera í brókum, to wear breeches; gyrðr í brœkr, with breeches girt over one’s underclothing.

bróka-belti, m. breech-belt; -vaðmál, n. cloth (wadmal) for breeches.

brók-lauss, a. breechless; -lindi, m. waistbelt = brókabelti.

brugðinn, pp. (see ‘bregða’) accustomed to, versed in (b. við e-t).

brugðning, f. breach, violation, altercation (for the worse).

brugg, n. (1) brewing; (2) machination, scheming.

brugga (), v. (1) to brew; (2) to concoct, scheme; b. or b. saman svik, to concoct a fraud; b. em bana, to scheme his death; (3) to break (b. sáttmáli við en).

brugginn, pp. brewed (b. mjöðr).

bruggu-kanna, f. brewing can; -ketill, m. brewing kettle.

brullaup, n. = brúðlaup, brúðkaup.

brum, n. (1) bud; (2) point of time (í þetta brum).

brumr, m. = brum (í þenna brum).

bruna (), v. to advance with great speed, to rush (b. fram).

bruna-dómr, m. a sentence to be burnt; -flekkr, m. burnt spot; -hraun, n. burnt lavafield; -vegr, m. the torid zone; -þefr, m. smell of burning; -öld, f. the burning age, the (heathen) time when the dead were burnt (opp. to ‘haugs-öld’).

brund-tíð, f. the time when the ewes are ‘blœsma’.

bruni, m. burning heat, fire; fig., burning passion (b. öfundar, lostagirndar, heilagrar trúar).

brunn-lœkr, m. brooklet coming from a well; -migi, m. defiler of wells, fox.

brunnr, m. (1) spring; (2) well.

brunns-munni, m. the mouth or opening of a well.

brunn-vaka, f. an instrument to, get at water under ice or snow; -vatn, n. spring water; -vígsla, f. consecration of a well.

brú (-ar, pl. -ar, -r, brýr), f. bridge.

brús (), v. to bridge over (brúat var yfir dikit).

brúar-fundr, m. the battle of the Bridge; -gørð, f. bridgemaking; -sporðr, m. head or end of a bridge.

brúða, f. (1) doll, puppet; (2) chairpost; á brúðum stólsins var skorinn Þórr, Thor was carved on the chairposts.

brúðar-bekkr, m. the bride’s bench; -efni, n. a bride to be, bride elect; -faðmr, m. a bride’s embrace; -hús, n. bride’s chamber; -lín, n. bride’s veil; -stóll, m. bride’s chair.

brúð-bekkr, m. = brúðarbekkr; -fé, n. bride’s fee or gift; -ferð, -för, f. bride’s journey; -gumi, m. bridegroom; -hús, n. bride’s chamber; -hvíla, f. bridal bed; -kaup, n. wedding feast, bridal (at bjóða mönnum til kaups); -kaupligr, a. pertaining to a wedding feast (kaupligr viðbúnaðr).

brúðkaups-ferð, f. = brúðferð; -gørð, f. holding a wedding; -maðr, m. wedding guest; -veizla, f. wedding feast.

brúð-kona, f. bridesmaid; -laup, n. wedding, wedding feast; drekka, gera laup, to hold a wedding: gera laup til konu, to wed; ráða laup, to fix the wedding day.

brúðlaups-dagr, m. wedding day; -ferð, f. = brúðferð; -kláði, n. pl. wedding garment; -kostr, m. the cost of a wedding; -stefna, f. wedding meeting; -veizla, f. wedding feast; -vitni, n. marriage witness.

brúð-maðr, m. bridegroom’s man, bridesman; -messa, f. marriage service.

brúðr (gen. -ar, dat. and acc. -i, pl. -ir), f. (1) bride (konur skipuðu pall, ok var brúðrin döpr); (2) esp. pl. brides-maids = brúðkonur; sat Þórhalla milli brúða, Th. was seated among the bridesmaids = milli brúðkvenna.

brúð-stóll, m. bride’s chair or seat, = brúðarstóll.

brúk, n. a heap (brúkum in heaps); esp. a heap of seaweed (= þarabrúk).

brún (pl. brýnn), f. (1) brow, the projecting edge of a cliff or hill (cf. fjalls, heiðar, isbrún); (2) eyebrow; láta síga brýnn á nef fyrir brár, ofan fyrir augum, setja síða b. hleypa brúnum, to kni tthe brows lypta brúnum, hefja upp brún, to lift the eyebrows, become cheerful, brighten up; also impers., hefr em upp b., one brightens up; lypti þá mjök brúnum manna, therfaces brightened up; em bregðr í b., one is amazed.

brún (pl. brúnir), f. a kind of stuff.

brúnaðr, a. darkcoloured, brown.

brúna-mikill, a. heavybrowed; -síðr, a. having overhanging brows; -skurðr, m. cutting the hair straight across the brows.

brúnar-bein, n. pl. the bone of the eye-brow.

brún-áss, m. ridge-pole, ridge-piece.

brún-hvítr, a. white-browed.

brún-móálóttr, a. of mousegrey colour with a black stripe down the back (of a horse).

brúnn, a. (1) brown; (2) of polished metal, bright (beit brún egg).

brúnn, m. black horse.

brún-síðr, a. = brúnasíðr; -skarpr, a. light in the head; -völr, -völvi, -ölvi, a. frowning.

brúsi, m. buck, he-goat.

brú-steinn, m. pavement.

brydda (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to prick, goad; (2) to rough shoe (aka jó óbryddum á ísi hálum); (3) to show the point (bryddu upp ór þokunni kollarnir); (4) impers., af þessi gørð herra páfans bryddi (arose) svá mikla styrjöld, at.

brydding, f. bordering, edging.

bryðja, f. a sort of trough.

bryggja, f. (1) gangboard, gangway; skjóta bryggjum, to shoot out the gangway; (2) landingstage, pier, quay (lágu langskip konungs með endilöngum bryggjum); (3) rarely, bridge, = brú.

bryggju-búð, f. storehouse on a pier; -ker, n. a tub at a pier?; -lægi, n. landingstage; -mangari, m. shopkeeper at a Ianding pier; -sporðr, m. the head of a pier.

bryna (), v. = bruna.

bryn-brœkr, f. pl. war-breeches; -glófi, m. war-glove, gauntlet; -hattr, m., -hetta, f. war-hood; -hosa, f. war-hose, greave; -höttr, m. = -hattr, -hetta.

brynja, f. coat of mail.

bryrja (), v. to cover or arm with a coat of mail; brynjaðr, wearing a coat of mail, mailclad.

brynju-bítr, m. ‘mailbiter’, sword; -bönd, n. pl. cords to fasten the coat of mail; -hattr, m., -hetta, f. = brynhattr, brynhetta; -hálsbjörg, f. the neckpiece of a hauberk; -hringr, m. a ring of a coat of mail (hringabrynja); -lauss, a. without a coat of mail unprotected; -meistari, m. maker of coats of mail; -rokkr, m. military tunic (worn over the coat of mail).

bryn-klungr, m. a sort of weapon used in defending a besieged castle; -knífr, m. warknife; -kolla, f. a mailcap (worn under the helmet).

brynna (-ta, -t), v. to water, give water to (b. nautum).

bryn-stakkr, m. mailjacket; -stúka, f. mailsleeve; -tröll, n. a sort of halberd; -þing, n. combat (poet.); -þvari, m. a sort of halberd (= bryntröll).

bryti (gen. brytja or bryta), m. bailiff, understeward; konungs b., a steward on royal estates.

brytja (), v. to chop (b. mat); b. lið heiðingja, to put to the sword; b. niðr, to cut down.

brytjan, f. chopping.

bryt-skálm, f. chopper (kallar hann þat sverð brytskálm sína).

brýna (-da, -dr), v. (1) to whet, sharpen (b. ljá, kníf, sverð); (2) brýna upp skipi, to drag a boat or ships half ashore, put it on the ‘edge’ of the seaboard; (3) to egg on; b. hug es, to encourage.

brýni, n. (1) whetstone; (2) spaces (ekki hafa þeir salt við mat ok ekki brýni).

brýning, f. (1) whetting, sharpening; (2) fig. egging on, incitement.

brýn-ligr, a. = brýnn; er -ligt um e-t, it is promising, likely.

brýnn, a. prompt, ready; ef brýn féföng lægi fyrir, ready means; brýn sök, just, cogent cause; brýn vörn, a clear case for defence; b. byrr, straight, fair wind.

brýnn, f. pl., from ‘brún’; -brýnn, a. -browed (létt-brýnn, þung-brýnn).

bræða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to melt (b. jökul, snjó, ís); (2) to tar, pitch (b. skip).

bræða (-dda, -ddr), v. to hurry, make haste (nú seinkaða ek, en þú bræddir heldr).

braði, f. anger, passion; mæla et í b., in a passion.

bræði-ligr, a. meltable, fusible.

bræði-mæli, n. pl. angry language.

brækta (), v. to bleat (b. sem geit).

brœðra-börn, n. pl. first cousins (agnate); -dœtr, f. pl. nieces (of brothers); -eign, f. property of brothers; -garðr, m. monastery, = kórsbrœðragarðr; -lag, n. (1) fellowship as of brethren, = fóstbrœðralag (sverjast í -lag); (2) brotherhood, religious fraternity.

brœðralags-bréf, n. letter of (religious) fraternity.

brœðra-mark, n. the constellation Gemini; -partr, m. = bróðurdeild; -samnaðr, m. assembly (union) of brothers; -skáli, m. apartment for friars; -skipti, n. division of inheritance among brothers; -synir, m. pl. brothers’ sons, cousins.

brœðrunga, f. female first cousin.

brœðrungr, m. male first cousin (agnate); also = brœðrunga; hón var b. (she was first cousin) Asnýjar.

brœðrungs-barn, n. child of a first cousin; baugr, m. share of weregild due a first cousin.

brœklingar, m. pl. ‘breechlings’, a nickname of the Irish.

brögðóttr, a. crafty, cunning.

brögðu-liga, adv. cunningly, slyly (blekkja, svíkja e-n -liga); -ligr, a. crafty, sly.

brölta (-lta, -lt), v. to toss or tumble about.

bröstuliga, adv. boastingly; láta liga, to brag.

buðka-grös, n. pl. herbs kept in a box (for use in medicine).

buðkr, m. small box (originally a box to keep herbs and balsams in).

buðlungr, m. poet. king.

buffeit, n. buffet (slá em b.).

buffeita (-tta, -ttr), v. to buffet.

buga (), v. to bow, bend.

bugr, m. bend, curve; the bight (inside) of a ring (í bug hringinum); of the bent fingers (b. fingranna); the concave side of the sails (sá af landi í bug allra seglanna); a curve, disorder, of a line of men or ships (rétta þann bug, er á var orðinn flotanum); aka em á bug, aka bug á em, to make one give way, repel.

bug-statr, m. crooked stick.

bukka-skinn, n. the skin of he-goats; -vara, f. = -skinn.

bukkr, m. (1) buck, he goat; (2) battering ram.

bukk-skinn, n. the skin of a he-goat (cf. ‘bukkaskinn’).

bukl, n. the boss of a shield.

buklara-bóla, f. = bukl; -fetill, m. strap of a buckler.

buklari, m. buckler, shield.

bukram, bukran, n. = buckram.

bula (), v. to cut throgh, = bola.

bulr, m. = bolr.

bulungr, m. pile of logs, firewood.

bul-øx, f. = bol-øx.

bumba, f. drum (berja á bumbur).

bundin, n. sheaf (of corn).

bunki, m. heap, pile, = búlki (rare).

burða-munr, m. diference of birth.

burðar-dagr, m. birthday; -maðr, m. bearer, carrier; -sveinn, m. errand-boy; -tíð, f., -tími, m. birthtime.

burdeigja (), v. to capriole, of a horse (for. word).

burðr (-ar, -ir), m. (1) carriage, bearing, of the limbs or body (b. líkamans birtir hugskotsins ráð); (2) birth (frá Krists burði); of domestic animals, lambing, calving (þær kýr, er bezt búast til burðar); (3) fetus, the thing born, offspring (fíll gengr tvó ár með burðinum; hinn hæsti b. várr dróttinn J. Kr.); (4) pl., burðir, birth, extraction; heiðinn at burðum, heathen by birth burðir ok ætt, birth and kinship.

burðugr, of high birth.

burgeiss, m. burgess.

buris, m. borax (for. word).

burr (-ar, -ir), m. poet. son.

burst or bust, f. (1) bristle, bristles; draga b. ór nefi em, to draw a bristle out of one’s nose, to cheat one; (2) gablehead or ridge of a house.

bursta-kollr, m. bristle-scalp, an assumed name.

burstar-hár, n. bristly hair.

bursti, m. bristly hair.

burst-ígull, m. hedgehog.

burt, adv. = brott.

burt, f., in the phrase, riða á b., to ride a tilt.

burt-búningr, m. preparation to leave a place (vera í búningi).

burt-reið, f. riding a tilt.

burtreiðar-maðr, m. tilter; -vápn, n. tiltweapon.

burt-stöng, f. a lance for tilting.

busil-kinna, f. a woman with fat or chubby cheeks.

busl, n. bustle, commotion (þú váru goðin í busli miklu).

buss, m. box, boxwood.

bust, f. (1) bristle = burst; (2) a kind of fish.

busti, m. = bursti.

buza, f. a sort of merchant-ship.

, n. (1) household, farming; þat er bú, er maðr hefir málnytan smala, it is ‘bú’, if a man has a milking stock; gøra, setja, reisa bú, to set up a home for oneself; bregða búi, to give up farming; eiga bú við e-n, to share a household with one; fara búi, to remove one’s household; vera fyrir búi, to manage a household; búa búi sínu, to have one’s own household; búa úmegðarbúi, to have many dependants (unable to work); (2) the stock of a farmstead (sumir lágu úti á fjöllum með bú sín); drepa niðr bú, höggva bú, to kill or destroy one’s stock; (3) housekeeping; fá til búsins, to procure necessaries for the maintenance of the household; einskis þurfti í bú at biðja, there was plenty of everything; (4) farm, estate; fara milli búa sinna, to go from one estate to another; eiga bú, to own an estate; (5) home, house (reið Hrútr heim til bús síns); vera at or á búi með e-m, to live at one’s house.

búa (; bjó, bjoggum or bjuggum; búinn), v. (1) to prepare, make ready; b. skip í för, to make a ship ready for a voyage; b. ferð sína, to make ready for a journey (voyage); b. veizlu, to prepare (make preparations) for a feast; b. mál á hendr e-m, to take out a summons against one, be in a lawsuit; (2) to dress, attire, adorn, ornament; bjó hón hana sem hón kunni bezt, she dressed her as well as she could; sá þeir konur vel búnar, well dressed; b. beð, rekkju, to make a bed; b. öndvegi, hús, to make a high seat, adorn a house (for a feast); öll umgjörðin var búin gulli ok silfri, adorned (mounted) with gold and silver; vápn búit mjök, much ornamented; (3) to fix one’s abode in a place, = byggja (þegar munu jötnar Ásgarð b.); (4) to deal with, to treat; þeir bjuggu búi sem þeim líkaði, they treated it as they liked, viz. recklessly; Haraldr bjó heldr úsparliga kornum Sveins, used S.’s stores rather unsparingly; (5) to live, dwell (b. í tjöldum); þeir bjuggu þar um nóttina, they stayed there during the night; sá maðr bjó á skipi (had his berth) næst Haraldi; (6) to have a household (cattle, sheep, and milk); meðan þú vilt b., as long as thou will keep house; b. á or at, with the name of the place added in dat., to live at or in (hann bjó á Velli; Gunnar bjó at Hlíðarenda); (7) to be, = vera (skip þau öll, er á vatni búa); b. í skapi, brjósti e-m, to be, dwell in one’s mind (eigi býr þér lítit í skapi); sýnandi þá hjartaliga gleði, er í brjósti býr, that fills the breast; (8) to behave, conduct onself (bjuggu þeir þar fremr úfriðliga); (9) with preps., b. af e-u, to lose; láta e-n af baugum b., to let him be deprived of his riches; b. at e-u, to treat, = b. e-u (cf. 4); þeir höfðu spurt hvern veg Þórólfr hafði búit at herbergjum þeirra, how Th. had treated their premises; b. e-t fyrir, to prepare (þeir hlutir, er guð hefir fyrir búit sínum ástvinum); b. fyrir, to be present (hann ætlar, at Selþórir muni fyrir b. í hverju holti); b. hjá konu, to lie with a woman; b. í e-u, to be at the bottom of, = b. undir e-u (en í þessu vináttumerki bjuggu enn fleiri hlutir); b. með e-m or e-rri, to cohabit with; b. með konu, to lie with; b. saman, to live together (as husband and wife, as friends); to have a common household (ef menn búa saman); b. e-t til, to prepare, take the preparatory steps in a case (b. sök, mál, vígsmál til, cf. 1); b. til veizlu, to prepare for a feast; b. til seyðis, to get the fire ready for cooking; b. til vetrsetu, to make preparations for a winter abode; b. um e-n, to make one’s bed (var búit um þá Þórodd á seti ok lögðust þeir til svefns); Þórólfr lét setja upp skip sitt ok um b., he had his ship laid up and fenced round; kváðu nú Guðrúnu eiga at b. um rauða skör Bolla, said that G. would have to dress B.’s (her husband’s) bloody head; b. um andvirki, to fence and thatch hayricks; at b. svá um, at aldri mátti vökna, to pack it up so that it could not get wet; b. svá um, at (with subj.), to arrange it so, that; b. eigi um heilt við e-n, to be plotting something against one; b. um nökkurn skoll, to brood over some mischief (deceit); b. um grun, to be suspicious; b. um hverfan hug, to be fickleminded; gott er um öruggt at b., to be in a safe position; b. undir e-u, to be subject to, suffer, endure (hart mun þykkja undir at b.); eiga undir slíkum ofsa at b., to have to put up with such insolence; to be the (hidden) reason of, to be at the bottom of (þat bjó þar undir, at hann vildi taka ríkit undir sik); þér vitið gørst, hvat yár býr undir (what reason you have) at girnast eina útlenda mey; b. e-n veg við e-n, to behave or act so and so towards one; sárt býr þú nú við mik, Þóra, thou treatest me sorely; b. við e-t, to enjoy (þú býr við eilífa ást ok bíðr eilífra ömbuna); to submit to, put up with; ok mun eigi við þat mega b., it will be too hard to bide; b. yfir e-u, to hide, conceal; framhlutr ormsins býr yfir eitri, is venomous; lítill búkr býr yfir miklu viti, little body holds mickle wit; b. yfir brögðum, flærð ok vélum, to brood over tricks, falsehood, and deceit; (10) refl., búast, to make oneself ready, get ready (bjuggust þeir at riða austr); b. ferðar sinnar, to make oneself ready for a journey; = b. at fara (b. ór Þrándheimi; b. út til Íslands, b. á land upp); bjuggust þeir fóstbrœðr í hernað, they prepared to go on a freebooting trip; b. til bardaga, to make oneself ready for a battle; b. fyrir, to have one’s own household (þat þing skal sœkja bóndi hverr, er býst fyrir ok bóndanafn berr); b. um (= búa um sik), to make one’s own bed, to make oneself comfortable, to encamp (var hörð veðrátta, svá at ekki mátti úti um búast); b. við e-u, to prepare for a thing (b. við veizlu, bóði); b. (vel, kristiliga) við dauða sínum, to prepare for one’s death; b. við vetri, to provide for the winter; absol., b. við, to make preparations (nú ríða hér úvinir þínir at þér; skaltu svá við búast, get ready to meet them).

búa-grettur, f. pl. qutirrel between neighbours; -kviðr, m. verdict of neighbours; -kvöð, f. summoning of neighbours.

búandi (pl. búendr), m. = bóndi.

búand-karl, m. farmer (karl eða þorpari); -ligr, a. peasantlike, stout, sturdy; -maðr, m. = bóndi.

búa-virðing, f. a fixing compensation by verdict of neighbours (búar).

búð, f. (1) temporary dwellings booth; farmanna búðir, merchants’ booths; esp. of the temporary dwellings at the Icelandic parliament; tjalda b., to fit up a booth (with tent-roof and hangings); (2) abode, dwelling place; fara búðum, to change one’s abode; hafa harða, kalda b., to have a hard, cold abode.

búð (= búið, búit), used as adv., may be; b. svá sé til ætlat, may be, it will come so to happen; b. eigi hendi hann slíka úgiptu í annat sinn, may be he will not have such misfortune again.

búðar-dvöl, f. dwelling in a booth; -dyrr, f. pl. door of a booth; -gögn, n. pl. utensils of a booth; -hamarr, m. a rock upon which a booth is erected; -ketill, m. booth kettle; -kviðr, m. a sort of verdict given by the inmates of a booth; -lið, n. the inmates of a booth; -maðr, m. inmate of a booth; -nagli, m. booth-peg; -rúm, n. lodging in a booth (biðja, kveðja e-n -rúms); -sund, n. passage, lane between two booths; -topt, f. the walls of a (deserted) booth; -veggr, m. the wall of a booth; -verðr, m. = -vörðr; -virki, n. a fortification round a booth; -vist, f. lodging in a booth (hafa -vist með e-m); -vörðr (gen. varðar), m. (1) cooking, cookery; halda -vörð, to take care of the cookery; (2) food, meat; eigi hafða ek þína veðra mér til -varðar, the rams of my flock I have not eaten; ráða til -varðar, to prepare for a meal.

búð-seta, f. living in a cottage.

búðsetu-maðr, m. cottager (þeir eru búðsetumenn en eigi bœndr).

búðu-nautr, m. fellowinmate of, companion in, a booth.

bú-far, n. household condition; -fé, n. live stock, esp. the milch kine; -fellir, m. starvation of livestock; -fénaðr, m. = -fé; -ferill (pl. ferlar), m. mover of one’s household; -ferli, n. chattels belonging to a household; fara ferli sínu, to remove, change one’s household and home; esp. live stock; hafði hann með sér skuldalið (dependants, family) ok ferli (live stock); -ferski, n. domestic or household utensils.

búfjár-ábyrgð, f. responsibility for búfé; -eyrir, m. value in live stock; -fóðr, n. food for cattle; -gangr, m. = -hagar; -hagar, m. pl. pasturefields on an estate, esp. the homepastures; -hagr, m. condition of the live stock; -hald, n. keeping of live stock; -laust, a. n. without live stock (búa laust); -leiga, f. rent of live stock; -matr, m. food for cattle, stores of fodder; -vegr, m. cattle track.

bú-fœrsla, f. removing of one’s household; -föng, n. pl. household necessaries; -gagn, n. household utensil, = búsgagn; -garðr, m. farm (esp. a big one); -gørð, f. making a household in a place; -hagi, m. pasture; -hlífð, f. a saving of household provisions; -hlutr, m. an implement of husbandry; -höfn, f. pasture-field; -högg, n. slaughtering of cattle.

búi, m. (1) dweller, inhabitant, esp. in compds. (berg-, hellis-, ein-búi); helvítis búar, inhabitants of hell; himna búar, inhabitants of heaven, angels; (2) neighbour = nábúi (Steinólfr b. hans); (3) a law term, neighbour acting as juror; kveðja búa, to summon the neighbours.

búi-griðungr, m. bull kept at the mountain-dairy, opp. to ‘heima-g’; -maðr, m. neighbour-man.

búinn, pp. (cf. ‘búa’), (1) prepared, fit, adapted; ek em gamall ok lítt til b. at (little fit to) hefna sona minna; (2) b. at e-u, endowed with (at flestum íþróttum vel b.); (3) ready, willing; margir munu búnir at kaupa, ready, willing to buy; engir munu sínu sik búnari (more willing) til liðveizlu; with gen., b. þeirrar ferðar, ready to make that journey; (4) b. til es, við e-u, on the point of; hann var b. til falls, he was just about to tumble; var búit við váða miklum, there was an imminent danger; (5) svá búit, as matters stand, thus; eigi má hlýða svá b., it will not do thus, something else must be done; stendr nú svá b. um hríð, matters stand thus (unchanged) for a while; þeir segja Eyjólfi til svá búins, they tell Eyolf the present state of things; þér skulut ganga með vápnum, en berjast eigi svá búit, not fight as yet; at svá búnu, as matters stand (hann kvaðst ekki fýsast til Íslands at svá búnu); at present, as yet (þenna draum segjum vér engum at svá búnu); við svo búit, thus, things being so (þeir skildu við svá búit).

bú-karl, m. farmer, = búandkarl.

búk-digr, a. thickset (in body).

bú-ketill, m. large ketlle; -kostr, m. (1) household provisions, stores; (2) livelihood, trade (er þat búkostr þeirra ok skemtan at sœkja sjóinn); -kot, n. small farm, cottage.

búkr (-s, -ar), m. (1) body, trunk, esp. the trunk without the head; (2) belly, = kviðr.

búk-reki, m. skin or leather bag (for holding liquids).

bú-lag, n. joint housekeeping; -land, n. home land; -lauss, a. having no household; -leiga, f. rent of cattle.

búlka-brún, f. the estate of the ‘búlki’; -stokkar, m. pl. the bulwark fencing the ‘búlki’ in the middle of the ship.

búlki, m. cargo (stowed in the middle of the ship, cf. fyrir framan or aptan búlka); binda búlka, to bind bulk, cover in the hold; leysa (rjúfa, brjóta) búlka, to break bulk.

bú-maðr, m. (1) husbandman, farmer (-maðr sáði akr sinn); (2) = búsýslumaðr; -maðr mikill, a skilled, stirring, husbandman; -missa, f. loss in stock.

búnaðr-bálkr, m. the section of the law about household matters; -maðr, m. = búmaðr; -munr, m. = búningsmunr.

búnaðr (gen. -ar), m. (1) household, housekeeping; reisa, setja búnað = reisa, gøra bú, to set up a household; fara búnaði sínum = fara búferli, to remove one’s household; (2) equipment, dress, = búningr; (3) preparations (for a voyage, freebooting expedition, etc.); (4) = búningr 4.

bú-nautn, f., in the phrase, til nautnar, for household use.

búningr, m. (1) dress, attire; (2) equipment of a ship (reiði ok b.); (3) the dressing and arrangement of a table; (4) ornaments (kyrtill með búningi).

búnings-bót, f. improvement in dress; -lauss, a. without ornaments; -munr, m. deference in apparel.

búnyt, f. milk of sheep and cattle; -prestr, m. a priest having a homestead or farm.

búr, n. (1) women’s apartment; (2) pantry (búr þat er konur hafa matreiðu í); (3) storehouse.

bú-rakki, m. farmdog; -ráð, n. household management; -rán, n. a kind of robbery, theft (to the amount of three cows at least or three cows’ value).

búr-brot, n. breaking into a pantry; -dyrr, f. pl. pantrydoor; -hilla, f. pantryshelf; -hringr, m. the door ring of a ‘búrhurð’; -hundr, m. watchdog, at a storehouse; -hurð, f. the door of a ‘búr’; -hvalr, m. a sort of whale, cachalot (?).

bú-risna, f. munificent or hospitable housekeeping.

búr-lykill, m. pantrykey.

búrs-hringr, m. = búrhringr; -hurð, f. = búrhurð.

bús-afleifar, f. pl. remains of stores; búhlutir, m. pl. implements of husbandry; -efni, n. pl. household goods; -far, n. = búfar; -forráð, n. pl. management of household affairs, = búráð (taka til forráða = taka við búráðum); -gagn, n. = búgagn; -gørð, f. = búgørð; -hlutir, m. pl. = búhlutir; -hœgindi, n. pl. help towards keeping a household.

bú-sifjar, f. pl. relations between neighbours; góðar búsifjar, good neighborhood; var illa í sifjum þeirra, they were not on good terms as neighbours; veita em þúngar sifjar, to be a troublesome neighbour to one.

bús-kerfi, n. household utensils, = búferski.

bú-skjóla, f. milkpail; -skortr, m. failure of stores; -skylft, a. n., hafa skylft, to have an expensive household.

búslits-maðr, m. a ‘bóndi’ without homestead (cf. slíta búi sínu).

bú-smali, m. cattle, esp. milch cows; -staðr, m. dwelling place, abode; taka sér stað, to fix one’s abode.

bús-tilskipan, f. settling of a household.

bú-stjórn, f. management of household affairs; -stýra, f. a female housekeeper.

bús-umsvif, n. pl. household cares; -umsýsla, f. managment of a ‘bú’.

bú-sýsla, f. household business.

búsýslu-maðr, m. = búmaðr (-maðr mikill).

bú-verk, n. dairy work (milking, churning and the like); -þegn, m. husbandman (bœndr ok þegnar); illr þegn, a bad (evil) husbandman.

bygð, f. (1) colonization (frá Íslands b.); (2) abode, habitation; setja, hefja b. sína e-s staðar, to fix one’s abode in a place; fœra b. sína, to remove; banna (lofa, leyfa) e-m b., to forbid (allow) one to settle in a place; (3) inhabited land or district, opp. to ‘úbygðir’, deserts.

bygðar-fleygr, -fleyttr, a. rumoured through the district; -lag, n. district, neighbourhood; taka sér -lag í e-m stað, to settle in a place.

bygðarlags-maðr, m. inhabitant of a district.

bygðar-land, n. land for settling on; taka sér -land e-s staðar, to settle in a place; -leyfi, n. leave to settle; -lýðr, m., -menn, m. pl. inhabitants of a district; -rómr, m. rumour going about in the neighbourhood; -stefna, f. district-meeting.

bygð-fleygr, -fleyttr, a. = bygðarfleyttr.

bygg, n. barley; -brauð, n. barley-bread; -hjálmr, m. barley-rick; -hlaða, f. barley-barn; -hleifr, m. barley-loaf; -hús, n. = -hlaða.

-byggi (pl. -byggjar), m. inhabitant; only in plur. compds. (fram-, aptur-, stafn-, Eyr-byggjar).

byggiligr, a. habitable.

bygging, f. letting out land for rent (b. jarðar).

byggja (-ða, -ðr), v., older form byggva; (1) to settle in a place, as colonist; sumar þat, er þeir Ingólfr fóru at b. Ísland, when I went out to settle in Iceland; Ingólfr bygði fyrstr landit, was the first settler; absol., Helgi bygði norðr í Eyjafirði, settled in E.; (2) to people (eptir Nóaflóð lifðu átta menn, er bygðu heiminn); Ísland bygðist (was peopled) ór Norvegi; (3) to inhabit, live in a country (þá er landit hafði sex tigi vetra bygt verit); þess get ek, at menn byggi húsit, that the house is inhabited; b. bœ, to settle on a farm (hann bygði bœ þann er í Eyju heitir); absol., kona, er bygði (lived) í einum afdal; hvar byggir þú, where dwellest thou?; (4) to dwell in, occupy (b. höll, helli); b. eina sæng, to share the same bed (of a niarried couple; also absol., b. með erri); bygði hann í skipum, he dwelt (lived) in ships.

byggja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to let out (konungr má b. almenning hverjum sem hann vill); nú byggir maðr dýrra (lets out at a higher rent) en vandi hefir á verit; (2) to lend money at interest (engi skal b. dautt fé á leigu); Hrútr bygði allt féit, H. put all the money out at interest; (3) b. frændsemi, sifjar, to enter into a marriage with a relation or one allied by by marriage (in such or such degree); þat var bannat at b. svá náit at frændsemi, intermarriage between so near relations was forbidden.

byggjandi (pl. -jendr), m. an inhabitant (borgin ok byggjendr hennar).

bygg-mjöl, n. barleymeal; -sáð, n. barley-seed.

byggva, v., older form for ‘byggja’.

bylgja (gen. pl. bylgna), f. billow.

bylgju-fall, n. heavy sea; -gangr, m. swells sea.

bylgna-gangr, m. = bylgjugangr.

bylja (bylr, buldi, bulit), v. to resound, roar (buldi í hömrunum).

byljóttr, a. gusty (veðr nökkut byljótt).

bylmingr, m. a sort of bread.

bylr (pl. -ir, dat. -jum), m. squall, gust of wind; þá er býlirnir kómu, when the squalls came along.

byrð, f. birth, descent (rare).

byrða (-rða, -rðr), v. to weave in (figures).

byrða, f. a large box or bin.

byrði, n. board (side) of a ship.

byrðingr, m. merchant-ship.

byrðings-maðr, m. a merchant seaman; -segl, n. the sail of a byrðingr.

byrðr (-ar, -ar), f. burden, load.

byrfall, n. dropping of a breeze.

byrgi, n. enclosure, fence.

byrging, f. (1) closing, shutting up; (2) close, conclusion, end.

byrgis-kona, f. concubine; -maðr, m. paramour; -skapr, m. concubinage.

byrgja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to close, shut (b. dyrr eða vindaugu); b. sinn munn, to shut the mouth; b. aptr húsit, to close the house; b. en inni, to shut one in (í húsum); fig. to outwit one (b. en inni fyrir vitsmuna sakir); b. et fyrir em, to exclude one from; b. en úti, to shut one out; b. et úti, to prevent, preclude (b. úti váða); (2) b. e-t með skömmu máli, to comprise it within a small compass.

byrja (), v. (1) to originate (ór himninum byrjast öll gœzka); (2) to beget esp. in pass., byrjast, to be begotten (á þeirri sömu nótt sem hann byrjaðist); (3) to enter upon, begin; b. ferð sína, to begin one’s journey; (4) b. mál es, to plead (support) one’s cause (ek skal b. þitt mál sem ek kann); b. rœðu, to deliver a speech (= flytja rœðu); hefir þú fram byrjat (stated) erendi þitt.

byrja (), v. impers. with dat. to behove, beseem; sem byrja (as it behoves) hlýðnum syni; sem þeim byrjaði at manntali, in due proportion to their number.

byrja (), v. impers., em byrjar vel (illa), one gets fair (foul) wind (byrjaði þeim vel um haustit).

byrjan-ligr, a. that is to begin.

byrjar-gol, n. gentle breeze.

byrla (), v. to pour out; byrlar hann í hornin he fills out the cups; with dat., to serve (a cup) to one (Snjófrið byriaði ker mjaðar fullt konungi).

byrlari, m. cup-bearer.

byr-leiði, n. favourable wind (fá gott -leiði); -léttr, a. gently blowing; -leysa, f. lack of a fair wind.

byrli, m. = byrlari.

byrligr, a. promising a fair wind (því at ekki er -ligt); ekki -ligr draumr, a bad dream; -lítill, a. faintly blowing with fair wind.

byrr (-jar, -ir), m. fair wind; e-m gefr vel byri (acc. pl.), one gets a fair wind; bíða byrjar, liggja til byrjar, to wait, lie by, for a fair wind; b. rennr á, a fair breeze begins to blow; b. tekr at vaxa, the wind freshens.

byrsta (-sta, -str), v. (1) to furnish with bristles; (2) to cover as with bristles; borg gulli byrst, with the gablehead mounted with gold; (3) refl., byrstast, to bristle up, to show anger.

byrstr, pp. set with bristles; fig. exasperated.

byr-sæll, a. lucky in getting fair wind; -vænligr, -vænn, a. promising a fair wind.

bysja (busti), v. to gush (busti blóð á brímis eggjar).

bytna (), v. to come to the bottom.

bytta, f. small tub, pail, bucket.

byttu-austr, m. baling (a ship) with buckets.

byxa (-ta, -t), v., b. sér, to jump (síðan byxti hann sér á sjóinn).

byxing, f. violent tossing.

, n. bee; -fluga, f. = bý; -flygi, n. = -flugur.

býfur, f. pl. clumsy feet; rétta b., to stretch out the legs.

býr (-jar, -ir), m. = bœr.

býsn, n. and f. wonder, portent (þetta eru stór b.).

býsna (), v. (1) to bode, portend (þetta býsnar tjón ok sorg); (2) b. skal til batnaðar, things must run to an extreme before they get better.

býsna-veðra, n. portentious weather; -vetr, m. a winter off portents.

bý-stokkr, m. bee-hive.

býta (-tta, -tt), v. (1) to deal out (býtti Hrafn silfrinu); (2) to exchange (býttum við jörðum okkar).

býti, n. exchange, barter.

bæði (n. dual from ‘báðir’, used as) conj., (1) b. … ok, both … and; b. vitr ok framgjarn, both wise and bold; b. at lærdómi ok vitrleik ok atgervi, both in learning, and wisdom, and accomplishments; (2) b. … enda, both … and also, and indeed.

bægi-fótr, m. ‘lame-foot’, a nickname of one who was ‘haltr’.

bæging, f. thwarting.

bæginn, a. cross-grained.

bægja (-ða, -t), v. (1) to make one give way, to fish, with dat.; b. skipi ór lægi, to push the ship from her moorings; b. heraðsvist, to remove from the district; honum bægði veðr ok bar hann til eyja þeirra er Syllingar heita, the weather drove him out of his course and he was carried to the Scilly Islands; (2) to hinder (ef eigi bægja nauðsyniar þeirra); (3) refl., bægjast við en, to quarrel or strive with one (þá vill hann eigi við þá bægjast).

bæla (-da, -dr), v. to consume by fire (brenna ok b.).

bæra (-ði, -t), v. impers., gekk áin undir þat þá er meirr bærði, when the waves (bárur) rose higher.

bæri-ligr, a. (1) able to be carried (-ligr á herðum); (2) fit, seemly.

bærr, a. entitled to; b. er hverr at ráða sínu, every one has a right to dispose of his own property.

bæsa (-ta, -tr), v. to drive cattle into the stall (= bása).

bæsingr, m. (one born in a báss), a child of an outlawed mother.

bœjar-biskup, m. town bishop; -bruni, m. burning of a town or farm-house; -bygð, f. town-district; -fólk, n. = -menn; -gjald, n. townrate; -lýðr, m. = -menn; -lögmaðr, m. town-justice; -maðr, m. (1) inhabitant of a town; -menn, townsfolk, townsmen; (2) citizen; -seta, f. dwelling (stay) in town; -starf, n., -sýsla, f. town office.

bœki-skógr, m. beech-wood (svín er ganga í bœkiskógi).

bœklingr, m. little book, booklet.

bœli, n. (1) den, lair; (2) farm, dwelling.

bœn (pl. -ir), f. request, prayer; er sú b. allra vár, at, we all beg, that; skaltu veita mér b. þá (grant me the request), er ek mun biðja þik; fella b. at e-m, til e-s, to entreat one; gera e-t at bœn e-s, at his entreaty or prayer; vera (liggja) í bœnum, to be at prayers; biðja b. sinni, bœnar sinnar til guðs, to pray to God; góðr bœna, ready or willing to grant a request (konungr var góðr bœna).

bœna (-da, -dr), v. to request, entreat, pray (b. e-n).

bœna-fullting, n. the support of prayers; -gørð, f. = -hald, n. (saying) prayers (H. gekk hverja nótt til kirkju til -halds).

bœnahalds-maðr, m. one who prays, religious man (-maðr mikill).

bœna-hús, n. = bœnhús; -kall, n. calling upon (God) in prayer; -kraptr, m. power of prayer.

bœnar-bréf, n. petition; -orð, n. pl. (1) entreaty, prayer; (2) wooing courtship; -staðr, m. (1) place of worship; (2) request, entreaty (þat er -staðr minn til allrar alþýðu, at); -tími, m. hour of prayers.

bœna-staðr, m. (1) = bœnarstaðr 1.; (2) = bœnarstaðr 2.; á því er mér -staðr, at, I beg, that; gera et fyrir -stað es, to do a thing at one’s intercession; -traust, n. confidence in one’s prayer or intercession (fela sik undir -traust e-s).

bœn-bifast (), v. refl. to be moved by prayers; -heyrðr, pp. willing to hear one’s prayers; (gørast -heyrðr við e-n); -hús, n. house of prayer, chapel; -rœkinn, a. diligent in prayer.

bœr (gen. bœjar, pl. -ir, dat. -jum), m. (1) farmhouse, farmstead; reisa, gøra, setja bœ, efna til bœjar, to build a farmstead; (2) farm, landed estate (nú búa tveir menn á einum bœ eða fleiri); (3) town; í bœ ok í heraði = í kaupangri ok í heraði; borgir ok bœir, castles and towns.

bœta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to better, improve (ár þær, sem mikit bœta landit); b. ráð sitt (to better one’s condition) ok biðja konu; b. aptr, to restore; b. at e-u, to repair; b. upp borg, to repair it; (2) to make up for, compensate; ef þér vilit eigi b. (make up for) þat er þér hafit brotit; b. glœp sinn syndir sínar, to atone for one’s crime, sins; b. e-m e-t, to compensate one for a thing (= b. e-t við e-n); Styrr vá mörg víg, en bœtti engi (viz. víg), S. slew many men, but paid for none; b. mann fé (dat.), to pay weregild for one slain (Hrafnkell bœtti engan mann fé); b. sál sína, to devote one’s efforts to the saving of one’s soul; b. um e-t, to improve a thing; ekki bœtist um, matters grow worse; b. yfir e-t, to make good again, redress; (3) to heal, restore to health; guð bœtti honum af þessi sótt, God healed him of his disease; with gen. of the disease; b. e-m sinnar vanheilsu, to restore one to health; refl., e-m bœtist, one gets better, is restored to health; with gen. of the disease (bœttist Búa augnaverkjarins).

bœtandi (pl. -endr), m. one who has to pay weregild.

bœttr, pp. (cf. ‘bœta’) atoned for; er mér ekki sonr minn at bœttari, þótt Bolli sé drepinn, my son’s death is none the more atoned for though B. is slain; ok er eigi at bœttra, þótt, things are no better though.

bœxl, n. shoulder of a dragon, flipper of a whale.

böð (gen. böðvar), f. poet. battle.

böð-frœkinn, a. valiant in battle, warlike.

böðvast (), v. refl. to become quarrelsome (böðvaðist at víni).

böggull, m. a small bag, bundle, a nickname.

böl (dat. bölvi; gen. pl. bölva), n. bale, misfortune (þá er bótin næst, er bölit er hæst).

böl-bœn, f. imprecation; -fengi, f. malice; -fenginn, a. evil minded.

böllóttr, a. ballshaped, round like a ball (böllótt eggskurn).

böllr (gen. ballar, dat. belli; pl. bellir, acc. böllu), m. (1) ball, globe (b. jarðar); (2) b. svínfylkingar, the front of a phalanx.

bölrann, n. house of woe; -stafir, m. pl. ‘evil’ runes, misfortune.

bölva (), v. (1) to curse, with dat. (2) to swear.

bölva-fullr, a. hapless, cursed.

bölvan, f. curse, imprecation.

bölva-smiðr, m. the contriver of mischief, Loki.

böl-víss, a. ‘balewise’, malignant, mischievious.

börkr (gen. barkar, dat. berki), m. bark (á berki ok á baðmi).

börr, m. a kind of tree; b. skjaldar, warrior (poet.).

börur, f. pl. = barar, barir.

D

dafla (), v. to dabble (splash) with the oars (þú skalt d. í árum).

dafna (), v. to thrive (hann nam at vaxa ok vel dafna).

daga (), v. impers. to dawn; eptir um morguninn er trautt var dagat, at early dawn; en dagar uppi, the day dawns upon one (of dwarfs and giants).

daga-kaup, n. daily wages; fara með -kaup, to work for daily wages, be a day labourer.

dagan, f. dawn, daybreak.

daga-tal, n. tale of days.

dag-bað, n. daily bath; -bolli, m. ‘daybowl’ (a vessal containing sufficient wine for a whole day); -drykkja, f. day drinking (beginning after the ‘dagverðr’); -far, n., in the phrase, fara -fari (dat.) ok náttfari, to travel day and night; -fasta, f. fasting by day; -fátt, a. n., in the phrase, e-m verð -fátt, the day is not long enough for one; -ferð, -för, f. day’s journey; -ganga, f. day’s walk; -langr, a. day-long, lasting all day (-langt erfiði); -langt, as adv. all through the day; -leið, f. day’s journey (fara fullum dagleiðum); -lengis, adv. all day long, = -langt; -liga, adv. daily, every day; -ligr, a. daily, occuring every day; -mál, n. pl. the time about 9 o’clock a.m.

dagmála-skeið, n., -tíð, f. = dagmál.

dag-messa, f. day-mess (held at ‘dagmál’); -mögr, m. ‘son of the day’, poet. man.

dagr (gen. dags, dat. degi; pl. dagar), m. (1) day; at kveldi skal dag leyfa, at eventide shall the day be praised; dagr kemr upp í austri, sezt í vestri, the day rises in the east, sets in the west; öndverðr d., the early day, forenoon; miðr d., midday; hallandi d., declining day; at kveldi dags, síð dags, late in the day; sannr sem d., true as day; í dag, to-day; á (or um) daginn, during the day; sama dags, the same day; annan dag, the next day; annars dag, another day; hindra dags, the day after, tomorrow; dag frá degi, hvern dag frá öðrum, from day to day; dag eptir dag, day after day; nótt ok dag, night and day; dögunum optar, more times than there are days, over and over again; á deyjanda degi, on one’s death-day; (2) pl., days, times; ef aðrir dagar (better days) koma; góðir dagar, happy days; (3) esp. pl., lifetime; á dögum e-s, um daga e-s, in the days of, during or in the reign of; eptir minn dag, when I am dead (gaf honum alla sína eign eptir sinn dag); mátti hann eigi lengr gefa en um sína dagi, than for his lifetime; ráða (taka) e-n af dögum, to put to death.

dag-ráð, n. (1) convenient time (for doing a thing); (2) leita raðs, to be an observer of days or times (menn skulu eigi leita ráðs at sýslu sinni); -róðr, m. day’s rowing; -sannr, a. plain (true) as day; þú segir sanna (= hit sanna), the obvious truth.

dags-brún, f. the first streak of daylight, daybreak.

dag-setr, n. nightfall (um kveld nær -setri).

dagsetrs-skeið, n. the time about nightfall.

dag-sett, pp. n., er -sett var, when the day was at an end, at nightfall.

dags-hald, n. the celebration of a day; -helgr (gen. helgar), f. hallowedness of a day.

dag-skemtan, f. pastime; -skjarr, a. shunning the daylight; -slátta, f. day’s mowing (= three quarters of an acre of grassland).

dags-ljós, n. daylight; -magn, n., at magni œrnu, in full daylight; -munr, m. a day’s difference (svá at mun sér á).

dag-starf, n. day’s work; -stingr, m. daybreak (rare); -stjarna, f. the morning star; -stund, f. (1) day light, a whole day; (2) an hour of the day; -stœtt, a. n. fixed as to the day (eigi höfum vér fundit stœtt, nær signaðr Thomas var kjörinn til erkibiskups).

dags-upprás, f. dawn, daybreak; -verk, n. = dagstarf.

dag-tíðir, f. pl. dayservice; -tími, m. the time of daylight.

dag-veizla, f. help to win the day.

dagverðar-borð, n. day-meal table (sitja, snæða, at -borði); -drykkja, f. the drinking, after dagverðr, = dagdrykkja; -mál, n. the time of the day-meal.

dagverðr (verðar, verði, pl. verðir), m. ‘day-meal’ (the chief meal, taken at the time of ‘dagmál’), = dögurðr; -villr, a. not knowing what day it is, = daga villr; -vöxtr, m. growth of a day; vaxa -vöxtum, to grow visibly day by day; -þing, n. appointed meeting, conference; -þinga (), v. negotiate (við e-n um e-t); -þingan, f. (1) negotiations; (2) agreement between parties.

dala (), v. impers. to become dented (dalaði ekki né sprakk).

dal-búi, m. = -byggi; -bygð, f. dale country; -byggi (pl. -jar), m. dweller in a dale; -land, n. dale-ground.

dalmatika, f. dalmatic.

dalr (gen. dals, dat. dal or dali, pl. dalar or dalir), m. dale, valley (djúpir dalir).

dals-botn, m. bottom (= head) of a dale; -mynni, n. mouth of a dale.

dal-verpi, n. little dale.

Dana-konungr, m. King of the Danes; -veldi, n. the Danish empire; -virki, n. the Danish wall.

Danir, m. pl. the Danes.

Danmörk, f. Denmark.

dans, m. (1) dance, dancing; (2) dancetune; slá d., to strike up a dancetune; (3) ballad (þeir gørðu um hann dansa marga).

dansa (), v. to dance.

danska, f. Danish (language).

danskr, a. Danish; dönsk tunga, the Danish (or old Scandinavian) language.

dansleikr, m. dance, dancing.

dapi, m. pool, puddle, a nickname.

dapr (acc. dapran), a. downcast, sad; of things, dreary (d. dagr, daprar nætr, döpr heimkynni).

daprast (), v. refl. to become faint; dapraðist honum sundit, the swimming became difficult for him.

dapr-eygðr, a. weak-sighted; -ligr, a. dismal, sad; daprlig ásjóna, a sad look; daprlig kona, a dismallooking woman; daprligir draumar, dismal dreams.

darr, n. spear, dart; darraðr (gen. -ar), m. = darr; vefr darraðar, web of spears, woof of war.

dasaðr, pp. weary and exhausted (from cold or bodily exertions).

dasast (), v. refl. to become weary and exhausted.

datta (), v. to throb; dattaði hjarta hans við, his heart sank.

dauða-bönd, m. pl. (1) bonds of death; (2) wrappings for the dead, winding sheet; -dagr, m. death day, dying day; -dómr, n. sentence of death; -drep, n. plague; -dreyri, m. blood of death; -drukkinn, pp. dead drunk; -drykkr, m. deadly draught; -dvól, f. delay of one’s death; -dœgr, n. death day; -dœmdr, pp. doomed to death; -fleinn, m. deadly shaft; -fylgja, f. ‘death-fetch’; an apparition boding one’s death; -jörð, f. hell, opp. to ‘jörð lifandi manna’, ‘udáinsakr’, paradise; -kraptr, m. deadly power; -kvöl, f. deathpang; -kyn, n. manner of death; -litr, m. colour (pallor) of death; -maðr, m. a man doomed to death; vilja hafa en at manni, to seek his life; -mark, n. sign of death; -mein, n. mortal disease; -net, n. the net of death (drauga net at em); -orð, n. = banaorð; segja -orð e-s, to relate one’s death; -pína, f. capital punishment (þola -pínu); -ráð, n. the planning of a person’s death, = banaráð; -róg, n. deadly slander; -skattr, m. tribute of death; -skellr, m. death-blow; á næsta dag eptir datt honum skellr, he was surprised by death; -skuld, f. the debt of nature (gjalda skuld); -slag, n. death-blow; veita e-m -slag, to strike one dead; -slig, n. deadly strain (of the muscles or tendons, of a horse); -snara, f. snare of death; -sonr, m. = -maðr; -steytr, m. = -slag; -stingr, m. deadly thrust; setja em sting, to kill one; -stund, f. hour of death; -svefn, m. deadly swoon, fatal sleep; -sverð, n. fatal sword; -sök, f. (1) cause of one’s death; (2) matter of death, a deed deserving death; -tákn, n. token of death; -útlegð, f. penalty of death; -verk, n. = -sök 2.

dauð-dagi, m. death, manner of death; -drukkinn, pp. = dauðadrukkinn; -fœrandi, pr. p. death-bringing, deadly (-fœranda gras, eitr).

dauði, m. death; taka dauða, to meet one’s death, die; d. ferr á e-n, one is surprised by death; draga e-m til dauða, to cause one’s death; sá vegr, er til dauða dregr, that leads to death; liggja fyrir dauðanum, to be dying or on the point of death.

dauð-leikr, m. (1) deadness, lifelessness; (2) the state of being mortal, mortality; -liga, adv. mortally; -ligr, a. (1) deadly, fatal (-ligr harmr, -lig synd, -ligt eitr); (2) liable to death, mortal (-ligr maðr).

dauðr (gen. dauðs), m. = dauði (drepa, brenna, e-n til dauðs).

dauðr, a. (1) dead; verða, vera, d., to become dead, die; falla niðr d., to drop down dead; ganga d., to reappear (of ghosts), = ganga aptr; (2) inanimate (dautt fé, opp. to ‘kvikfé’).

dauð-staddr, a. dying, at the point of death; -strá, n. pl., in the phrase, liggja á -strám, to be dying (cf. ‘líkstrá’, ‘nástrá’); -vána, a. indecl. = dauðvænn 2; -vænn, a. (1) deadly, fatal (-vænn drykkr); (2) sinking fast, past all hope; -yfli, n. lifeless thing, carcass.

dauf-heyrast (ð), v. refl. to turn a deaf ear to (við e-t); -heyrðr, a. turning a deaf ear to (við e-t); -leikr, m. slothfulness, sloth; -ligleikr, m. dullness; -ligr, a. lonely, dull (þótti honum daufligt).

daufr, a. deaf (dumbir ok daufir).

daunaðr, a., illa d., evil-smelling.

daun-mikill, a. having a strong (bad) smell.

daunn, m. bad smell, opp. to ‘ilmr’.

daunsemd, f. stench, stink.

daunsna (), v. to smell (sniff) at.

dauss, m. the two at dice, duece; kasta daus ok ás, to throw deuce-ace.

(dái, dáða, dáðr), v. to admire (dáðu menn mjök dans hans); refl., dást at e-m, to admire one.

, n. trance, senseless state (falla í dá, liggja í dái).

dáð, f. (1) deed; drýgja d., to do a daring deed; (2) valour, energy (ef nökkur d. er í þér); (3) merit, virtue (syndalauss ok allra dáða fullr).

dáða-fullr, a. deedfull; -lauss, a. voloptuous, sensual.

dáð-lauss, a. inactive, sluggish, spiritless; -leysi, n. dastardliness; -leysingi (pl. -jar), m. a good for nothing, worthless person; -rakkr, a. valiant, doughty; -semi, f. bravery; -vandr, a. virtuous.

dáendi or dáindi, n. (1) excellence; (2) admiration; (3) miracle.

dáleikar, m. pl. intimacy.

dáliga, adv. badly; -ligr, a. bad, evil; poor, wretched.

dálkr, m. (1) a pin (to fasten a cloak with); (2) dagger.

dámaðr, a. tasted flavoured (þat er dámat allíkt mungáti).

dámgóðr, a. well-flavoured.

dámr, m. flavour (illr d.).

dánar-arfr, m. inheritance from one deceased; -dagr, m., -dœgr, n. day of death; -fé, n. = -arfr.

dár, n. scoff; draga d. at e-m, to make game or jest of one, to ridicule one; cf. ‘dára’.

dár, a., scarcely used except in the neut., ‘dátt,’ (1) e-m verðr dátt við e-t, one is startled at a thing (við þau tíðendi varð honum svá dátt, sem hann væri steini lostinn); (2) e-m verðr dátt um e-t, one is pleased with a thing; svá var dátt með þeim, at, they were on such friendly terms that; gera sér dátt við en, to be very familiar with one; þá var nú í dátt efni komit, they had come to be good friends.

dára (), v. (1) to mock, make sport of one, with acc.; (2) to impose upon one; d. e-t af e-m, to cheat one out of a thing.

dára-samligr, a. foolish; -skapr, m. (1) scoff, mockery; gøra -skap at e-u, to make sport of; (2) imposition, fraud.

dári, m. fool, buffoon.

dáruskapr, m. = dáraskapr.

dá-sama (), v. to admire; -samandi, admirable; -samliga, adv. admirably, wonderfully; -samligr, a. admirable, wonderfull; -semd, f. (1) admiration; (2) marvellous glory; -semi, f. = -semd.

dási, m. sluggard.

dávænn, a. very pretty.

deging, f. drawn, drawing.

degradera (), v. degrade, dismiss (d. en af vígslu).

deig, n. dough.

deigja (-ða, -ðr), v. to make soft, to weaken.

deigja, f. servantmaid, dairymaid (deigja eðr önnur hjún).

deigr, a. (1) soft, of metal; (2) timid, cowardly.

deila (-da, -dr), v. (1) to divide into parts; sú á, er deilir með jötna sonum grund ok með goðum, that river which parts the giants and the gods; alit þat land, er vatnsföll deila til sjófar, of which the rivers form the boundaries down to the sea; vildi H. bæði kjósa ok d., H. would both choose and deal (viz. divide the catch in shares and choose for himself the share he liked best); láta en kjósa ok d., to give one an arbitrary power in a case; with dat. (hversu má keisarinn d. sér í tvá staði); (2) to deal out, apportion, allot; deildr hlutr, a share allotted to one; d. dögurð, mat á málum, to deal out portions of food in a household; d. víg með verum, to deal victory fairly among men; (3) to distinguish, discern, = greina; eptir þat sá sól ok mátti þá d. ættir, they could then discern the quarters of heaven; d. liti, to discern colours; eigi deilir litr kosti (acc. pl.), colour is no sure test of the quality; (4) to busy or occupy oneself with, deal with (engi maðr á önnur mál at d. í kirkju, nema biðja fyrir sér); hann við Ríg rúnar deildi, he capped ritnes (spells) with R.; d. orðspeki við e-n, to contend in learning with one; þótt hringbrotar heiptir deili, though men hate one another; d. kníf ok kjötstykki, to share knife and meat; (5) d. við e-n, to quarrel with one (d. við heimska hali); deili gröm við þik, may the fiends bandy words with thee; d. um e-t, to quarrel, contest about; þeir deildu um (they have a lawsuit about) jarðir; d. á e-n, to contend against one; d. illyrðum, illdeildum, to chide, abuse one another; d. afli, ofríki, við e-n, to deal harshly and overbearingly with one; impers., ef í þat deilir, if there be dissent on that point; ef í deilir með þeim, if they disagree; (6) to be master of, possess (d. bauga, fé); hug skaltu d., thou shalt control thy mind (feelings); þar er munuð deilir, when love is concerned, in a matter of love; (7) refl., deilast, to spread, branch off (svá viða sem kristni deilist um heim); meðan mér deilist lífit til, as long, as life is granted me; d. at e-u, to disagree about a thing.

deila, f. disagreement, contest; eiga, halda, deilu við e-n, to quarrel or contend with one.

deild, f. (1) dole, share; fara at deildum, to be parcelled out; fá illt ór deildum, to get a bad share, be worsted; í nökkuri d., partly; í aðra d., í þriðju d., secondly, thirdly; (2) quarrel, contest, litigation; leggja mál í d., to make a matter the subject of a lawsuit.

deildararfr, m. inheritance in shares; -lið, n. strong body of men that can be divided into detachments.

deili, n. pl. distinctive features; kunna, vita öll (engi) d. á e-u, to know all (nothing) about a thing; sá þó öll d. á. honum, all his features were visible.

deilir, m. one who deals out, distributor; bauga d., giver of rings; sverða d., warrior, hero (poet.).

deilis-steinn, m. boundary stone.

deilu-efni, n. matter of dispute; -gjarn, a. quarrelsome, contentious; -mál, n. quarrel; -vænligr, a. likely to lead to a quarrel.

dekan (pl. -ar), m. deacon, = djákn.

dekreta (), v. to decree (rare).

dekreta, f. decree (rare).

dengð, f., denging, f. the sharpening, of a scythe by hammering (cf. ‘lédenging’).

dengir, m. one who hammers or sharpens, a nickname.

dengja (-da, -dr), v. (1) to beat, to hammer; (2) to sharpen (a scythe) by hammering; (3) to egg on.

depill (dat. depli), m. spot, dot.

des (-jar, -jar), f. hayrick.

detta (dett; datt, duttum; dottinn), v. to drop, fall; d. niðr dauðr, to drop down dead; duttu þær ofan, they tumbled down; sauðfénaðr datt niðr unnvörpum (dropped down, died suddenly, in heaps) í megrð; spjót dettr ór hendi e-m, the spear drops out of one’s hand; dauðinn dettr á, comes on suddenly; datt norðanveðrit í logn, the north wind fell altogether; láta e-t d. niðr, to let a matter drop.

detthendr, a. a kind of metre.

dettiyrði, n. scoff, sneers.

dettr, m. thump (heyrðu þeir brest ok dett sem nakkvat félli).

dett-yrði, n. = detti-yrði.

deyða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to kill, put to death; (2) to make null and void (d. dóm); d. líkamliga löstu, girndir holdsins, d. sik, to mortify the lusts of the flesh.

deyðr, a. deserving of, liable to, death (dræpr ok d.).

deyfa (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to make deaf (daufr); impers., hann deyfi, he became deaf; (2) to make blunt (d. egg, sverð, vápn); (3) to soothe, allay (d. kvalar, sakar).

deyfð, f., deyfi, f. deafness.

deyja (dey; , dóum; dáinn), v. to die (deyr fé, deyja frændr); hann dó af eitri, ór sárum, he died of poison, from wounds; á deyjanda degi, on one’s dying day, on one’s deathbed of a limb (dó fótleggrinn allr); of inanimate things, dáinn arfr, an inheritance left to the heir.

deyna (-da, -t), v. to stink.

deyning, f. stink, stench.

digla (), v. to drip (diglaði niðr úr kyrtlinum).

digna (), v. (1) to lose temper (of steel); (2) to lose heart.

digr (acc. digran), a. (1) big, stout, opp. to ‘grannr’; d. sem naut, big as an ox; d. fótr, a big leg; hon gekk d. með tveim, she was big with twins; (2) thick, = þjokkr, opp. to ‘þunnr’; digrt belti, a thick belt; nautssíða feit ok d., a fat and thick side of beef; (3) of sound, deep (þat hljóð er digrara); (4) big, haughty; digr orð, big words, threats; gera sik digran, to puff oneself up.

digrast (), v. refl. (1) to grow big, of a pregnant woman; (2) to make oneself big, become haughty (eigi digrast hann eða drambar).

digrbarkliga, adv. haughtily, boastfully (láta, mæla, barkliga).

digrbeinn, a. biglegged.

digrð, f. bigness, thickness.

digr-hálsaðr, a. bignecked, = hálsdigr; -leikr, m. (1) bigness; (2) of sound, deepness, lowness of pitch; -liga, adv. haughtily (láta -liga); -ligr, a. big, haughty (-lig orð, andsvör); -nefjaðr, a. big-nosed, = nefdigr; -yrði, n. pl. big words.

digull (pl. diglar), m. (1) a hanging drop, drip; (2) crucible, meltingpot.

dik, n. run, leap; taka d., to take to running.

dikt, n. a composition in Latin.

dikta (), v. (1) to compose in Latin (d. ok skrifa bréf á Látínu); (2) to bring about, make; (3) to invent, devise, think out (hann gerir á sömu leið sem fjandinn fyrir honum diktar).

diktan, f. composition in Latin.

diktr, m. = dikt (rare).

dilkfé, n. ewes together with their lambs (dilkfjáreign).

dilkr, m. a sucking-lamb, kid, calf, pig (þótt kýr leiði dilka).

dilkshöfuð, n. lamb’s head.

dilkær, f. a ewe with a lamb.

dimma (), v. to make dark, darken; impers., um kveldit, er d. tók, when it begtin to grow dark; tekr at d. af nótt, the night comes on; refl., dimmast, to grow dark (er nótt dimmaðist).

dimma, f. darkness (d. nætrinnar); dimmu dregr á et, it begins to look gloomy, threatening.

dimmhljóðr, a. = dimmraddaðr.

dimmar, a. dim, dark, gloomy; døkkt ok dimmt ský, a dim and dark cloud; em verðr dimmt fyrir augum, one sees dimly.

dimm-raddaðr, a. deep-voiced.

dirfa (-ða, -t), v. to make bold; esp. d. sik or dirfast, to dare; dirfast til es or at e-u, to have courage for a thing; bœndr dirfðust mjök við Birkibeina, became bold, impudent; dirfast at gera et, to dare to do a thing.

dirfð, f. boldness courage.

dirokkr, m. drudge.

diskorda (), v. to disagree with (við en).

diskr (-s, -ar), m. plate, dish.

disputa (), disputera (), v. to dispute.

díar, m. pl. gods or priests.

díki, m. dike, ditch.

díli, m. spot, mark.

dís (pl. dísir), f. (1) sister (heitir ok systir d.); (2) a female guardian angel, goddess; (3) maid.

dísa-blót, n. a sacrifice to the dísir; -salr, m. hall (temple) of the disir.

dívisera (), v. to distribute.

djarf-leikr, m. boldness, courage; -liga, adv. (1) boldy; (2) certainly (þat væri -liga minn dauði); -ligr, a. bold, daring; -mannligr, a. boldlooking; -mæltr, a. bold of speech.

djarfr, a. bold, daring (d. í orrustum); d. ok dularfullr, impudent and arrogant.

djarftœki, n. boldness in taking; tœkr, a. bold in taking.

djákn (-s, -ar), m., djákni, m. deacon.

djásn, n. disdain.

djúp, n. (1) deep water, deep place; (2) the deep sea, deep (kastaði hann øxinni fyrir borð á djúpi); (3) pit (d. helvítis).

djúp-auðigr, a. very, rich; -hugaðr, a. sagacious, ingenious; -hyggja, f. sagacity; -leikr, m. depth; -ligr, a. deep, profound (-lig ráð).

djúpr, a. (1) deep (d. sær, djúp tjörn, djúpt vatn); d. höttr, a deep hat (coming down over the eyes); (2) heavy, severe (djúp laun ok ill); neut., djúpt, as adv., deep, deeply; leggjast djúpt, to dive deep.

djúp-ráðr, -ráðugr, a. deep-counselling, cunning; -ræði, n. deep-scheming; -settr, pp. (1) deep-laid (-sett ráð, orð); (2) deep, penetrating.

djúps-höfn, f. fishing-line.

djúp-sæi, f. deep-seeing, penetration.

djúp-sær, a. penetrating; -úðigr, a. deepminded; -vitr, a. deeply wise, profound, sagacious.

djöfla-blót, n. worshipping of devils; -flokkr, m. host of devils; mót, n. meeting of devils.

djöfull (dat. djöfli, pl. djöflar), m. devil; freq. as a term of abuse (taki þér djöful þenna).

djöful-ligr, a. devilish.

djöful-óðr, a. possessed.

djöfuls-kraptr, m. diabolical power; -prestr, m. priest of the devil.

djöful-œrr, a. = djöfulóðr.

djörfung, f. boldness, daring feat (þá djörfung þorði engi at gøra).

djörfungar-fullr, a. bold, audacious.

doðka, f. a kind of bird.

doðna (), v. to become insensible.

doðr-kvisa, f. a kind of bird.

dofi, m. torpor, numbness; dofinn, a. benumbed, dead, of limbs (d. er mér fótr minn); dofna (), v. to lose vitality or force, to become benumbed (eitrormarnir dofna af nætr kuldanum) to become dead, of limbs (dofnaði höndin); hugrinn dofnar, the mind gets heavy; impers., dofnar yfir e-u, the matter begins to die down.

doki, m. strip, shred (rísta blæjur í sundr í doka).

dokka, f. windlass.

doparr, m., doppa, f. knob, boss (of metal).

dorg, f. trailingline (þeir reru með dorgar sínar at smáfiski).

dottr, m. a poor, wretched creature (hestr er þeir kalla dott).

dólg, n. direful enmity; dólg-liga, adv. in a hostile manner (láta -liga).

dólgr, m. enemy, fiend; dauðir dólgar, ghosts.

dólg-rögnir, m. poet. warrior; -spor, n. gaping wounds; -viðr, m. = -rögnir.

dóma-dagr, doomsday, = dómsdagr.

dómandi (pl. -endr), m. judge, = dómari.

dómara-sæti, n. judgement-seat.

dómari, m. judge (dómarans er at sitja).

dóm-fé, n. fee or payment fixed by sentence; -festa, f. submiting to subpœna; -flogi, m. defaulter (from court); -hringr, m. ‘judgement-ring’; -hús, n. court-house; -kirkja, f. cathedral; -leggja (see leggja), v. to lay before a court; -ligr, a. judicial; -ligt atkvæði, judgement; -nefna, f. the nomination of judges.

dómr (-s, -ar), m. (1) opinion, judgement (d. um dauðan hvern); (2) judicial decision, decree, judgement, sentence; stríðr d., a severe judgement; réttlátr í dómum, impartial as judge; segja upp dóm, to pronounce (pass) sentence; (3) court (of judicature), the body of judges; ganga í dóm, to go into court, take one’s seat in court; setja dóm, to set the court, to let the judges take their seats; sitja í dómi, to sit in judgement or in court; nefna dóm, to nominate (appoint) the judges; sœkja mál í dóm, to prosecute a lawsuit in court; hleypa upp dómi, to break up the court by force; bera fé í dóm, to bribe the court; ryðja dóm, to challenge the court; mál ferr í dóm, a case goes into court; (4) state, condition; heiðinn d., heathenism; kristinn d., the Christian faith; (5) heilagr d., helgir dómar, relic, relics; (6) in compds., -dom, -head, -hood (guðdómr, Godhead, manndómr, manhood, konungdómr, kingdom, &c.).

dóm-rof, n. disregard of judgement; -ruðning, f. challenging of judges.

dóms-dagr, m. doomsday, day of judgement (á -degi, þá er guð kemr at dœma illt mannkyn).

dóm-seta, f. sitting in court, judgement; -setning, f. setting or opening the court.

dóms-maðr, m. judge; -orð, n. judgement, sentence.

dóm-spekt, f. acuteness of judgement, wise discernment; -staðr, m. a place in which a court is held; -stefna, f. summoning, citing; -stóll, m. judgement-seat, tribunal; -sæti, n. = -stóll; -sætr, a. qualified to sit in a court as a lawful judge (eiga -sætt); -varzla, f. the guarding of a court; -vörzlumaðr, m. a man who guards the court.

dóttir (gen., dat., and acc., dóttur, pl. dœtr), f. daughter.

draf, n. draf, husk.

drafl, n. idle talk, tattle.

drafli, m. curdled milk when cooked.

drafls-yrði, n. = drafl.

drafna (), v. to become rotten as draff (d. sundr).

drag, n. (1) the iron rim under the keel of a boat or a sled; fig., leggja d. undir ofmetnað e-s, to encourage one’s spirit; (2) an additional line to a stanza.

draga (dreg; dró, drógum; dreginn), v. (1) to draw, drag, pull; d. heim viðinn, to drag the logs home; d. árar, to pull the oars; absol., drógu þeir skjótt eptir, they soon pulled up to them; d. boga, to draw the bow; d. segl, to hoist sails (= d. upp segl); d. fisk, to catch, pull up fish with a line; d. kvernstein, to turn the millstone, to grind; við ramman mun reip at d., it will be pulling a rope against a strong man, i. e. it will be a difficult task; (2) to draw, inhale (d. úþefjan með nösum); d. nasir af e-u, to smell a thing; d. öndina, to breathe, live; (3) to procure, earn, gain (þegar hann hafði fé dregit sem hann vildi); d. e-m e-t, to procure (or get) one a thing (eigi sögðust þeir vita, at hann drœgi Haraldi ríki); (4) to employ as a measure (d. kvarða við viðmál); (5) to prolong protract (dvalir þessar drógu tímann); (6) to delay, put off, defer; vil ek þessi svör ekki láta d. fyrir mér lengi, I will not wait long for these answers; hann dró um þat engan hlut, he made no subterfuge; (7) to delineate, draw a picture (var dregit á skjöldinn leo með gulli); í þann tíma sem hann dregr klæðaföllin (the folds); (8) to trim or line garments (treyjan var dregin útan ok innan við rauða silki); with dat., hjálmr hans var dreginn leiri (overlaid with clay), er áðr var (dreginn) gulli; (9) intrans to move, draw; drógu þeir þeim svá nær (came so near to them), at; (10) with preps.; d. föt, skóklædi af e-m, to pull off one’s clothes, shoes; d. hring af hendi sér, to take off a ring from one’s hand; dró hann þá grunninu, he pulled them off the shallow; d. e-t af e-u, to draw, derive from a source; d. e-t af, to take off (Þ. hafði látit af d. brúna); d. e-t af við e-n, to keep back, withhold, from one; man héðan af eigi af dregit við oss, henceforth we shall no be neglected, stinted; Egill dró at sér skipit, E. pulled the ship close up to himself; d. vél at e-m, to draw wiles around one; d. spott, skaup, at e-u, to hold a thing up to ridicule; d. at lið, föng, to collect troops, stores; dró at honum sóttin, the illness drew closer to him, he grew worse; impers., dró at mætti hans, dró at um matt hans, his strength declined (fell off); til þess er dró at degi, till the day drew near; þá er dregr at jólum, when Yule drew near; dró at því (the time drew near). at hann væri banvænn; tók þá at d. fast at heyjum hans, his stock of hay was rapidly diminishing; svá dregr at mér af elli, svengd, þorsta, I am so overcome by old age, hunger, thirst; nú þykki mér sem fast dragi at þér, that thou art sinking fast; d. hring á hönd sér, to put a ring on one’s hand; d. (grun) á e-t, to suspect; d. á vetr, to rear through the winter (Hrafnkell dró á vetr kálf ok kið); impers., dregr á tunglit, the moon is obscured (= dregr myrkr á tunglit); dimmu þykkir d. á ráðit Odds, it looks as if a cloud was drawing over Odds’ affairs; dregr á gleði biskups, the bishop’s gladness was obscured; d. eptir e-m, to gain on one (Þórarinn sótti ákaft róðrinn ok hans menn, ok drógu skjótt eptir þeim Steinólfi ok Kjallaki); d. eptir e-m um e-t, to approach one, to be nearly equal to one, in a thing; um margar íþróttir (in many accomplishments) dró hann fast eptir Ólafi konungi; d. e-t fram, to produce, bring forward (d. fram athugasamlig dœmi); to further, promote (d. fram hlut e-s); d. fram kaupeyri sinn, to make money; d. fram skip, to launch a ship; impers., dregr frá, (cloud darkness) is drawn off; hratt stundum fyrir, en stundum dró frá, (clouds) drew sometimes over, sometimes off; dregr fyrir sól, tungl, the sun, moon is obscured by clouds or eclipse (tunglskin var ljóst, en stundum dró fyrir); ok er í tók at d. skúrirnar, when showers began to gather; d. e-ð saman, to collect, gather (d. lið, her, skip saman); impers., saman dró kaupmála með þeim, they struck a bargain; saman dró hugi þeirra, their hearts were drawn together; dregr þá saman or dregr saman með þeim, the distance between them grows less; d. e-t í sundr, to draw asunder, disjoin (vil ek eigi d. í sundr sættir yðrar); impers., dregr þá í sundr or dregr í sundr með þeim, the distance between them increases; d. e-n til e-s, to move, prompt, induce; engi ofkæti dregr mik til þessarar ferðar, it is not from wantonness that I undertake this journey; slíkt dregr hann til vinsældar, this furthers his popularity; ef hann drógi ekki til, if he was not concerned; d. e-t til dœmis um e-t, to adduce as a proof of; hann hét at d. allt til sætta (to do everything in his power for reconciliation) með þeim Skota konungi; impers., nema til verra dragi, unless matters turn out for the worse; with dat., þat samband þeirra, er þeim dregr báðum til bana, which will prove fatal to both of them; at hér mundi til mikillar úgiptu d. um kaup þessi, that much mischief would arise from this bargain; dró þá enn til sundrþykkju með þeim Svíum, the old feud with the Swedes began all over again; svá er þat, segir R., ef ekki dregr til, unless some unforesceen thing happens; d. e-t undan e-m, to seek to deprive one of a thing (þeir hafa bundizt í því at d. bœndr undan þér); d. et undan, to delay (drógu Skotar undan sættina); hví dregr þú undan at bjóða mér til þín? why dost thou put off inviting me to come?; d. rót undan (tölu), to extract the root; d. undan em, to escape from one (nú lægir seglin þeirra ok draga þeir undan oss); impers., hann (acc.) dró undan sem nauðuligast, he had a narrow escape; lítt dró enn undan við þik, there was little chance of drawing out of thy reach; d. e-t undir sik, to apropriate or take fraudulently to oneself (hafði dregit undir sik finnskattinn); impers., dró yðr (acc.) undir hrakningina, en oss (acc.) undan, you came in for hard uasge but we escaped; d. upp skip, to drag a ship ashore; d. upp segl, to hoist a sail (sails); d. upp fisk, to pull up fish with a line; impers., þoku dregr upp, fog is coming on; (11) refl., dragast, to draw oneself, move; d. aptr á leið, to remain behind; d. á hendr e-m, to gather around one; d. á e-t, to give a partial promise (Þorvarðr dróst á at ljá Sturlu sverðit, ok fórst þat fyrir); d. á legg, to grow up; þegar honum dróst aldr, when her grew up; e-m dragast penningar, one maks money; herr, lið, drengt e-m, troops gather round one; d. vel, illa, to do well, ill; dróst þá liðit mjök af kulda, the host suffered much from cold; þau drógust (they pulled against each other, fought) um einn gullhring; Sigvaldi dregst út frá flotanum, S. drains away from the fleet; d. við e-t, to become discouraged.

draga, f. only in pl. ‘drögur’, (1) timber carried on horseback and trailing along the ground; (2) metric term, repetition, anadiplosis (when a stanza begins with the last word of the preceding one).

dragi, m. trail or long line of laden horses.

drag-kyrtill, m. a trailing kirtle or gown; -loka, f. bolt; fig. loiterer; -máll, a. drawing.

dragna (), v. to drag, trail oneself along (hann dragnar síðan heim at búrinu); refl., dragnast = dragna.

dragna-hross, n. a horse carrying timber (‘drögur’).

drag-nál, f. bodkin; -net, n. drag-net; -reip, n. halyard.

dragsa (), v. to drag along.

drag-síðr, a. trailing behind (-síðar silkislœðr).

dramb, n. (1) arrogance (ofbeldi ok dramb); (2) pomp.

dramba (), v. to be haughty, behave with arrogance (d. við em, í móti em); d. af e-u, to pride oneself on; d. yfir sér, to boast; d. yfir em, to lord it over one, look down upon one.

dramban, f. haughty behaviour.

dramb-hosur, f. pl. a sort of ‘courtbreeches’; -lauss, a. unpresuming, modest; -látliga, adv. haughtilly; -látr, a. haughty; læti, n. haughtiness, pride.

dramblætis-kona, a. proud woman.

dramb-samliga, adv. haughtily; -samligr, a. haughty (samligr metnaðr); samr, a. haughty, proud; semi, f. haughtiness, pride.

drambsemis-andi, m. spirit of pride; fótr, m. a foot showing pride (hefja fót í mót em); hals, m. haughty person.

drambskapr, m. arrogance.

drambsmaðr, m. a haughty person.

dramb-vísi, f. = -semi; -víss, a. = -samr; -yrði, n. pl. proud speech, haughty language.

drangr (-s, -ar), m. a detached pillar of rock.

drangsteinn, m. = drangr.

drasill, m. poet. horse, = drösull.

dratta (), v. to drag, trail oneself along.

draughent, a. n. a sort of metre; hús, n. pl. ‘house of ghosts’, burial mound (poet.).

draugr (-s, -ar), m. the dead inhabitant of a cairn, ghost, spirit.

drauma-maðr, m. a great dreamer; -ráðning, f. reading of dreams; -skrimsl, n. dreammonster, phantasm; -vetr, m. winter of dreams.

draum-heill, n. divination by dreams; -kona, f. ‘dreamwoman’, one who appears in dreams; -ligr, a. dreamlike (-lig sjónhverfing); -maðr, m. a man who appears in dreams; -órar, m. pl. dream-fantasies.

draumr (-s, -ar), m. dream; eigi er mark at draumum, dreams are not worth noticing; segja em draum, to tell one’s dream to another; ráða draum, to read (interpret) a dream; d. rætist, a dream proves true; vakna eigi við góðan draum, to awake from a bad dream; em er draums, one dreams, is in a trance.

draumskrök, n. pl. dreamphantasm; spakr, a. skilled in interpreting dreams; speki, f. skill in interpreting dreams; spekingr, m. a skilfull interpreter of dreams; stoli, a. one who never dreams (cf. þat er eigi manns eðli, at hann dreymi aldri’); þing, n. assembly of dreams, poet. sleep.

drák, dráka, f. streak.

dráp, n. slaughter, killing.

drápa, f. a heroic laudatory poem with refrains in the central portion (contrasted with ‘flokkr’).

drápgjarn, a. bloodthirsty.

drápumál, n. a lawsuit concerning a drápa.

drápveðr, n. destructive gale.

dráttr (gen. -ar, dat. drætti, pl. drættir, acc. dráttu), m. (1) pull; (2) draught of fish; draught of a seine; (3) hesitation, = undandráttr.

dregg (-jar, -jar), f. yeast, leaven.

dregill (dat. dregli), m. ribbon.

dreginn, pp. of ‘draga’. (1) drawn, pinched, starved (hestar mjök dregnir); (2) long (of vowels).

dreglaðr, pp. furnished with ribbons, laced.

dreglahúfa, f. a laced cap; lið, n. soldiers decorated with ribbons = dreglat lið.

dreif, f. scattering; drepa e-u á d., to scatter about; fig. to throw or cast aside, to let drop; þeir drápu óllu á d. um þessa fyrirætlun, gave it up altogether; (2) string or chain (valrinn komst hvergi, því at dreifarnar héldu honum).

dreifa (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to scatter, disperse, with dat. (dreifðu þeir þá öllu liðinu); to strew (tak duft ok dreif á sárit); to sprinkle (d. vatni umhverfis stein); d. en blóði, to bedabble one with blood; reflex., dreifast, to be spread out; (2) to derive (d. orð af orði).

dreifing, f. scattering, diffusion; d. blóðs, effusion of blood.

dreift, adv. scatteredly; fara d., to march in loose order (of troops).

dreita (-tta, -ttr), v., in the phrase, d. en inni, to shut one up so as to force him to ease himself (drita) within doors.

dreka-hamr, m. slough of a dragon; -bœli, n. lair of a dragon; -höfuð, n. a dragon’s head on a ship’s prow; -líki, n. shape of a dragon; -merki, n. a banner bearing the sign of a dragon.

dreki, m. (1) dragon; (2) ship of war (bearing a dragon’s head as an ornament at the prow).

drekka (drekk; drakk, drukkum; drukkinn), v. (1) to drink (d. mjöð, öl, mungát); d. full, minni, horn, to drink a toast, cup, horn; d. drykk, to drink a draught (þú skalt d. af tvá drykki); d. brjóst spena, to suck; d. úmælt, without measure; d. fast (mjök), to drink hard; d. e-n af stokki, to drink one under the table; d. sér lítit vit, d. frá sér vit ilit, to drink away one’s reason; (2) to hold, celebrate a feast (d. veizlu, brullaup, erfi); (3) with preps., d. af keri, to drink out of a vessel (drukku þeir af einu silfrkeri); to drink off (empty) a vessel, cup (hann tók við horninu ok drakk af); d. á e-n, to drink to a person; refl., drekkast á, to drink to one another; impers., drekkr á e-n, one ships a sea; d. til e-s = d. á e-n; d. e-t út, to consume or spend in drinking.

drekka, f. (1) drink, beverage; (2) a drinking feast or banquet; Ægis d., the drinking at Ægir’s.

drekkandi, ger. drinkable (mátti hvergi vatn finna, þat er drekkanda væri).

drekkja (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to put under water, submerge, with dat. (d. skipi); drekktust þrjár snekkjur fyrir atróðri þeirra, were sunk; (2) to drown; impers., em drekkir, one gets drowned; (3) fig. to quell, suppress (d. kristninni).

drembi-liga, adv. haughtily.

drengi-liga, adv. bravely; -ligr, a. (1) brave, valiant; (2) generous.

drengja (da, dr), v., naut. term, to bind fast, haul taut to a pole (drengr).

drengjaval, n. a choice company of gallant men.

drengleysi, n. want of generosity, unmanliness; lundaðr, lyndr, a. nobleminded, generous; maðr, m. (1) = drengr I (2) bachelor, opp. to ‘bóndi’; mannligr, a. nobleminded, gentlemanly; menska, f. noblemindedness.

drengr (-s, pl. -ir, gen. -ja), m. (1) a bold, valiant, chivalrous man; d. góðr, a goodhearted, nobleminded man (auðigr at fé ok d. góðr); ekki þykki mér þú sterkr, en d. ertu g., but thou art a good fellow; drengir, en eigi dáðleysingjar, gallant men, and no fainthearts; at þú mættir drengrinn af verða sem beztr, that you might get the greatest credit from it; hafa dreng í serk, to have a stout heart in one’s breast; (2) a young unmarried man (drengir heita ungir menn búlausir, meðan þeir afla sér fjár eða orðstírs); (3) attendant (þeir heita konungs drengir, er höfðingjum þjóna); (4) fellow (lætr síðan sverðit ríða á hálsinn á þeim leiða dreng); (5) pole cf. ‘ásdrengr’.

drengs-aðal, n. the nature of a drengr; -bót, f. what makes a man the better drengr; -bragð, n. a brave or gallant deed.

drengskapar-fall, n. failure in drengskapr; -raun, f. test, trial of one’s drengskapr.

dreng-skapr (gen. -skapar), m. highmindedness, courage; falla með skap, to fall fighting bravely; með litlum skap, cowardly; þínum skap (manliness) skal ek við bregða.

drengsverk, n. a noble need.

drep, n. (1) bodily hurt, blow (þat er d. ef bein brotna); (2) killing, slaying, = dráp; (3) plague, pestilence, = drepsótt; (4) mortification, gangrene.

drepa (drep; drap, drápum; drepinn), v. I. with acc. or absol.; (1) to strike, beat, knock; d. e-n vendi, to strike one with a rod; hann tók hörpu sína ok drap strengi (struck the strings) til sláttar; d. járn, to hammer iron; d. or d. högg á dyrr, to knock at the door; d. botn úr keraldi, to knock the bottom out of a tub; at eigi drepir þú mik í dúp, that you knock me not into the deep; d. í hel, í dauða, til heljar, to smite to death; (2) to kill, slay (skulu vér nú fara at honum ok d. hann); (3) in a game of chess, to take a piece (þá drap jarl af honum riddara); (4) to produce by a blow or blows; d. eld, to strike, fire (= d. upp eld); d. slóð, to make a trail (drápu kyrtlarnir döggslóðina); (5) with prep., d. af, to kill, slaughter (cattle); d. niðr, to kill off (þótt hirðmenn þínir sé drepnir niðr sem svín); d. sik ór dróma, to get rid of (throw off) a fetter; d. til e-s, to strike, hit, at one; d. e-t undir sik, to knock or drag down (skaltu standa hiá, er fjándi sá drepr mik undir sik); d. upp eld = d. eld; d. e-t út, to divulge a thing; d. yfir e-t, to hide, suppress; drap hann brátt yfir (he soon mastered) harm sinn; (6) refl., drepast, to perish, die, esp. of cattle (fé hans drapst aldri af drephríðum); recipr. to put one another to death (þá diepast menn fyrir ágirni sakir); d. menn fyrir, to kill one another’s men; (7) impers., drepr honum aldregi ský (acc.) í augu, his eyes never get clouded; ofrkappit (acc.) drepr fyrir þeim (their high spirits break down), þegar haminjan brestr; drap þó heldr í fyrir honum, he rather grew worse, his eyes grew weaker; nú drepr ór hljóð (acc.) fyrst ór konunginum, the king became silent at once; þá drap stall ór hjarta hans, his heart failed; ofan drap flaugina, the vane was knocked down; regn (acc.) drepr í gegnum e-t, the rain beats through (the thatch); II. with dat.; (1) to put, thrust; hendi drap á kampa, he put his hand to his beard; d. fœti (fótum) í eð, to strike (knock) one’s foot against, stumble over (drap fótunum í þrøskuldinn ok lá fallinn); d. höfði, to droop (with) the head (Egill drap höfðin niðr í feld sinn); d. fingri í munn sér, to put the finger into the mouth; d. hendi til es, við em, to give one a slap with the hand; d. hendi við e-u, to wave away with the hand to refuse a kind offer (d. hendi við boðnu gulli); (2) to tuck up the sleeves or skirts of a garment (hann hafði drepit upp skautunum); d. hári undir belti sér, to tuck the hair under the belt (of a lady); (3) to dip, immerse; d. skeggi (the beard) í Breiðafjörð, to be drowned in B. d. barni I vatn, to baptize a child; (4) d. orði, dómi á et, to talk, judge of; d. huldu á et, to hide, keep secret; d. e-u á dreif, see ‘dreif’; fig., d. í egg e-u, to turn a deaf ear to; (5) spoil (d. gleði, teiti es); d. kosti es, to destroy one’s happiness; impers. drap þá skjótt kosti, the cheer was soon gone; (6) d. niðr e-u, to suppress (d. niðr konungs rétti, illu orði); d. niðr sœmd es, to drag down one’s reputation, to disparage one; d. niðr máli, to quash a lawsuit.

drep-hríð, f. (1) a destructive snowstorm; (2) = drepsótt; -ráð, n. an intended affray or assault; -samligr, a. deadly, destructive; -sleggja, f. sledge-hammer; -sótt, f. plague, pest; -sóttr, pp. plague-stricken.

drettingr, m. loiterer, a nickname.

dreyma (-da, -dr), v. (1) to appear to one (en) in a dream (sá maðr dreymir mik opt); (2) to dream (ein kona dreymdi þann draum); usually impers., with double acc., mik dreymdi draum, I dreamt a dream; konung dreymdi aldri, the king never had a dream.

dreypa (-ta, -tr), v. to let fill in drops, with dat. (hann dreypir vígðu vatni í munn henni).

dreyra (-ða, -t), v. to bleed, ooze (of blood from a slight wound); hann reist í lófa sér krossmark, svá at dreyrði, so that blood flowed.

dreyra-lœkr, m. stream of blood; -runninn, pp. spattered with blood.

dreyr-fáðr, m. stained with blood; -gjarn, a. eager for blood, bloodthirsty.

dreyri, m. blood, gore; vekja e-m dreyra, to bleed one; rauðr sem d. = dreyrrauðr.

dreyr-rauðr, a. red as blood; e-n setr -rauðan, one turns scarlet (Guðrúnu setti dreyrrauða); -stafir, pl. bloody runes, blood (poet.).

dreyrugr, a. (1) bloody, gory; (2) blood-thirsty.

drif, n. (1) driven snow (hvítr sem d.); (2) spoondrift (sjór var hvítr fyrir drifi).

drif-hvítr, a. white as driven snow.

drift, dript, f. (1) snow-drift (þar var snjór í driptum); (2) drifting snow (hvítr sem d.).

drit, n. dirt of birds (fugladrit).

drífa (dríf; dreif, drifum; drifinn), v. (1) to drift, drive like spray or snow (þá drífr snær ór öllum áttum); fig. of missles, to shower, fly, like flakes of snow (láta d. skot, vápn, á e-n); veðr var drífanda, there was a great snow-storm; esp. impers. with dat., dreif sandinn, the sand drifted; lauðri dreif á lypting útan, the spray drove over the poop; þegar dreif í Löginn krömmu, there fell wet snow in the Lake, it began to sleet; (2) to crowd, throng, rush; þá drífr ofan mannfjöldi mikill til strandar, a great crowd rushes down to the shore; dreif allt fólk á hans fund, all people crowded to see him; tóku menn þá at d. brott frá hertoganum, men began to desert the duke; d. yfir e-n, to befall, happen to one; refl., láta yfir drífast (= d. yfir sik), to yield, give in (rán ok útlegðir þeirra manna, er eigi létu yfir d.); (3) to perform; d. leik, to play; en í annan stað á ek at d. mikinn vanda, I am in a hard strait; (4) to besprinkle with (e-t e-u döggu drifinn).

drífa, f. fall of snow, snowdrift (skotvápn flugu svá þykt sem d.).

drífanda, adv. with might and main; róa d., to pull so that the spray splashes about.

drífu-él, n. a drifting snowstorm (um kveldit gerði á -él blautt).

dríta (drít; dreit, dritum; dritinn), v. to ease oneself (d. á e-n) öll ertu deigja, dritin, thou art altogether filthy.

drjúgan, adv. = drjúgum.

drjúg-deildr, pp. substantial; -látr, a. self-important; -liga, adv. with an air of importannce; -ligr, a. ample; -mæltr, a. long-winded in speaking.

drjúgr, a. substantial, lasting, ample; verða drjúgari (drjúgastr), to get the better (best) of it; þú munt þeim öllum drjúgari verða, you will outdo them all, Baglar reðust at, ok varð þat drjúgara, at, the issue was, that.

drjúgt, adv. in great numbers, copiously (Kolskeggr vá d. menn); d. manna, a good many people.

drjúg-talat, pp. n.; þeim varð -talat they talked long together.

drjúgum (prop. dat. pl. from ‘drjúgr’), adv. (1) much, to a great extent, greatly; fóru d. dag þann fram, they went far that day; vegr Gunnar d. menn, G. slew men in great numbers; (2) almost, nearly (d. dauðr af kulda); d. allr, almost all; enginn d., scarcely anybody.

drjúpa (drýp; draup, drupum; dropit), v. (1) to drip, to fall in drops (Þórólfr kvað smjör d. af hverju stráfi); (2) to let in rain, be leaky (hlaðan draup þegar er snjárinn bráðnaði); (3) to droop with the head, = drúpa.

drjúpr, a. dripping, leaky (d. salr).

drokr, m. = dirokkr.

dropalauss, a. watertight; rúm, n. dripping place (from the eaves).

dropi, m. drop (regns d.).

dróg, f. streak = drák.

drómi, m. fetter; drepa ór dróma, to act with great vigour.

drómundr, m. a kind of ship used in the Mediterranean.

drós, f. poet. girl, maid.

drótt, f. (1) household, people; dyggvar dróttir, good, upright people; öll d., all people; (2) the host of the king’s men, bodyguard of a king (dróttinn).

dróttin-hollr, a. faithful to one’s master; -lauss, a. without a master; -ligr, a. pertaining to Our Lord; -lig bœn, the Lord’s Prayer.

dróttinn (-s, pl. dróttnar), m. (1) lord, master; þræll eða d., slave or master; dýrt er dróttins orð the master’s word is strong; (2) king, chief; áðr vóru þeir (viz. the kings) dróttnar kallaðir; (3) the Lord (guð d. minn, d. várr Jesus Kristr).

dróttinsdaga-hald, n. observance of the Lord’s day; dróttins-dagr, m. the Lord’s day.

dróttinsdags-helgr, f. = dróttinsdagr; -kveld, n. Sunday evening; -nótt, f. Saturday night.

dróttins-kveld, n. = dróttinsdagskveld; -morginn, m. Sunday morning; -nótt, f. = dróttinsdagsnótt.

dróttin-svik, n. pl. treason towards a lord or master; -sviki, m. traitor.

drótt-kvæðr, a. in the heroic or court metre (-kvæðr háttr); -látr, a. beloved of the household, gentle; -megir, m. pl. people, men.

dróttna (), v. to rule, govern; d. yfir e-u, to rule over; with dat. (þó lætr hann þat eigi d. huga sínum).

dróttnan, f. sway, rule (d. alls heims).

dróttnari, m. ruler.

dróttning, f. (1) mistress; þræll sá, er vegr at dróttni (master) sínum eða dróttningu (mistress); (2) queen; (3) princess.

dróttningar-dómr, m. queenhood, queenship; -efni, n. a future queen; -nafn, n. the title of a queen.

dróttning-ligr, a. becoming a queen, queenly.

dróttseti, m. a steward at the king’s table.

drukkinn, pp. drunken, tipsy.

drukna (), v. to be drowned.

druknan, f. death by drowning.

drumbr, m. log of wood.

drúpa (-ta, -t), v. to droop, from sorrow (svá drúpir nú Danmörk, sem dauðr sé Knútr sonr minn); drúpir örn yfir, the eagle hovers over (it).

drúpr, m. drooping spirits, coldness.

drykk-fátt, a. n., hafa -fátt, to be short of drink.

drykkja, f. (1) drinking; sitja einn við drykkju, to sit alone drinking; taka til drykkju, to begin drinking (tóku menn til drylkju um kveldit); þreyta drykkju við e-n, to contend in drinking with one; (2) drink, beverage, = drykkr (byrla em drykkju); (3) drinking-bout, banquet (d. skyldi vera at hvárratveggja); (4) drinking-cup (rare).

drykkjaðr, pp. refreshed with drink (vel mettr ok d.).

drykkjar-bolli, m. drinking-cup; -föng, n. pl. drinkables; -horn, n. drinking-horn; -ker, n. drinking-vessel; -kostr, m. drinking-cheer; -laust, adv. without drink (eta mat sinn -laust); -stútr, m. a kind of drinking-can.

drykkju-borð, n. drinking-table (sitja yfir -borðum); -föng, n. pl. = drykkjarföng; -lítill, a. sober; -maðr, m. drinker (lítill, mikill drykkjumaðr); -mál, n. time of drinking; -skapr, m. (hard) drinking; -skáli, m. drinking-hall; -stofa, f. = -skáli.

drykk-lauss, a. without drink; -leysi, n. want of drinkables.

drykkr (-jar, -ir), m. (1) drink, drinking; sitja at (yfir) drykk, to sit drinking; hvat hafa Einherjar at drykk, what kind of drink have the E.; (2) drought; þreyta á drykkinn, to take a deep draught; drekka í tveimr, þremr, drykkjum, to drain in two, three draughts.

drykk-sæll, a. lucky in drink.

drysil-djöfull, m. petty devil, devilkin; -hross, n. paltry horse; -menni, n. a paltry man.

drýgindi, n. pl. increase, saving.

drýgja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to commit, perpetrate, carry out, practice (d. synd, hórdóm, munuðlífi); d. vilja es, to compily with one’s wishes; d. hlýðni við en, to obey one; (2) to make to go far, eke out (dróttinn drýgði svá þær vistir, at þær, &c.); hvat þarf þetta orðum d. (to expatiate on)?

drýg-liga, adv. = drjúgliga; -mæltr, a. long-winded.

dræpiligr, a. deserving death.

dræplingr, m. a petty drápa.

dræpr, a. who may be killed with impunity.

dræsa, f. idle talk, twaddle.

drœmt, a. n., láta d. við, to hesitate.

dröfn (gen. drafnar, pl. drafnir), f. poet. billow.

drögur, f. pl., see ‘draga’, f.

drösull, m. poet. horse, = drasill.

dröttr, m. lubber (rare).

dubba (), v. (1) to equip, arm (Saul dubbar nú David með sjálfs sins herklæðum); d. en upp, to attire one in full dress; d. sik, to trim oneself; (2) d. en til riddara, to dub one a knight.

dubban, f. dubbing a knight.

dubl, dufl, n. game at dice, gambling.

dubla, dufla (), v. to gamble.

dublari, m. gambler.

duga (ða, at), v. (1) to help, aid, support, with dat.; d. e-m at or við, to succour, lend help (Gísli fór at d. þeim við); (2) to do, suffice; þat er þér man d., which will do for thee; hefir oss þó dugat þessi átrúnaðr, this faith has served us very well; fátt er svá illt at einugi dugi, few things are utterly useless; mun þér eigi þat d. at sofa hér, it will not do (is not safe) for thee to sleep here; (3) absol., to show prowess, do good service; dugði hverr sem hann mátti, every one did his best; (4) to suffice, be strong enough; ef þitt œði dugir, if thy wit suffices; ef vitni duga, if the witnesses fail not.

dugandi, pr. p. doughty (d. maðr).

dugandis-maðr, dugand-maðr, m. a brave, doughty man.

dugga, f. a useless fellow.

duglauss, a. good for nothing.

dugnaðar-maðr, m. (1) helper, help in need; (2) = dugandi maðr; -stigr, m. path of virtue; -vápn, n. weapon of defence (against temptation).

dugnaðr (gen. -ar), m. (1) aid, assistance; veita em dugnað, to give help to one; (2) virtue.

dugr, m. doughtiness, strength of soul or body (aldri er d. í þér).

dul, f. (1) concealment; drepa, draga d. á et, to conceal; með d., secretly; (2) self-conceit; d. á vil, pride and wilfulness; ætla sér þá d., to be so conceited; draga d. á sik, to think a great deal of oneself; ganga fram í d., to go on in one’s conceit.

dula (), v. to deny (rare).

dular-búnaðr, m. disguise; -eiðr, m. oath of denial; -fullr, a. self-conceited; -klæði, n. pl. disguise; -kufl, m. a cloak used for a disguise.

dul-eiðr, m. = dulareiðr; -höttr, m. a hood used for a disguise.

dulinn, a. = dularfullr (d. at sér).

dul-klæði, n. pl. = dularklæði.

dulnaðr, m. conceit, self conceit.

dul-remmi, -ræna, f. self conceit; -samr, a. self conceited.

dumba, f. dust, cloud of dust.

dumbr, a. (also dumbi) dumb, mute (gaf hann dumbum mál, en daufum heyrn); d. stafr, a mute (letter).

dumpa (), v. to thump (rare).

duna (), v. to boom, roar (dunar í skóginum); duna, f. a rushing, thundering noise.

Duná, f. the Danube.

dunga, f. a useless fellow, = dugga (huglaus dunga).

dun-henda, f. = dunhendr háttr.

dun-hendr, a., -hendr háttr, a sort of metre (when the second line of each couplet begins with the concluding word of the first line); dunhent, a. n. = -hendr háttr.

dunn, m. band, gangs, drove (flyktust skarfarnir saman í einn dun).

dunna, f. the wild duck, mallard.

dupt, n. dust (verða at dupti).

dupti, m. dust (einn léttr dupti).

dupt-liga, adv. like dust; -ligr, a. consisting of dust (-ligr maðr).

duptugr, a. dusty, covered with dust.

dura-dómr, m. a court at the door of the defendant; -gætti, n. = dyrigætti; -stafr, m. = dyristafr; -stoð, f. door-post; -umbúningr, m. door-frame; -veggr, m. door-jamb; -vörðr, m. door-keeper.

dur-vörðr, m. door-keeper.

dusil-hross, n. = drysil-hross.

dusil-menni, n. = drysil-menni.

dusla (), v. to be busy with trifling matters (Sveinki var þar duslandi).

dust, n. dust (vér erum dust ok aska; verða at dusti).

dust, n. tilt (halt eitt d. með mik).

dustera (), v. to run a tilt.

dusti, m. grain of dust.

dúfa (gen. pl. dúfna), f. (1) dove, pigeon; (2) poet. wave.

dúfl, n. noise made by submersion (rare); dúfla (), v. to make a noise (when falling into water).

dúfu-ligr, a. dove-like; -ungi, m. a young dove.

dúka (), v. to cover with a cloth (matsveinar fóru at d. borð).

duklaus, a. without a cloth.

dúkr (-s, -ar), m. (1) any cloth or textile fabric; (2) tablecloth; (3) towel, napkin.

dúk-slitr, n. rags of a cloth.

dún-beðr, n. a bed of down.

dún-hœgindi, n. pillow or bolster of down; -klæði, n. pl. bed-clothes of eider-down; -koddi, m. pillow of down.

dúnn, m. down, bed of down (sofi hann á dúni).

dúra (), v. to nap, lake a nap.

dúrr, m. nap, slumber.

dús, n. lull, dead calm; opt kemr œðiregn ór dúsi, a lull is often followed by a heavy shower.

dúsa (), v. to quake (jörð dúsaði).

dvala (), v. to delay, put off, with acc. (muna Helgi hjörþing d.); with dat.; ef ér dvalið ferðinni, if you put off the journey.

dvala, f. (1) a long stay; (2) delay.

dvalan, f. prolongation (d. lífs þíns).

dval-samligr, a. slow, tardy (-samligt setr sólarinnar); -samr, a. causing delay; e-m verðr -samt, one is delayed.

dvelja (dvel, dvalda, dvaldr or dvalinn), v. (1) to delay; d. för es, to delay one’s journey; d. ferð sína, to put off one’s (own) journey; d. dóm, to defer judgement; d. ráð fyrir konu, to put off a woman’s marriage; gátu þeir hann eptir dvalit, they managed to keep him back; d. en frá e-u, to keep one from doing a thing; absol., dvaldi þat fyrir ferð þeirra, it delayed their journey; (2) = dveljast, to tarry (ok vildu eigi d. ok eigi biða Ólafs konungs); dvel eigi, tarry not!, make haste!; (3) with acc. of time, to wait, stay (konungr dvaldi mestan hluta sumars á Hálogalandi); d. stund es, to hold one up; d. af stundir, to kill the time; (4) refl., dveljast, to stay, make a stay (dvaldist þar um hríð); sá dagr mun d., that day will be long in coming; d. munu stundirnar áðr en sagt er allt þat, er ek veit, it will lake many hours, it will be a long time before all is told; ef þat delst, at ek koma eigi hingat, I should be hindered from coming; impers., dvaldist þeim þar lengi, they made a long stay there; dvaldist þeim þar at því, in (doing) that they lost much time.

dvena (), v. an old form for ‘dvina’.

dverg-máli, m. echo (steinn svarar með -mála).

dvergr (-s, -ar), m. (1) dwarf (lágr ok digr sem d.); (2) one of the short pillars which support the beams and rafters in a house; (3) some kind of ornament (? a brooch) in a lady’s dress (sat þar kona … dúkr var á hálsi, dvergar á öxlum).

dvina (), v. to dwindie, cease, subside (dvinar þroti þjótanda hafs); d. munda ek láta ferðina, I would lei the journey drop; sœkjum til borgarinnar ok gerið eigi at d. við, do not saunter.

dvöl (gen. dvalar, pl. dvalar or dvalir), f. (1) short stay, stop; delay; eiga skamma dvöl, to make a short stay; meðan þessi d. (pause) var; bera til dvala, to cause delay; (2) in prosody, quantity.

dvöl, n. pl. delay; svá at engi skulu d. á vera, without delay; urðu d. dœgra, her life was prolonged.

dyblissa, dybliza, f. dungeon, = myrkvastofa.

dygð, f. (1) probity, faithfulness: lið ok d. (help and faithful service) góðs drengs; trúa em til dygðar um e-t, to trust in one’s integrity; (2) virtue, virtuous deed (fyirir þvílíkar dygðir veitti gúð honum sína miskunn); (3) help (biðið hann veita yðr d.); (4) virtue, good quality (þat tré hefir fjórar dygðir, þá fyrstu, at þat kann eigi fúna).

dygðar-dœmi, n. an instant of virtuous action; -lauss, a. (1) devoid of virtues (-laus grös); (2) wicked (var hann svá -lauss, at); -leysi, n. faithlessness, wickedness; -maðr, m. trusty man; -verk, n. virtuous action; -þjónasta, f. efficacious, faithful service.

dygðugr, a. (1) faithful, trusty (d. maðr); (2) efficacious (dygðugt oleum).

dyggi-liga, adv. (1) faithfully (varðveita e-t -liga); (2) thoroughly (-liga þurr); -ligr, a. faithful, honest (-lig þjónosta).

dygg-leikr, m. faithfulness, probity.

dygg-liga, adv. = dyggiliga.

dyggr (accus. dyggvan, rarely dyggan), a. faithful, trusty; dyggvar dróttir, worthy, good people.

dykr (pl. dykir), m. a crashing noise; varð af því d. mikill, it gave a great crash.

dylgjur, f. pl. suppressed enmity (vóru dylgjur miklar með þeim).

dylja (dyl; dulda; duldr, duliðr, dulinn), v. (1) to keep (one) in ignorance of a thing, d. e-n e-s (eigi skalt þú þat gera at d. þik sjálfan sanninda); d. e-s, to conceal, deny, disavow, Þórir dylr þess ekki, Th. does not deny it; Eysteinn duldi þeirra orða fyrir sik, E. professed that he had never said any stuch thing; allir duldu, at né eitt vissi til Hrapps, all pretended ignorance about Hrapp; vera, ganga, duldr (duliðr, dulinn) e-s, to be unaware of, to be kept in ignorance of (hefir hon verit alls þessa duld; veit engi ætt mína ok ganga þess allir duldir); dulið (dulin) ertu, Hyndla, H., thou art mistaken (deceived); duliðr (dulinn) at em, mistaken about one; (2) refl., dyljast, to conceal (hide) oneself; at þat sé flugumenn ok vili d. (disguise themselves) undir munka búnaði; d. í e-u, to conceal a thing from oneself, be ignorant of = ganga duldr e-s (Eiríkr konungr þarf nú ekki at d. í því, at); d. við e-t, to refuse to acknowledge, to ignore; trúit þessu eigi, meðan þér megit d., as long as you can ignore it, till you get full evidence; en Sveinn duldist við þat, but S. shrank from believing it.

dylminn, a. careless, indifferent.

dymbil-dagar, m. pl. the three days before Easter.

dymbildaga-vika, f. Holy Week, Passion Week.

dyn-bjalla, f. a tinkling bell.

dyngja, f. a lady’s bower (brúðrin sat í dyngju sinni uni daginn).

dyngju-veggr, m. the wall of a dyngja.

dynja (dyn, dunda, dunit), v. (1) to boom, resound (fram reið Óðinn, foldvegr dundi); (2) to gush, shower, pour; blóð dynr ór sárum es, blood gushes out of his wounds; dundi ákaft regn ór lopti, the rain poured down in streams; dundu á þá (or þeim) vápnin, spjótin, the weapons (spears) showered upon them.

dynkr, m. = dykr, dynr.

dynr (pl. -ir), f. din, noise, clattering of hoofs (riðu þeir heim mikinn dyn í túnit eptir hörðum velli); engi d. verðr af hlaupi kattarins, noiseless are the cat’s steps; gera sem mestan dyn, to make the greatest noise; koma em dyn fyrir dyrr, to make a din before one’s doors, take one by surprise.

dyn-skot, n. a noisy but harmless shot (ek mun skjóta dynskot).

dyntr, m. = dykr, dynr.

dyr, n. pl. = dyrr, f. pl.

dyrgja (-ða, -ðr), v. to take (fish) with a hand-line (d. fiska).

dyrgja, f. dwarf woman.

dyri-gætti, n. door-frame; -stafr, m. door-post.

dyrr (gen. dura), f. pl. door opening, doorway (Oddr hljóp út or durunum).

dys (-jar, -jar), f. cairn.

dysja (), v. to bury in a cairn.

dyttr, m. dint, a nickname.

, n. quaking bog, quagmire.

dýfa (ða, t), v. to dip (d. e-m í vatn).

dýja (, dúða, dúit), v. to shake; d. dörr, spjót, to shake the spears to fight; skör nam at d., he shook (tossed) his locks.

dýna, f. downbed, featherbed, pillow or bolster filled with down.

dýpt, f. depth.

dýr, n. (1) animal, beast, quadruped, opp. to birds and reptiles (skapari manna, fugla ok dýra ok skriðkykvenda); (2) wild beast; deer (renna hundum at dýrum, reisa dýr).

dýra-garðr, m. (1) enclosure to catch wild beasts; (2) a yard with wild beasts; -gröf, f. a pit to catch wild beasts; -hold, n., -kjöt, n. flesh of animals; -leit, f. search for game; -rödd, f. voice of beasts; -skinn, n. skin of wild beasts; -veiðr, f. deer-hunting (fara á dýraveiði, vera at dýraveiðum).

dýr-bit, n. biting of lambs (sheep) by foxes (eigi varð bónda mein at biti síðan).

dýrð, f. glory (himnaríkis d.).

dýrðar-dagr, m. day of glory, feast; -fullr, a. full of glory; -hús, n. house of glory; -konungr, m. the King of Glory (Christ); -kóróna, f. crown of glory; -líf, n. life of glory; -maðr, m. a glorious man, saint; -samliga, adv. gloriously; -samr, a. glorious; -staðr, m. a glorious place; -söngr, m. song of glory, hymn; -verk, n. glorious work.

dýr-gildr, a. dearly paid for; -goldinn, pp. = -gildr; skal þér þat -goldit verða, thou shalt pay dearly for that; -gripr, m. a thing of great value, a treasure.

dýr-hundr, m. deer-hound, fox-hound.

dýrka (), v. (1) to exalt, glorify (guð dýrkaði son sinn); (2) to celebrate (d. þenna dag); d. hátíð es = halda hátíð es; (3) to worship (far þú með mér at d. dróttin guð þinn); to pray one reverentially (kastar hón sér fram á gólfit fyrir fœtr konungi ok dýrkaði hann); refl., dýrkast, to magnify oneself, to glory; sá er dýrkast, dýrkist hann með guði, he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.

dýr-kan, f. (1) adoration, worship (veita goðum d.); (2) glorifying (d. andar ok líkama); -ligr, a. glorious.

dýr-kálfr, m. deer-calf.

dýr-keyptr, pp. dearly bought; -lagðr, pp. dearly rated; -leikr, m. dearness; -ligr, a. glorious (-ligr klæðnaðr, -lig veizla); -lingr, m. holy man, saint; -mætr, a. precious.

dýrr (dýrri, dýrstr), a. (1) high priced, dear; ek met hana dýrra en aðrar, I put her at a higher price than the rest; (2) precious, costly (skjöldinn þann inn dýra); dýrar hallir, costly halls; inn dýri mjöðr, the goodly mead; inn dýri háttr, artificial metre; (3) of high worth, worthy (in dýra dróttning, María); skatna dýrstr, the best of men; Jón Loptsson, er dýrstr (noblest, worthiest) maðr er í landi þessu.

dýrs-belgr, m. beast’s skin; -horn, n. an oxhorn, esp. a drinkinghorn; -höfuð, n. head of a deer.

dýr-skinn, n. deer-skin.

dæla, f. ship’s pump.

dældar-maðr, m. gentle, easy man (hann var engi -maðr ok hinn mesti garpr).

dæll, a. gentle, easy to deal with (vertu nú dæl meðan ek em brautu; ekki þótta ek dæll heima); þat er eigi svá dælt (= auðvelt, easy) at taka Sigurð jarl af lífdögum; dælt er heima hvat, anything will pass at home; gera sér dælt við e-n, to put oneself on a free, familiar footing with one (Þórðr gerði sér dælt við þau Þorvald ok Guðrúnu); ek mun nú gera mér dælt um ráðagørð við þik, I will take the liberty to give thee straightforward advice.

dæl-leiki, -leikr, m. familiarity; gør allt í -leikum við oss, make no ceremony with us; -ligleikr, m. = -leikr; -ligr, a. pleasant to look at, genteel.

dælu-austr, m. baling out a ship with a dæla; -ker, n. a kind of bucket.

dæsa (-ta -t), v. to fetch a deep groan (d. við); refl., dæsast, to become exhausted.

dæstr, pp. exhausted, worn-out.

dœgr, n. (1) one half of the astron. Day, twelve hours of the day or night (í degi dœgr tvau, í dœgri stundir tólf; tuttugu ok fjórar stundir skulu vera í tveimr dœgrum); (2) an astronomical day; twenty-four hours; sjau dœgra sigling, a sail of seven days (between Norway and Iceland).

dœgra-far, n. the division of day and night; -mót, n. the twilight at morning and evening; -skipti, n. = -far; stytting, f. pastime; -tal, n. calculation of time.

dœgr-far, n. = dœgrafar; -ganga, f. twelve hours’ walk.

dœl, dœld, f. a little dale, recess.

dœll, m. dalesman, mostly in plur. compounds. (Laxdœlir, Fljótsdœlir, Vatnsdœlir, &c).

dœlska, f. idle talk, nonsense.

dœlskr, a. foolish, = fólskr.

dœma (-da, -dr), v. (1) to give judgement, pass sentence; d. mál, to give judgement in a case; d. dóm, to give a verdict or sentence; d. sekt, útlegð, to pass sentence of a fine, out-lawry; d. eindaga á fé, to fix a term for payment; d. lög, to pass a lawful sentence; d. e-n skógarmann, to proclaim one an outlaw; d. e-m e-t, to adjudge a thing to one; d. e-m dóm, to deal out a sentence to one; d. e-n af e-u, to declare one to have forfeited (d. e-n af sinni sœmd); d. um e-t, to judge of; (2) to talk, converse; d. við e-n, to talk with one; drekka ok d., to drink and talk; en er þeir áttu of þessa hluti at d., when they were talking of those things.

dœma-fátt, a. n. almost unexampled; -fróðr, a. wise in old instances; -lauss, a. unexampled; -maðr, m. a man to be imitated.

dœmandi (pl. -endr), m. a judge = dómandi, dómari.

dœmi, n. (1) proof, reason; draga þeir eigi sízt til dœmis þar um, at, in proof of this they specially adduce the fact, that; (2) incident, fact; þó hafa mörg dœmi orðit, í forneskju, yet many things have happened in elden times; hörð dœmi, hard fate; at eigi verði oss Adams d., that the same shall not happen to us as to A.; (3) tale, story (Ari prestr fróði, er mörg dœmisparklig hefir saman sett); (4) poem, verses (þessi dœmi öll eru kveðin um þenna atburð); (5) quotation (draga fram dœmi af bókum); (6) example for imitation, model (eptir dœmum kristinna manna); taka d. af e-m, to take an example by one; (7) example, instance, precedent (djarfari en dœmi munu til vera); umfram d., ór dœmum, unexampled, unprecedented (kom þá svá mikill snjór, at þat var ór dœmum); meirr en til dœmis or til dœma at taka (draga), to take an example.

dœmi-lauss, a. = dœma-lauss.

dœming, f. judgement.

dœmi-saga, f. tale, fable; parable; -stóll, m. judgement seat.

döf, f. (1) rump (döfin dýrsins); (2) a kind of spear.

dögg (gen. döggvar, dat. dögg or döggu; pl. döggvar), f. dew; -fall, n. dew-fall, deposit of dew; -lauss, a. dewless; -litr, a. besprinkled with dew; -óttr, a. bedewed.

dögg-skór, m. chape (of a sheath); -slóð, f. track left in the dew; ok draga kyrtlarnir -slóðina, the tunics brush the dew.

döggva (-að or -ða), v. (1) to bedew (döggvir hann jörðina af méldropum sínum); (2) to irrigate, water.

döggvan, f. bedewing, irrigation.

döggvar-drep, n. mark (foot-print) in the dew.

döggving, f. irrigation = döggvan.

döglingr, m. king, descendent of King Dag.

dögurðr, m. = dagverðr.

døkk-blár, a. dark-blue; -brúnaðr, -brúnn, a. dark-brown; -grœnn, a. dark-green; -hárr, a. dark-haired; -jarpr, a. dark-auburn (-jarpr á hár); -leikr, m. duskiness; -litaðr, pp. dark-coloured.

døkkna (), v. to darken (himintunglin døkkna).

døkknan, f. darkening.

døkkr (acc. -van), a. dark; d. á hár, dark-haired.

døkk-rauðr, a. dark-red.

døkkva (-ta, -tr), v. to darken, to make dark.

døkkvi, m. a dark spot.

E, É

ebreska, f. the Hebrew language.

ebreskr, a. Hebraic (ebresk tunga).

eða or eðr, conj., (1) or; fyrr eða siðar, sooner or later; annathvárt … eða, either … or; hvárt … eða, whether (if) … or; hvart er … eða, whether … or; (2) in comparison of two unlike things, and (mikinn mun eigum vér at gera þin eða annarra heimamanna); (3) after a comparative, and perhaps (ek em eigi verri riddari en S. konungr, eða nökkuru betri); (4) introducing a question, but (ek beiti Auðgisl, — eða ertu H. vandræðaskáld?); (5) sometimes after a negation, = né, nor (þeir munu hvárki fyrir sjá fé sínu eða fjörvi).

edda, f. (1) great-grandmother; (2) the name of the book Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson, c. 1220.

edik, n. vinegar.

eðla, f. adder, viper, = eyðla.

eðli (in old MSS. written øðli), n. (1) nature; manns e., mannligt e., human nature; arnar e., the eagle’s nature; þat er í móti náttúrligu e., it is against the order of nature; (2) origin, extraction (hann var valskr at ætt ok e.); (3) fœtus (þótti henni kviknat hafa e. sitt).

eðli-borinn, pp. born in wedlock.

eðlis-lög, n. pl. law of nature; -skapan, -skepna, f. natural condition or quality; -skynsemd, f. native intelligence.

eðl-vina, f. friend of vipers (dub.).

eðr, conj., see ‘eða’.

ef (older form if), conj. (1) if, in case (aldri hefðir þú í borgina komit, ef ek hefða vitat); in poetry generally with subj.; vega þú gakk, ef vreiðr séir (sér), if thou be wroth; (2) = hvárt, if, whether (Egill spurði, ef hann vildi upp ór gröfinni); (3) as a relat. part., sá ef = sá er (rare).

ef or if, n. doubt; ef er á e-u, it is doubtful; ekki er til efs, at, it cannot be doubted that; útan ef, without doubt.

efa or ifa (), v. to doubt (engi efar þat); e. um e-t, to doubt about a thing; refl., efast í e-u, to hesitate in, be in doubt; e. um e-t = efa um e-t; with gen., e. e-s, to change one’s mind in a matter.

efað-samligr, a. doubtful; -semd, f. doubtfulness, uncertainty.

efa-lausliga, adv. without doubt; -lauss, a. indubitable, certain; -laust, adv. without doubt, certainly.

efan, f. doubt, doubting.

efanar-lauss, a. undoubted; -laust, adv. undoubtedly, indubitably.

efan-leikr, m. doubtfulness; -leikr sagnar, ambiguity of expression; -ligr, a. (1) doubtful; (2) hesitating, irresolute; (3) uncertain (efanligt er mannsins eðli).

efa-samliga, adv. doubtfully; -semd, f. (1) doubt (án -semd); (2) ambiguity (-semd andsvarsins); -sök, f. doubtful case (in law).

efja, f. mud, ooze.

efla (-da, -dr), v. (1) to strengthen structurally, to reinforce (e. veggi); létu þeir e. at nýju Danavirki, they restored the Danish wall; (2) to found, raise (e. stað, kirkju); e. her (lið) á hendr e-m, to raise troops against one; e. e-n, to support, aid (efldi Dofri hann síðan til ríkis í Noregi); e. e-n til rangs máls, to help one in an unjust cause; (3) to perform; e. heit, to make a vow; e. at brullaupi, to hold a wedding; (4) to be able (sem vér eflum ok orkum); (5) refl., eflast, to grow strong (hann fann, at mótstöðumenn hans efldust); e. at her, to gather, raise troops; e. til ríkis, to win a kingdom (by force of arms); poet., e. við e-n, to marry into one’s family, = mægjast.

ef-laust, adv. undoubtedly, without doubt (eflaust má hann þat vita).

efling, f. (1) strengthening, increase in strength; (2) aid, support.

efna (-da, -dr), v. to perform, fulfil (e. orð sín, sætt, heit); refl., efnast, to turn out in a certain way (efndist þat ok vel; þat efnist opt illa).

efna (), v. to prepare, make arrangements for a thing (e. til vetrsetu, veizlu kaupstaðar).

efna-fæð, f., -leysi, n., -skortr, m. scarcity, want, or shortness of means.

efnd, f. fulfilment of a promise (raun mun eptir fara um efndir).

efni, n. (1) stuff, material (svá skildu þeir, at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nökkuru efni); ek em görr af ústyrku efni, I am made of frail stuff; cf. biskups-, brúðar-, fægðar-, konu-, konungs-, mágs-, manns-, mungáts-, smíðar-efni; (2) matter of discourse, subject, theme (þryti mér fyrr stundin til frásagnar en efnit til umrœðu) eigi með sönnu e., with untrue statement, falsely; nú er úti mitt e., now my story is at an end; (3) matter, affair (segir konungr frá öllu þessu e.); fátt er betr látit en e. eru tíl, few things are reported better than they really are; (4) cause, reason; látast báðir af því e., both die from this cause; fyrir þat e. (for that reason) keypti hann landit (5) state, condition, affair; sagði, hver e. í vóru, he told how matters stood; ek veit eigi görla e. Gunnlaugs, how G.’s affairs stand; kominn í úvænt e., into a critical condition; óttalauss í öllu e., in every respect; er þessi hlutr kom til efnis, when this came aboitt; berr þat til efnis, at, it happens that; (6) pl., means; ok bjuggust um eptir þeim efnum, sem þeir höfðu til, according to their means; engi vóru e. annars, þar vóru engi e. önnur, there was no other chance or choice.

efni-ligr, a. hopeful, promising (efniligir menn); ekki efniligt, not advisable.

efning, f. keeping fulfilment, = efnd.

efni-tré, n. wood-materials, timber.

efri (older form øfri), a. compar., efstr (older form øfstr), a. superl., (1) upper, uppermost, opp. to ‘neðri, neðstr’; bera efra skjöld, to gain the victory; verða e-m e., to be superior to; hit efra, (a) high above ground (fara hit efra í trjám sem apynjur eða íkornar); (b) the upper or inland road, opp. to ‘hit ytra’, along the shore (sumir fóru hit efra til Þríhyrningshálsa); by land, opp. to the sea; (c) of the inner part of a building, opposed to ‘hit fremra’ or the part nearest the door (konungr settist í hásæti ok alskipat var hit efra ok hit fremra); (2) latter, last; þetta var inn efra hlut sumars, towards the end of summer; á efra aldri, advanced in years; efsti dómr, the last judgement; efsta vika langaföstu, the last week of Lent, Passion Week.

Egðir, m. pl. the inhabitants of Agðir, a ‘fylki’ in Norway.

egðskr, a. from Agðir.

egg (gen. pl. eggja), n. egg.

egg (gen. -jar, dat. -ju; pl. -jar), f. edge; eyða (verja) oddi ok eggju, by force of arms, with might and main.

egg-bitinn, pp. cut, wounded by an edge; -elningr, m. a scythe having an ell-long edge; -farvegr, m. the print of an edge; -hvass, a. sharp-edged, sharp (-hvast járn).

eggja (), v. to incite, egg one on to do a thing (e. e-n e-s or til e-s or á e-t); e. e-n fram, to urge one on; refl., láta at eggjast, to yield to another’s egging on; e. upp á e-n, to pick a quarrel with one, provoke one; recipr. to egg one another on (eggjuðust nú fast hvarirtveggju).

eggja-broddr, m. sharp-edged spike.

eggjan, f. egging on, goading.

eggjanar-fífl, n. fool, cat’s paw; -orð, n. pl. inciting (egging) words.

eggjari, m. egger-on, inciter.

egg-leikr, m. poet. play with sharp weapons, battle; -móðr, a. poet. sword-smitten.

egg-skurn, f. egg-shell.

egg-steinn, m. sharp-edged stone; -teinn, m. ‘edge-twig’, the steeled edge of a sword; svá at fal báða -teina sverðsins, so that both edges of the sword were hidden.

egg-tíð, f. egg-season; -ver, n. ‘eggfield’ (a place where eggs of sea-birds are gathered).

egg-völr, m. the steeled edge of an axe (hann snerpir eggvölinn).

Egipta-land, n. the land of Egypt.

egipzkr, a. Egyptian.

egna (-da, -dr), v. (1) to use as a bait, with dat. (e. oxahöfði a öngul); (2) to furnish with a bait, to bait, with acc. (e. snöru, net, gildru); (3) to bait for (e. aurriða); e. veiði, to set bait for the prey; (4) to incite, provoke.

ei, adv. (1) ever, = ey, æ; ei ok ei, forever and ever; (2) not, = eigi (as ‘aldri’ for ‘aldrigi’).

eið, n. isthmus, neck of land (mjött e.).

eiða, f. poet. mother (rare).

eiða-brigði, n. breach of oath; -fullting, n. oath-help; -kona, f. female compurgator; -lið, n. oath helpers, compurgators; -mál, n. the matter of taking an oath.

eið-bróðir, m. a sworn confederate; -bundinn, pp. oath-bound; -fall, n. failing in one’s oath; -fœra (-ða, -ðr), v. to charge one with a thing by an oath; -fœring, -fœrsla, f. charging by an oath; -fœrr, a. able, competent to take an oath; -hjálp, n. oath-help; -laust, adv. without an oath.

eiðr (-s, -ar), m. oath; vinna, sverja eið, to take (swear) an oath; rjúfa eið, to break an oath; ganga til eiða, to proceed to the taking of oaths; eigi verðr einn eiðr alla, a single oath does not clear all men.

eið-rof, n. breach of an oath; -rofi, m. violator of an oath, perjurer; -spjall, n. taking of an oath; hlýða til -spjalls e-s, to listen to one’s oath; -stafr, m. oath-formula; -svari, m. one bound by oath, liege-man; -sœrr, a. that may be sworn to, absolutely true; -unning, f. the taking of an oath; -varr, a. cautious (conscientious) as to an oath; -vætti, n. testimony on oath.

eiga (á, átta, áttr), v. (1) to own, possess (Starkaðr átti hest góðan); (2) to have (e. börn, föður, móður, vin); e. konu, to have her for wife; hann átti Gró, he was married to G.; hann gekk at e. Þóru, he took Th. for his wife, he married Th.; enga vil ek þessa e., I will not marry any of these; e. heima, to have a home, to live (þeir áttu heima austr í Mörk); e. sér e-t = e. e-t (Höskuldr átti sér dóttur, er Hallgerðr hét); e. ván e-s, to have hope of a thing, to reckon upon; e. hlut at or í e-u, to have a share in a thing, to be concerned in; e. vald á e-u, to have within one’s power; (3) to be under obligation, be obliged, have to do a thing; tólf menn, þeir er fylgð áttu með konungi, who were bound to attend the king’s person; á ek þar fyrir at sjá, I am bound (I have) to see to that; átti Hrútr för í Vestfjorðu, H. had to go to the V.; (4) to have a right (claim) to, be entitled to (e. högg ok höfn í skóginum); e. mál í e-m, to have a charge against one; e. rétt á sér, to have a (personal) claim to redress; (5) to keep, hold; e. fund, þing, samkvámu, stefnu, to hold a meeting; e. kaupstefnu, to hod a market; e. orrustu við e-n, to fight a battle with one; e. högg við e-n, to exchange blows with one; e. illt við e-n, to quarrel with; e. tal (or mál) við e-n, to speak, converse with one; (6) as an auxiliary with pp. = hafa (þat er við áttum mælt); e. skilit, to have stipulated; (7) to have to (skal Þ. eigi at því e. at spotta); e. hendr sínar it verja, to have to act in self-defence; e. um vandræði at halda, to be in a strait; (8) e. e-m e-t, to owe to one (mun æ, hvat þú átt þeim er veitir); (9) to be the person denoted by a thing; þat muntu ætla, at ek mun e. hinn bleika uxann, that the fawn-coloured ox means me; (10) with preps., e. e-t at e-m, to have something due from one, to expect from one (þat vil ek e. at þér, at þú segir mér frá ferð þinni); to deserve from one (ok á ek annat at þér); þeir er mikit þóttust at sér e., had much in their power; e. e-t eptir, to have to do yet, to have left undone (þat áttu eptir, er erfiðast er, en þat er at deyja); to leave behind one (andaðist ok átti eptir tvá sonu vaxna); e. e-t saman, to own in common; e. skap saman, to agree well, be of one mind; eigi veit ek, hvárt við eigum heill saman, whether we shall live happy together; e. saman, to quarrel, = e. deild saman; e. um við e-n, to have to deal with (við brögðótta áttu nú um); þar sem við vini mína er um at e., where my friends are concerned; e. e-t undir e-m, to have in another’s hands; Njáll átti mikit fé undir Starkaði ok í Sandgili, N. had much money out at interest with St. and at Sandgil, er sá eigi vel staddr, er líf sitt á undir þinum trúnaði, whose life depends on thy good faith; e. mikit (lítit) undir sér, to have much (little) in one’s power; far þú við marga menn, svá at þú eigir allt undir þér, that the whole matter rests in thy own hands; hann sá, at hann átti ekki undir sér, that he had no influence; e. við e-n, to have to do with, fight with (brátt fundu þeir, at þeir áttu þar ekki við sinn maka); ekki á ek þetta við þik, this is no business between thee and me; e. gott (illt) við e-n, to be on good (bad) terms with one; e. við konu, to have intercourse with, = e. lag (samræði) við konu; recipr., eigast við, to deal with one another; fight, quarrel; e. við deildir, to be engaged in strife; áttust þeir höggvaskipti við, they exchanged blows with one another.

eiga, f. (1) possession; kasta sinni eigu, leggja sína eigu, í e-t, to take possession of; (2) property.

eigandi (pl. eigendr), m. owner, possessor.

eigi, adv. not; eigi … ok, nor (e. vil ek ok þat mitt ráð kalla).

eigin, n. (1) one’s own, one’s property; (2) new sprout of corn.

eigin, a. indecl. own, = eiginn (var jarðaðr í sinni e. borg); this ‘eigin’ may also be considered as the first part of a compound; -borg, f. one’s own town; -bóndi, m. husband; -brœðr, m. pl. one’s own brothers; -dóttir, f. one’s own daughter; -giptast (see gipta), v. refl., to marry, be married to (of a woman); -girnd, -girni, f. selfishness; -gjarnligr, a. selfish; -húsfrú, -kona, -kván, f. wife; -kvángaðr, -kvæntr, pp. lawfully married (of a man); -kyn, n. peculiarity; -lauss, a. having no property, poor; -leikr, m. quality, peculiarity; -liga, adv. properly, strictly; -ligr, a. one’s own, personal, particular; sjá -ligum augum, with one’s own eyes; -ligt nafn, proper name; -maðr, m. husband.

eiginn, a. own, proper (með samþykt eiginnar konu).

eigin-nafn, n. proper name; -orð, n. (1) possession; fá e-t at -orði, to get possession of, opp. to ‘fá e-t at láni’; (2) wedding, marriage (bjóða e-m konu til -orðs); -raun, f. one’s own experience; -tunga, f. one’s own native tongue.

eign, f. (1) property, possession; kasta sinni e., leggja e. sína, á e-t, to take possession of; (2) estate, landed property, esp. pl. (hann átti eignir í Vík austr).

eigna (), v. (1) to assign, attribute to one (eigna e-m e-t); eigna sér e-t, to declare a thing to be one’s own property, to take to oneself; eigna sér land, to take land into one’s own hands; refl., eignast, to become the owner of, to get; (2) to dedicate to, name after one (eigna e-m kvæði, eigna Þór hof).

eignaðr, pp. having, possessions or property (vel eignaðr).

eigna-lauss, a. having no property, destitute.

eignar-ákall, n. claim of ownership; -bróðir, m. one’s own brother; -hlutr, m. (1) private share, property; (2) part of an estate; -jörð, f. patrimony; -kona, f. = eiginkona; -lýrittr, m. legal title of ownership; -maðr, m. owner, possessor; -nafn, n. proper name; -sonr, m. one’s own son; -spúsa, f. = -kona; -vili, m. one’s own will; -vitni, -vætti, n. witness of ownership.

eigna-skipti, n. exchange of land.

ei-góðr, a. ‘evergood’, beloved, as a nickname; -grœnn, a. evergreen.

eigu-ligr, a. worth having, precious.

eik (gen. eikar and eikr, pl. eikr), f. oak, also a tree in general.

eikar-kefli, m. oaken stick; -stofn, -stubbi, m. oak stump, oak stub.

eiki, n. oak timber; -áss, m. oaken beam; -kylfa, f. oaken club; -köstr, m. pile of oak wood.

eikinn, a. wild, vehement (of fire).

eiki-skógr, m. oak wood, oak forest; -stobbi, m. stump of an oak; -stokkr, m. oak stock; -súla, f. oaken column; -tindaðr, pp. with oaken pegs; -viðr, m. oak wood, oak timber; -vöndr, m. twig of an oak tree.

eikja, f. a small ferry-boat.

eikju-karfi, m. = eikja.

ei-ligr, a. eternal (rare).

eilífð, f. eternity, eternal life.

eilífðar-friðr, m. everlasting peace; -yndi, n. everlasting hafipiness; -ömbun, f. eternal recompense.

ei-lífi, n. = eilífð.

eilífis-fagnaðr, m. everlasting joy.

eilíf-leikr, m. eternity; -liga, adv. eternally, to all eternity; -ligr, a. eternal, everlasting.

ei-lífr, a. eternal, everlasting; at -lífu, for ever and ever.

ei-lítill, a. very small, very little.

eimi, eimr, m. reek, vapour.

ei-muni, m. an ever memorabe thing; þat er þeim -muni, they will never foget it.

eimyrja, f. embers (eldr ok e.; all er ægir sem í eimyrju hrœri).

eina, adv. only, alone.

ein-angr, m. a great strait (vaskr öruggr, í einangri); -angra (), v. to put one in a strait.

einarðar-fátt, a. n., e-m verðr -fátt one fails in courage; -lauss, a. wavering, treacherous; -leysi, n. inconstancy, unreliableness; -maðr, m. a steadfast, trusty man.

einarð-liga, adv. firmly, heartily; -ligr, a. firm, determined-looking, faithful; -mæltr, a. frank, out-spoken.

einarðr, a. (1) single (einart þak); (2) firm, determined, reliable.

einart, adv. (1) incessantly; (2) straight, directly.

ein-bakaðr, pp. once-baked; -bani, m. single-handed slayer; -berni, n. only child; -beygðr, pp. sole, only (-beygðr kostr); -bjarga, a. indecl self-supporting, independent; -breiðr, a. of a single breadth, half a yard broad (of stuff); -búi, m. single dweller; -bœli, n. single household; -daga (), v. to fix a day for a thing (eindaga fé, þing, leigu, brullaup); -dagi, m. a fixed time, term; -drœgr, a. incessant, continuous (gerum þeim eindrœgja hríðina); -dœmi, n. (1) the right to be sole arbiter in a case; (2) an unexampled thing; -eggjáðr, pp. one-edged; -eiði (= eins eiðr), n. silence oath; -eign, f. sole ownership; -eygðr, a. one-eyed; -falda (), v. to use in the singular; einfalda ákall, to address with ‘thou’; -faldleikr, m. simplicity; -faldliga, adv. simply, singly; -faldligleikr, m. = -fald-leikr.

ein-faldr, a. (1) simple; single; (2) weak in intellect, silly; (3) plain, common (einfaldr bóndi); -farar, f. pl. walking-alone; -feldi, f. simplicity, weak intellect; -feldr, a. bent on one thing, resolute; -ferðir, f. pl. = -farar; -fyndr, a. (1) belonging to the finder alone (hvalr einfyndr); (2) as finder entitled to the whole (einfyndr at hval); -fœrr, a. able to go alone; -fœtingr, m. one-legged man; -fœttr, pp. one-legged; -för, f., see -farar.

einga, a. indecl. only, single; e. barn, only child; e. vinr, only friend, intimate friend.

ein-ganga, f. solitary walk; ganga eingöngu, to walk alone; -getinn, pp. only begotten; -hama, a. indecl., -hamr, a. single-shaped, opp. to ‘hamrammr’; Þrándr var kallaðr eigi einhamr, Th. was thought to be a werewolf; -harðr, a. = einarðr; -hendis, adv. straight, off-hand; -hendr, a. one-handed; -herjar, m. pl. the dead warriors (in Valhalla) sing., einheri, great champion (of Thor); -hjal, n. private talk (between two); -hleypingr, m., -hleypismaðr, m. single person without hearth or home; -hleypr, a. single, unmarried; -hlítr, a. fully sufficient, adequate (til e-s, to); látt sér e-t einhlítt, to rest satisfied with; vera sér einhlítr, not to need the help of others; -hugað-liga, adj., unanimously; -hugi, a. wholly intent on (á e-t); -hugsa (), v. to make up one’s mind; -hverfa (-ða, -ðr), v. to turn a thing in one direction; einhverfa ætlan sína fyrir sér, to decide upon doing a thing; -hverfr, a. determined; -hverr, pron., see ‘einnhverr’; einhvers staðar, somewhere; -hyrndr, a. one-horned; -hyrningr, m. unicorn.

einigr, a. (1) any; (2) no, = engi.

eining, f. unity (þrennr í einingu).

einir (gen. einis), m. juniper.

ein-járnungr, m. a cutting tool or weapon made of one piece of iron.

einka (), v. to appoint for a particular use (einka e-t til e-s).

einka-, in compds., special, particular; glöf, f. special gift; -grið, n. special truce; -gripr, m. special family heirloom; -jartegn, n. special token; -leyfi, -lof, n. special lease; -maðr, m. a person of special rank, dignitary; -mál, n. (1) special agreement; (2) privilege.

einkan-liga, adv. especially, particularly; -ligr, a. special, extraordinary.

ein-kanna (), v. = einka, to assign specially.

einkanna-hlutr, m. a distinguishing mark or feature.

einkar, adv. very, exceedingly (e. fagr, hræddr); e. mjök, very much e. skjótt, with great speed; e. vel, extremely well; in compds. with nouns = einka-; -eðli, n. special nature; -nafn, n. proper name; -skriptargangr, m. special confession.

einka-stæla, f. particular or personal happiness; -vinr, m. a particular friend.

ein-kenna (-da, -dr), v. to furnish with a distinctive mark, disinguish, signalize; -kenniligr, a. especial, particular; -kenning, f. distinction.

einkum, adv. (1) chiefly, especially; (2) very (e. góðr, e. bezt).

ein-kunn, f. mark of ownership (on animals); -kvæntr, pp. having only one wife; -kynna (-da, -dr), v. to mark (animals); -lagi, a., vera, gerast einlagi um e-t, to act alone in a thing; -lát, n. deserting one’s wife or husband (cf. ‘láta konu eina’); -leikr, m. unity; -leitr, a. singular in one’s behaviour, odd; -litr, a. of one colour; -lyndi, n. obstinacy, stubbornness; -lyndr, a. obstinate, stubborn; -læti, n. (1) = einlyndi; (2) = -lát; ætla konu einlæti, to intend to desert one’s wife; -máll, a. opinionated; -man, n. solitude; búa í einmani, to live in solitude; -mana, a. indecl. solitary lonely, friendless.

einmánaðar-samkváma, f. a meeting held in ‘einmánaðr’.

ein-mánaðr, m. the last month of winter (part of March and April); -mani, a. = -mana; -menningr, m., drekka einmenning, to empty the drinking-horn each one by himself; -móðliga, adv. firmly, resolutely; -mæli, n. (1) private talk or conference; (2) common talk (var þat allra manna einmæli); -mælingr, m. one meal only; hafa einmæling, to eat one meal a day; -mælt, adv. one a day, one meal a day (eta, drekka einmælt); -mæltr, pp. unanimously said (þat var einmælt, at).

einn, card. numb. and pron. (1) one; e. skal við e. eiga, one shall fight against one; e. ok e., one by one, one at a time, singly; (2) as ord. numb. = inn fyrsti (Urð hétu eina, aðra Verðandi, Skuld ina þriðju); (3) the same, one and the same (váru sveinarnir up fœddir báðir í einu þorpi); allt í eina leið, all in one way; e. … ok, the same as (í einu herbergi ok hinn); allr e., the very same, quite the same (þat er allt eitt ok himinn); allt at einu, nevertheless, for all that (þó at þú þjónaðir illum, þó var hann allt at einu þinn herra); (4) indef. one, a certain (e. vetr, e. dag, eitt kveld); e. vinr Þóris, a certain friend of Th.; before numbers, about, some; einar fimm þúsundir, some five thousand; einir … aðrir, some … others (einir tóku dúka ok aðrir rekkjublæjur); e. ok ýmiss, one and another (einar ok ýmissar þjóðir); (5) after a negation, any; né eitt, not anything; (6) gen. pl. ‘einna’ used in an intensive sense; einna manna bezt, best of all (single) men; einna verst, by far the worst; einna sízt, by far the least, least of all; engi er einna hvatastr, no man is superior to all others; (7) alone (Guðrún skyldi ein ráða fyrir fé þeirra); láta konu eina, to desert or divorce one’s wife; with gen., hann varð e. sinna manna, he was separated from his men; if put after the noun ‘einn’ generally denotes only, but; segja þetta prett einn, to call this a mere trick; vín eitt, wine only; var þat (handklæði) raufar einar, all in holes, mere tatters; fáir einir, only a few; e. sér or sér e., quite by oneself, alone (hann var e. sér); e. saman, e. samt, quite alone; kona eigi ein saman, not alone, with child; at eins, only, but; eigi at eins, not only; því at eins, only in that case; údauðr at eins, merely not dead, all but dead, barely alive; at einu = at eins.

ein-nefna (-da, -dr), v. to appoint.

einn-hverr (ein-hver, eitt-hvert), indef. pron.; except in nom. and acc. sing. masc. and neut. ein- is generally indecl.; (1) some, some one; einnhvern dag, some day; eitthvert sinn, einhverju sinni, sometime, once; as a noun (meðan einnhverr várr búandanna er lífs); (2) as an intensive with superl. ágætastr maðr einnhverr, one of the very foremost men; (3) each, each one, usually in two words (ór þeirra fjórðungi sem ór einum hverjum öðrum).

einnig, einnug (= einn veg), adv. in the same way, likewise, also; á e. (= á einn veg), in the same manner.

ein-nættr, a. one night old; -ráðinn, pp. having made up one’s mind, resolved (í e-u, til e-s, upon); hafa einráðit at gera e-t, to have made up one’s mind to do a thing; -ráðr, a. self-willed; -reikull, a. inclined to roam about alone; -ræði, n. self-willed; -rœða, f. private conference; -rœnligr, a. strange, odd; -rœnn, a. singular in his behaviour.

eins, adv. alike, in the same way; e. ok, as (bar e. víð ok í Valþjófsstöðum); as if (e. ok væri hann með öllu óttalauss); allt e. ok, just as (allt e. ok rakkar metja með tungu); allt e. = allt at einu, see einn 3; at eins, see einn 7.

ein-samall, a. alone (rare) = einn saman.

ein-seta, f. (1) solitude; (2) solitary life, hermit’s life; (3) hermitage.

einsetu-bróðir, m. anchoret, recluse, hermit; -klefi, -kofi, m. hermit’s cell; -kona, f. hermitess, anchoress; -lifnaðr, m. the life of an anchoret, hermit’s life; -ligr, a. pertaining, to einseta; -líf, n. = -lifnaðr; -maðr, -munkr, m. = -bróðir.

eins-hverr, indef. pron. = einnhverr.

ein-skapan, f. the right to fix one’s own terms; -skipa, a. indecl. with a single ship (þú sigldir einskipa); ein-skirr, a. perfectly clear (einskírt veðr); -skjaldar, adv. under the same shield, acting together; -skora (), v., einskora hug sinn, to make up one’s mind; -skærligr, a. pure.

eins-liga, adv. privately, singly; -ligr, a. (1) single = einfaldr; einslig tala, singular number; (2) private (einslig áminning); (3) especial, particular.

ein-staðar, adv. in some place; -staka, a. indecl. single, occurring nov and then, here and there; -stapi, m. a kind of fern; -stigi, n. narrow path; -strengja (-da, -dr), v. to make firm; einstrengja þá ætlan fyrir sér at, to resolve firmly; -stœðr, a. solitary, bereaved.

eins-vígi, n. single combat, = einvígi.

ein-sýnn, a. (1) one-eyed; (2) evident, obvious; at einsýnu, evidently; -sætt, a. n. clear, evident, only in the phrase, e-t er einsxtt, is the only thing to be done; -sögn, f. a single person’s statement; -tal, n. private conference (ganga á eintal); -talat, pp. n., varð þeim eintalat um Helgu, they talked of nothing but H.; -teiti, a. in high spirits, quite merry; -tómi, a. quite unoccupied, disengaged; -trjánungr, m. a boat made of a single tree.

einugi, neut, dat. from ‘engi’; e. feti framarr, not a step further.

ein-urð, f. = -örð; -vala, a. indecl. chosen, select; einvala kappi, great champion; einvala lið, picked troops; -vald, n. absolute government, sole sovereinity; tiundi vetr einvalds hans, the tenth year of his reign; -valdi, m. monarch, sovereign (einvaldi e-s or yfir e-u); -valdr, m. = -valdi).

einvalds-herra, -höfðingi, m. autocrat, monarch; -konungr, m. absolute king; -ríki, n. absolute sway, empire.

ein-valinn, pp. select, picked; -vild, f., -vili, m. self-will; -virðing, f. one’s own choice; af einvirðingu, especially.

einvirðu-liga, adv. exceedingly, especially; -ligr, a. especial.

ein-virki, m. single worker, a poor husbandman who has no servants; -vist, f. solitude; vera einvistum, to live alone; -vígi, n. single combat, duel; einvígis-maðr, m. one who fights in single combat, a duellist.

ein-vænn, a. in a hopeless state, sinking fast (liggja, vera, einvænn); -völdugr, a. absolute; -vörðungum, adv. particularly; -yrki, m. = -virki; -þykki, n. self-will; -þykkr, a. self-willed, stubborn; -æri, n. term of one year; -ærr, a. lasting one year, of one year (einær tíund); -ætl, n. pl., only in the phrase, eta e-t einætum, to eat alone, in private; -örð (gen. -arðar), f. (1) franknes, boldness, fairness (hafa einörð til at ganga við e-u); einörð várrar frásagnar, the fairness of our story; (2) fidelity, loyalty (at landsfólkit mundi snúit frá einörðinni við konung); (3) firm conviction (þat er einörð mín, at þat er at engum kosti rétt).

Eir, f. one of the heathen goddesses.

eir, n. brass, copper.

eira (-ða, -t), v. (1) to spare, with dat. (at þeir skyldu eira konum ok kirkjum); e. undan e-u, to yield to; (2) e-m eirir e-t vel (illa), it agrees well (ill) with one, he is well pleased (displeased) with it (Eiríki konungi eirði þetta stórilla); honum eirir illa, ef, he is annoyed, if; (3) e. e-n af e-u, to deprive one of.

eir-altari, n. brazen altar; -baugr, m. brazen ring.

eirð, f. clemency, mercy.

eir-guð, m. an idol of brass; -hjálmr, m. brazen helmet.

eirinn, a. forbearing, lenient.

eir-ker, n. brazen vessel; -ketill, m. brazen kettle; -kross, m. brazen cross; -kyrtill, m. brazen cloak; -ligr, a. brazen; -nökkvi, m. brazen boat; -ormr, m. brazen serpent; -peningr, m. brass coin, copper coin; -pípa, f. brass tube; -skjöldr, m. brazen shield; -steypari, m. brass-founder; -stólpi, m. pillar of brass; -teinn, m. brass wire; -uxi, m. brazen ox (image).

eisa, f. glowing embers.

eisa (), v. (1) to rush on; ganga eisanda, to go dashing through the waves (of a ship); eisandi úðr, foaming wave; (2) eisa eldum, to shower down embers.

eiskald, n., eisköld, f. poet. heart.

eiskra (), v. to roar, rage.

eiskran, f. roaring, raging.

eista (gen. pl. eistna), n. testicle, stone (eistun þrútnuðu).

Eistland, n. Esthonia.

eistriestir, a. Esthonian.

Eistr, Eistrir, m. pl. the Esthonians.

eitla (), v., only in the phrase, e. augum, to look stern.

eitr, n. poison (kasta eitri í drylk); fig. bitterness, malice.

eitra (), v. to poison (eitra smyrsl); eitraðr, poisonous (eitrat hatr).

eitr-á, f. poisonous stream; -blandinn, pp. impregnated, tainted with poison, poisoned, envenomed; -blásinn, pp. swollen up with poison; -blástr, m. (1) inflammation from poison; (2) poisonous breath; -bólginn, pp. = eitr-blásinn; -dalr, m. ‘venom dale’; -drep, n. deadly poison, poisoning; -drepinn, pp. killed by poison, poisoned; -dropi, m. drop of poison; -drykkr, m. poisoned drink; -eggjaðr, pp. having a poisoned edge; -fár, a. venomous (eitr-fár ormr); -fluga, f. venomous insect; -fullr, a. kind of poison; -herðr, pp. tempered in poison (sverðit var -hert í); -kaldr, a. deadly cold; -kveisa, f. venomous sore, a nickname; -kvikja, f. venomous yeast; -kvikvendi, n. venomous creature; -ligr, a. poisonous; -maðkr, m. venomous maggot; -naðra, f. poisonous adder; -ormr, m. poisonous serpent; -padda, f. venomous toad.

eitrs-fullr, a. full of venom.

eitr-tandraðr, pp. glittering with poison, = eitr-fár.

ei-vesandi, pr. p. everlasting, eternal; -vist, f. = eilífi.

ek, pers. pron. I; in poetry and old prose a pronominal k is suffixed to the verb, emk = em ek, vask = vas ek; sák = sá ek; mundak = munda ek; even if preceded by ek: ek sék, ek sitk; a preceding g becomes by assimilation k, hykk = hygg ek; the pronominal k is inserted between the suffixed negative, -a or -at, and the verb, sáka = sá ek-a, I saw not; veitka = veit ek-a, I know not.

ekja, f. carting, carrying in a cart (sumir tóku til ekju).

ekju-vegr, m. cart-road.

ekka-lauss, a. griefless.

ekki, m. heavy, sobbing, sorrow, grief (angr ok ekki).

ekki, nom. and acc. neut. sing. of ‘engi’, nothing, nought; also used as adv., not, = eigi.

ekkja, f. widow (var þat lítit, at bera ekkju nafn); poet. woman.

ekkju-búnaðr, m. widow’s weeds; -dómr, m. widowhood; -lífi, n. widowed life; -sonr, m. widow’s son.

ekla, f. dearth, want.

ekra, f. corn-field, acre.

él, n. (1) shower of rain, snow or hail; (2) fig. a hot fight.

elda (elda, eldr), v. (1) to light, kindle a fire (hann eldir undir katlinum); with dat. of the fuel (e. viði); (2) to kindle, light, set fire to, with acc.; e. vita, to kindle a beacon; fig., e. hug e-s, to kindle one’s mind; ek skal yðra húð e. knáliga með klungrum, I shall make you smart; (3) to heat, warm (e. hús, e. ofn til brauðs) to smelt; fig., e. grátt silfr, to be bad friends; (4) impers., eldi hér lengi af með þeim brœðrum, the spark of resentment was long felt among the brothers; (5) it clears up; eldi nokkut élit (acc.), the shower cleared up a little; nótt (acc.) eldir, the night brightens, the day dawns.

eldast (d), v. refl. to grow, old; hann tekr nú at eldast mjök, he is beginning to age fast.

elda-hús, n., -skáli, m. = eldhús

eld-bakaðr, pp. baked on embers; -beri, m. fire-pan, brasier; -brandr, m. firebrand; -bruni, m. (1) fire, conflagration; (2) cauterization (at grœða með -bruna); -böllr, m. fireball; -fimr, a. inflammable, easily combustible; -fœri, n. pl. an apparatus for striking fire, tinder-box; -gróf, -gröf, f. fire-pit; -hús, n. (1) ‘fire-house’, hall or sitting-room; (2) kitchen.

eldhús-dyrr, f. pl. doorway of an eldhús; -fífl, n. an idiot who sits all day by the fire; -hurð, f. door of an eldhús; -skot, n. (see skot).

eldi, n. (1) procreation (hafa eðli til barna eldis); (2) fetus, offspring (eldi þat, er fram, kemr af kviði konunnar); komast frá eldi sínu, to be delivered of a child; (3) maintenance, feeding (þar er ekki gesta eldi mælt).

eldi-brandr, m. (1) firewood, fuel; (2) firebrand.

eldi-gamall, a. very old; -ligr, a. elderly, old-looking.

elding, f. (1) firing, heating, warming (ofnar til eldingar); (2) smelting, refining (gull þat, er stenzt e.); (3) lightning (því nast flugu eldingar ok reiðar); (4) daybreak, dawn (= nætr-elding).

eldinga-flaug, -flug, n., flash of lightning; -mánaðr, m. a month in which lightning is frequent.

eldi-skíð, n. piece of firewood; -stokkr, m. firebrand; -torf, n. turf for fuel.

eldiviðar-fátt, a. n., e-m verðr -fátt, one becomes short of fuel; -leysi, n. want of fuel; -stika, f. stick of firewood.

eldi-viðr, m. firewood, fuel.

eld-ker, n. brasier; -kveikja, f. fire-lighter; fást mun annat til eld-kveikna, something else will be got to light a fire with; -ligr, a. fiery, of fire (eldligr stólpi); -næmr, a. easily catching fire, flammable.

eldr (-s, -ar), m. fire; taka eld, drepa (upp) eld, to strike fire: kveikja (upp) eld, to light a fire; bregða (koma, skjóta) eldi í e-t, láta (leggja) eld í e-t, to set fire to, to set on fire; e. varð lauss ok lék skjótt, a fire broke out and spread rapidly; e. hraut af sverðum þeirra, sparks of fire flew from their swords.

eldr, pp. grown old, worn by age; kvazt e. vera mjök frá úfriði, said that he was too old for fighting.

elds-bruni, m. burning of fire; -daunn, m. smell of pre (kenna -daun); -fullr, a. full of fire; -gangr, m. raging of fire, conflagration; -glór, n. glare of fire; -gneisti, m. spark of fire; -gólf, n. hearth-floor; -gögn, n. pl. materials for firing; -gørð, f. making fire; -hiti, m. fiery heat.

eld-skáli, m. = eldaskáli; -skíð, n. = eldiskíð.

eld-skíða, f. = eldskíð, eldiskíð.

elds-kveykja, f. = eldkveikja; -litr, m. fiery hue; -liki, n. shape (likeness) of fire (í -líki); -ljós, n. fire-light; -logi, m. flame of fire; -matr, m. food of fire; -neyti, n. fuel; -písl, f. torture by fire; -sókn, f. fetching of fire; -stólpi, m. pillar of fire.

eld-stokkr, m. firebrand; -stó (pl. -stóar), fire-place, hearth.

elds-uppkváma, f. volcanic eruption; -váði, m. danger of fire; conflagration; -vélar, f. pl. fire devices; -verk, n. tending the fire; -viðr, m. eldiviðr; -vimr, m. gleam of fire; -virki, n. tinder-box.

eld-sætinn, -sætr, a. habitually sitting by the fire (for warmth); -tinna, f. flint to strike fire with.

elfar-bakki, m. bank of a river.

Elfar-byggjar, -grímar, m. pl. the dwellers on the banks of the Gotha (Gautelfr); -kvíslir, f. pl. the arms of the Gotha, also used of the mouths of the Nile; -sker, n. pl. the skerries at the mouth of the Gotha.

elfr (gen. elfar, dat. and acc. elfi), f. river; esp. as prop. name in Saxelfr, the Elbe; Gautelfr or Elfr, the river Gotha (in Sweden); Raumelfr (in Norway).

elfskr, a. from the river Gotha.

elg-fróði, m. centaur (a monster half man and half elk).

elgja-gröf, f. elk pit; -hold, n. flesh of the elk; -veiðr, f. elk-hunting.

elgr (-s, -ir), m. elk.

elg-skógr, m. a forest with elks.

eligr, a. mean, poor, = æligr.

Eli-vágar, m. pl. (mythological name).

elja, f. a rival wife (þær konur eru eljur er einn mann eigu).

eljan, f. endurance, energy.

eljanar-lauss, a. wanting energy, inactive.

eljara-gletta, f. pertness, sarcasm.

eljun, f. = eljan; eljunar-leysi, n. want of energy, weakness; -maðr, m. energetic man.

eljun-frœkn, a. doughty (seldusk eiða eljunfrœknir); -lauss, a. = eljanarlauss; -leysi, n. = eljunarleysi.

él-kaldr, a. ice-cold (of a stream).

ella, adv. and conj. (1) else, otherwise (skaltu eigi annat þora en fara ella skal ek drepa þik); eða ella, or else; eða heit hvers manns níðingr ella, or else be called the ‘nithing’ of every man; (2) or, or else (annathvárt at koma honum á mitt vald, ella drepa hann sjálfr).

ellar, adv. and conj. = ella, elligar.

elli, f. old age (fyrir e. sakir).

elli-belgr, m. the ‘slough’ of old age (kasta -belginum); -bjúgr, a. bowed down with age; -dagar, m. pl. old days; -dauðr, a. verða -dauðr, to die of old age.

elliði, m. a kind of ship; elli-dómr, m. old age.

ellifti, ord. numb. the eleventh.

ellifu, card. numb. eleven.

elli-gamall, a. very old.

elligar, adv. and conj. = ella.

elli-glöp, n. pl. dotage of old age.

él-ligr, a. showery-looking (þótti mér nökkut él-ligt vera).

elli-hamr, m. = -belgr; -hrumr, a. decrepit with age; -hærur, f. pl. hoariness of age; -karl, m. old man; -lyf, n. medicine to keep off old age; -móðr, a. weary with age; -sjúkr, a. infirm through age; -stoð, f. stay of old age; -tíð, f. time of old age; -vafa, f. decrepitude, infirmity of age; -vamm, n. blemish of old age; -þokki, m. oldish look (hratt hón af sér elli-þokka).

ellri, a. compar. elder, older.

ellztr, a. superl. eldest, oldest (ellztr brœðranna; hinn ellzti sonr).

elma, f. branch, twig.

elna (), v. to wax, grow; sótt elnar á hendr e-m, e-m elnar sóttin, one’s illness becomes worse.

elptr (gen. elptar), f. swan (= álpt).

elri, n., elrir (gen. -is), m. alder.

elris-hundr, m. the wind (poet.).

elska (), v. to love (hann elskaði ekki annat goð meir en Frey); refl., elskast at e-m, to grow fond of; recipr., to love one another (höfðu þau Jón elskazt frá barnœsku).

elska, f. love (= ást); hafa elsku á e-m, to love one; leggja elsku á e-n or við e-n, to take a fancy for, to fall in love with one.

elskan-liga, adv. lovingly; -ligr, a. beloved, lovable.

elskari, m. lover (e. e-s).

elskhuga-maðr, m. lover, = elskari.

elsk-hugi, m. (1) love; (2) beloved person (minn ágætr elskhugi).

elskr, a. fondly attached to one (e. at e-m), of persons and animals.

elsku-band, n. tie (bond) of love; -bragð, n. deed of love; -fullr, a. full of love; -grátr, m. tears of love; -grein, f. a special kind of love; -lauss, a. loveless; -leysi, n. lovelessness; -liga, adv. (1) lovingly; (2) heartily, delightfully; -ligr, a. (1) affectionate; (2) beloved, dear (e. faðir!); elskuligr e-m, dear to one; -mark, n. token of love.

elta (elta, eltr), v. (1) to knead (e. leir); ek skal yðra búð e. (belabour) með klungrum; (2) to chase, pursue; e. óxn með vendi, to drive cattle with a goad; e. sauði, to run after sheep; refl., eltast eptir e-m, to pursue eagerly.

elting (pl. -ar), f. pursuing, chasing.

embætta (-tta, -tt), v. (1) to attend, serve, wait upon, e. e-m (eiga gestum. at e.); e. fé, to attend to the cattle, to milk; (2) to administer the sacrament to one (e. e-m).

embætti, n. (1) service, = þjónosta 1; veita e-m e., to serve one; bindast í e-s e., to enter one’s service; guðligt e., holy service; hefi ek mörg vandræði þolat í þinu e., in your service; (2) the sacrament, eucharist, = þjónosta 3; (3) office (biskupligt e.); bjóða e-m af e., to depose one from office.

embættis-fœrr, a. able to perform one’s duties; -gørð, f. performance of a (religious) duty; -lauss, a. holding no office (of a priest); -maðr, m. (1) servant; (2) priest.

emenda (), emendera (), v. to emend (a book).

emja (), v. to howl, shriek.

emjan, f. howling, shrieking.

en, conj. (1) but; en heima mun ek sitja, but I will stay at home; (2) as a copulative, and, = ok; ek kann ráðum, Gunnhildar, en kappsemd Egils, I know the devices of G. and (on the other hand) Egil’s eagerness; (3) = ‘an’, than (óbrigðra vin fær maðr aldregi en mannvit mikit).

en, in Norse MSS. = ef, er (rel. pron. and temp. conj.); (1) if; sælar væri sálurnar, en þær vissi, if they knew; (2) as a rel. pron., = er; mína dóttur, en (= er) allra meyja er fegrst, who is the fairest of all maidens; (3) when, = er, þá er (þeir vóru í hjá, en upp var lesit).

enda, conj. (1) with subj. (a standing phrase in the law connecting the latter clause of a conditional premiss) if, and if, and in case that, and supposing that; nú hefir maðr sveinbarn fram fœrt í œsku, enda verði sá maðr veginn síðan, þá …, if a man has brought a boy up in his youth, and it so happens that he (the boy) be slain, then …; (2) even if, allhough, with subj. (seg mér, hvat til berr, at þú veizt fyrir úorðna hluti, enda sér þú eigi spámaðr); (3) even; þá skal hann segja búum sínum til, enda á þingi, even in parliment; (4) if only with subj. (fyrir engan mun þori ek at vekja konunginn en segja má ek honum tíðindin, ef þú vill, enda vekir þú hann); (5) and indeed, and of course, and also, and besides; enda skulum vér þá leysa þik, and then of course we shall loose thee; sýnist þat jafnan, at ek em fégjarn, enda man svá enn, and so it will be also in this case; (6) and yet; eigi nenni ek at hafa þat saman, at veita Högna, enda drepa bróður hans, I cannot bear to do both, help H. and yet kill his brother; (7) ellipt. without a preceding premiss; enda tak þú nú øxi þína, and now take thy axe.

enda (, or enda, ent), v. (1) to end, coming to an end (í því sama klaustri endi hann sína æfi); impers., endar þar sögu frá honum, the tale of him ends there; (2) to fulfil, perform (e. heit sitt); (3) to mark the end of, to bound (af suðri endir hana [i. e. Asia] úthafit); (4) refl., endast, to end, come to an end (reiði mannsins endist á einu augabragði); to last, hold out (berjast meðan dagrinn endist); meðan mér endast föng til, as long as my provisions last; ef honum endist aldr til, if he lives so long; meðan mér endast lífdagar, meðan ek endumst, as long as I live; to turn out, to end (well or ill), to do (enda mun þat fám bóndum vel e. at synja mér mægðar).

enda-dagr, m. the last day, day of death (vita sinn -dag); -fjöl, f. end-board (of a chest); -lauss, a. endless, eternal (endalaus pína, farsæld); -liga, adv. definitively, finally; -ligr, a. definitive, final (endaligt svar); -lok, n. pl. end, conclusion; -lykt, f. = -lok; -mark, n. end, limit; endamörk ríkis þíns, the end of thy reign; -merki, n. limit, boundary; -mjór, a. thin at the end, tapering; gera eigi endamjótt við e-n, not to leave one in the lurch, treat one well to the end; -þarmr, m. rectum.

endemi, endimi, n. = eindœmi 2, something unexampled or unheard of (þat er undr ok endemi); heyr á endemi, for shame!

endemis-maðr, m. a monster, an extraordinary person.

endemligr, a. wonderful, strange.

endi and endir, m. (1) the end (extremity) of an object (þar var skáli mikill ok dyrr á báðum endum); (2) conclusion, end, issue (hvern enda eiga mundi málit); gera enda á e-u, koma enda á e-t, to bring to an end; vera á enda, to be at an end; S. var vistum með föður sínum til enda, S. stayed with his father to the end; eigi er fyrir enda um gert með þeim, their difference is not settled between them upphaf ok endir, beginning and end; hér skal nú ok endir á verða, here it shall come to an end; sá varð endir á, at, the end of it was, that; til alls endis, to the very end.

endi-land, n. borderland; -lönd, n. confines; -langr, a. along the whole extent of, from one end to the other (ríða um endilangt herað); ok lagðist þar endilangr, at full length; um endilangt, at endilöngu, lengthways; -lauss, a. = endalauss; -leysa, f. nonsense (-lokleysa); -liga, adv. (1) finally (staðfesta endiliga); (2) completely; -ligr, a. = endaligr; -lok, n. pl. = endalok; til endiloka heims, to the end of the world; -lykt, f. = endalykt; -mark, n. (1) limit, end; (2) boundary; (3) aim, end; -merki, n. = endamerki.

endimi, n. see endemi, eindœmi.

ending, f. ending, termination.

endir, m. esp. in nom., = ‘endi’ (upphaf ok endir míns máls).

end-langr, a. = endilangr.

endr, adv. (1) in times of yore, formerly, = endr fyrir löngu; (2) again (svá kom Óðins son endr at hamri); (3) endr á sinnum, endr ok stundum, from time to time, now and then.

endranær, adv. at other times, else (bæði þá á endramer).

endr-bati, m. = endrbót; -batna (), v. to get well again, recover; -beiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to ask again; -bera (see bera), v. to regenerate; -borinn, pp. reborn, regenerated; -bót, f. restoration, regeneration; -búa (see búa), v. to renew, restore; -bœta (-tta, -ttr), v. to repair, restore (þat þarf at endrbœta, er áðr hefir farizt); -bœtari, m. restorer; -bœting, f. restoration, restitution; -bœtingr, m. a thing that wants repair; -förn, f. presenting, again; -fórna (), v. to present again; -fœða (-dda, -ddr), v. to regenerate, = endrbera, endrgeta; -gefendr, m. pl. those who give again; -geta (see geta), v. = endrfœða; -getnaðr, m. regeneration; -getning, f. = endrgetnaðr; -gjald, n. repayment, return; -gjalda (see gjalda), v. to pay back, to repay; -grœða (-dda, -ddr), v. to heal again; -hreinsa (), v. to purify again; -hrœra (-ða, -ðr), v. to move again; -lausn, f. redemption; -lifga (), v. to call to life again; -lifna (), v. to return to life, to revive; -minnast (see minna), v. refl. to remember, call to mind, with gen.; -minning, f. remembrance, recollection; -mæli, n. repetition (verðr þat at endrmæli einu); -mœðing, f. tribulation; -nýja (), v. to renew, repeat; impers. (endrnýjaði sóttina í annat sinn); -nýjan, -nýjung, f. renewal; -reisa (-ta, -tr), v. to raise again; -rísa (see rísa), v. to arise again; -rjóða, a. indecl. downcast, dispirited; -semja, f. (see semja), v. to renew; -skapa (see skapa), v. to create anew, recreate; -smíða (), v. to rebuild; -taka (see taka), v. to resume, take up again (endrtaka til e-s); -tryggja (-ða, -ðr), v. to make secure again, reconcile; -þaga, f. renewed silence.

eng (gen. -jar, pl. -jar), f. meadow, meadow-land (hann villtist í enginni); pl. outlying grass-fields.

eng, engi, n. meadow, meadow-land (tún ok eng; akr ok engi).

engi (neut. ekki), indef. pron. (1) no, none, no one; hafa ekki e-s, to have nothing of it; lose it altogether (er búit við, at þú hafir þá ekki dýrsins); old dat. einugi = engu (fátt er svá illt, at einugi dugi); (2) any, after a negative (aldri fyrr fekk hann þvílíkan sigr í engri herferð); after comparative (þessir dvergar kunnu betr smíða af járni en engir aðrir).

engi-búi, m. a neighbour who has to appear in an engidómr; -dalr, m. meadow-valley; -dómr, m. a court to decide the possession of a contested meadow.

engill (pl. englar), m. angel.

engil-ligr, a. angelical (-lig ásjóna).

Engils-nes, n. Cape San Angelo.

engi-lykkja, f. an enclosed piece of meadow; -mark, n. (1) boundwy of a meadow; (2) the meadow within the boundary.

engis-höfn, f. possession of a meadow.

engi-skipti, n. division of a meadow.

engiskiptis-búi, m. = engibúi.

engis-maðr, m. owner of a meadow.

engi-sprett, n. grasshopper, locust; -teigr, m. strip of meadow-land; -verk, n. meadow-work; um engi-verk, during the time of mowing the meadows; -vöxtr, m. that which grows upon meadows.

engja-dómr, m. = engidómr; -gras-nautn, n. right of grazing, or making hay in the engjar; -merki, n. boundary between meadow-lands; -skipti, m. = engiskipti; -teigr, m. = engiteigr; -vöxtr, m. = engivöxtr.

engla-flokkr, m. host of angels; -fylki, n. one of the nine hosts of angels; -lið, n. coll. angels; -líf, n. life of angels; -mjöl, n. ‘angel-meal’, manna.

Englands-far, n. a ship that sails to England; -fari, m. one who makes voyages to England; -haf, n. the German Ocean; -sjör, m. the English Channel.

Englar, m. pl. the English, Englishmen (var kominn herr Englanna).

engla-rödd, f. Angelic voice; -skari, m., -sveit, f. host angels; -sýn, f. vision of angels; -söngr, m. song of angels.

Englis-maðr, m. Englishman.

enn (en, et), the oldest form of the def. art., = inn, hinn.

enn, adv. (1) yet, still (hann er enn ungr ok bernskr); (2) with compar., enn betri, verri, still better, worse.

enna, adv. = enn-na, yet; eigi enna, not yet (eigi veit ek enna).

enni, n. (1) forehead (þó spratt honum sveiti um enni); (2) a steep crag (in place-names).

enni-breiðr, a. having a broad forehead; -dúkr, m. head-band fillet; -leðr, n. skin of the forehead of animals.

ennis-brattr, a. having a straight-up forehead.

enni-snauðr, a. having a low forehead; -spænir, m. pl. ornamental work on ships of war both fore and aft; -svell, n. an icy slope.

ennis-vöxtr, m. shape of the fore-head.

enska, f. the Engish language.

enskr, a. Enghsh; enskir menn, Englishmen.

epla-át, n. eating of apples (fruit); -garðr, n. orchard; -kyn, n. a kind of apples or fruit.

epli, n. (1) apple; (2) tree-fruit (in general).

epli-berandi, pr. p. bearing apples.

eplóttr, a. dapple grey (of a horse).

ept, prep. = eptir (rare).

eptir, prep with dat. and acc.; I. with dat. (1) with verbs of motion, after (ríða, róa, fara, ganga, senda e-m); (2) denoting the aim and object of many verbs; leita, spyrja, frétta, e. e-u, to search, ask, inquire after; líta e. e-u, to look afler, attend to; bíða eptir e-u, to wait for; vaka e. e-m, to sit up waiting for one; segja e. e-m, to report behind one’s back; (3) following the course of a track, road, etc., along; niðr e. hálsinum, down the hill; e. endilongu, from one end to the other; e. miðju, along the middle; (4) after, according to, in accordance with (e. sið þeirra ok lögum); hann leiddist e. fortölum hennar, he was led by her persuasion; gekk allt e. því sem H. hafði sagt, according as H. had said; (5) denoting proportion, comparison; fátt manna e. því sem hann var vanr, few men in comparison to what he was want to have; (6) with verbs denoting imitation, indulgence, longing after; láta e. e-m, to indulge one; breyta e. e-m, to imitate; (7) behind (hann leiddi e. sér hestinn); fundust e. þeim írskar bœkr, which they had left behind; II. with acc. (1) of time, after, in succession to (vár kom e. vetr); hvern dag e. annan, one day after the other; ár e. ár, dag e. dag, year by year, day by day; e. þat, after that, thereafter; (2) denoting succession, inheritance; taka e-t í arf e. e-n, to inherit from one; hann tók konungdóm e. föður sinn, after his father; vita þá skömm e. sik, to leave such a bad report; skaði mikill er e. menn slíka, there is a great loss in such men; III. as adv. (1) after; annat sumar e., the second summer after; um daginn e., the day after; e. um várit, later during the spring; e. koma úsvinnum ráð, the fool is wise when too late; (2) behind; bíða sitja e., to wait, stay behind; vera, standa e., to remain behind, be left; halda e-u e., to keep back; skammt get ek e. þinnar æfi, I guess that little is left of thy life; (3) before the rel. part., e. er = e. þat er, after (ef maðr, andast á þingi e. er menn eru á braut farnir); (4) e. á, afterwards, later on; in addition.

eptir-bátr, m. a boat in tow; fig., vera eptirbátr e-s, to be inferior to one; -burðr, m. afterbirth; -dvöl, f. stay; eiga eptirdvöl, to make a stay; -dœmi, n. example; -farandi, pr. p. following, subsequent; -ferð, f. pursuit; -frétt, f. inquiry; -fœriligr, a. investigable; -för, f. = eptirferð; veita e-m eptirför, to pursue one; -ganga, f. (1) prosecution of a suit to get redress; (2) support, aid; (3) imitation (í eptirgöngu hans dœma); -gangr, m., -gengi, n. = -ganga 2; -glíkjari, m. imitator.

eptirgöngu-kona, f. (a female) underling (ek mun eigi vera -kona hennar); -maðr, m. a supporter, follower.

eptir-gørð, f. funeral honours, esp. gifts for the soul of the dead; -komandi, pr. p. following, future; -komari, m. = -glíkjari; -komendr, m. pl. offspring, descendants; -kæra, f. prosecution (taka málit til eptirkæru); -latligr, a. agreeable, pleasing; -látr, látsamr, a. indulgent; sér eptirlátr, self-indulgent; -leifar, f. pl. remains; -leit, f. (1) search; (2) application to a person; -leitan, f. = eptirleit; -lífi, n. indulgence, self-indulgence.

eptirlífis-maðr, m. self-indulgent man; -synd, f. the sin of self-indulgence.

eptir-lífr, a. self-indulgent; -líking, f. imitation; -líkja (-ta, -t), v. to imitate, with dat.; -líkjandi (pl. -endr), m., -líkjari, m. imitator; -læti, n. (1) complaisance, compliance; (2) indulgence, gratification of one’s desires; (3) enjoyment.

eptirlætis-lífi, n. life of self-indulgence; -þjónosta, f. act of indulgence.

eptir-mál, n. an action on behalf of a person slain against the slaver; eiga -mál eptir e-n, um e-n, to have, the right and duty to take aclion against the slayer; -máli, m. epilogue, opp. to ‘formáli’; -máll, a. compliant (e-m or við e-n, with).

eptirmáls-maðr, m. prosecutor in a blood-feud (eptirmál).

eptir-mælandi (p]. -endr), m. = eptirmálsmaðr; -mæli, n. (1) = -mál; (2) compliance, indulgence; veita e-m eptirmæli, to take one’s part; (3) good report.

eptirmælis-maðr, m. a person who is eptirmáll.

eptir-rás, f. running after, pursuit; -reið, f. pursuit on horseback; -reikna (), v. to reflect on; -róðr, m. rowing in pursuit of one.

eptirrýningar-maðr, m. one clever at detectingwhat is unknown (-maðr um stuldi); -samr, a. clever at detection.

eptir-seta, f. remaining behind; -sjá, f. (1) looking after, attention, care; (2) regret, grief; e-m er eptirsjá at e-u, one misses a thing, grieves at the loss of; -skoðan, f. examination, search; -sókn, f. a seeking after, pursuing; -staða, f. what remains, arrears; -staðsi, a. remaining behind; verða eptirstaðsi, to remain behind; -sýn, f. looking after one.

eptri, a. compar. (1) aftermost, hindmost, opp. to ‘fremri’ eptri fótr the hind leg; hit eptra austrrúm, the hindmost pumping place; (2) later, latter, opp. to ‘fyrri’.

er (older form es), rel. part. in old poems and in law phrases ‘es’ is suffixed to a demonstrative or interrogative word, pron. or adv., as s: sás, sús, þats, þeims, þærs; þars, þás, þegars, síðans, hveims, hvars, &c., = sá es, sú es, þar es, þá es, &c. I. used as a rel. pron., indecl., who, which, that; (1) Mörðr hét maðr, er (nom.) kallaðr var gígja; grös fögr, er (acc.) hón hafði í hendi; aðra hluti þá, er (gen.) menn vildu visir verða; þann einn son, er (dat.) hann ann lítit; (2) with a prep. placed at the end of the sentence; land, er hann kom frá, the land he came from; jötunn, er ór steini var höfuðit á (viz. honum), whose head was of stone; (3) ellipt., the prep. being understood; ór þeim ættum, er mér þóttu fuglarnir fljúga (viz. ór), from the quarter that I thought the birds flew from; þeir hafa nú látit líf sitt, er mér þykkir eigi vert at lifa (viz. eptir), whom I think it is not worth while to outlive; (4) a personal or demonstr. pron. may be added to the rel. part., er þú, er þik; er hann, er hón, er hana, er hans, er hennar, er þeim, er þeiri, er þeira, etc.; œrr ertu, Loki, er þú (who) yðra telr ljóta leiðstafi; sá maðr, er hann vill, that man who wishes; nema ein Goðrún, er hón æva grét, who never wept; ekkja heitir sú, er búandi hennar (whose husband) varð sóttdauðr; þann konung, er undir honum eru skatt-konungar, that king under whom are tributary kings; (5) in the fourteenth century added to the interrog. pron., hverr; þat herbergi, í hverju er hann (in which = er hann í því) hefir sitt ráð ok ræðr; II. as a conj. and adv. (1) local, er, þar er, there where; hann sá á eldinum fölskann, er netit hafði brunnit, where the net had been burnt; Ó. gekk þar til, er H. lá, to the spot where H. lay; (2) of time, er, þá er, when; ok er, and when; en er, but when; þar til er, until; í því er, just when; eptir (þat) er, when; þegar er, as soon as (þegar er lýsti, stóð konungr upp); síðan er, since; meðan er, while; næst er vér kómum, next when we came; þá lét í hamrinum, sem er reið gengr, as when it thunders; (3) = at, that; ok fannst þat á öllu, er hón þóttist vargefin, that she thought she was thrown away; ek em þess sæll, er okkart félag sleit, I am happy that; skyldi fara fyrst leyniliga, en þó kom þar, er allir vissu, but it came to this, that every one knew of it.

ér, nom. pl. to ‘þú’, ye, = þér.

erði, n. a heavy beam (Grettir þreif e. tvau, er lágu í skipinu).

erenda-lok, n. pl. the result (issue) of one’s errand; -maðr, m. errandman, messenger.

erendi, eyrendi, ørendi (also erindi, etc.), n. (1) errand, message, mission, business; eiga e. við e-n, hafa e. til e-s, to have business with one; reka e., to do an errand; þess erendis, to that purpose; (2) the result of one’s errand or mission (þótti mönnum hans e. lítit orðit); ef erendit eyðist, if the errand turns to nought; hefik erfiði ok e., I have had toil but also gained my quest; (3) ganga erenda (eyrna, ørna) sinna, to go to ease oneself; (4) speech; tala langt e. ok snjallt, to make a long and eloquent speech.

erendi (from ‘ør’ and ‘önd’), n. see ‘ørendi’.

erendis-lauss, a. without effect, vain; fara at -lausu, to go on a fool’s errand; -leysa, f. failure of one’s errand.

erend-laust, adv. in vain, to no purpose (fara -laust); -leysa, f. = erendisleysa; -reki, m. messenger.

erfa (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to honour with a funeral feast (síðan lét Egill e. sonu sina eptir fornum sið); (2) to inherit (erfir hón allt þat eptir börn sín).

erfð, f. inheritance; taka e., to take possession of an inheritance; taka, eignast e-t at e., to get or come into possession of by inheritance.

erfða-bálkr, m. the section of law treating of inheritance; -einkunn, f. hereditary mark (on cattle); -fé, n. heritage, inheritance; -goðorð, n. hereditary priesthood; -jörð, f. hereditary estate; -land, n. patrimony, land of inheritance; -maðr, m. heir; -mark, n. = -einkunn; -mál, n. lawsuit concerning an inheritance.

erfðar-jörð, f., -land, n., -maðr, m., see erfða-; -partr, m. share of inheritance; -úmagi, m. an ‘úmagi’, having an inherited right to receive support.

erfða-skipan, f. law or ordinance relating to inheritance; -öldr, m. funeral feast.

erfi, n. funeral feast (gøra e. e-s, e. eptir e-n; drekka e. e-s, eptir e-n).

erfiða (), v. (1) to toil, labour; (2) e. e-m, to cause one trouble; e. sér í e-u, to trouble oneself with; (3) to till (e. jörðina); (4) impers, erfiðaði sóttarfar hans, his illness grew more severe.

erfiðari, m. labourer.

erfið-drýgi, n. labor, laboriousness; -drœgr, a. difficult to do (varð þeim þat -drœgt).

erfiði, n. trouble, toil, labor; höfum e. ok ekki erendi, we have the toil, but no result.

erfidis-dauði, m. painful death; -laun, n. pl. recompense for labour or suffering; -léttir, m. relief, labour; -liga, adv. = erfiðliga; -munir, m. pl. exertion, difficulty; -neyð, f. grinding labour; -orka, f. hard, weary labour; -samr, a. toilsome; -verk, n. hard or heavy, work.

erfið-lífi, n. toilsome life; -liga, adv. with pain and toil; e-t horfir -liga, it looks hard; búa -liga við e-n, to treat one harshly; varð mér þar -ligast um, there I met with the greatest difficulties; -ligr, a. toilsome, difficult, adverse (margir hlutir erfiðligir).

erfiðr, a. difficult, hard, troublesome; oss verðr erfitt at þjóna Norðmönnum, it will be hard for us; Guðrún var erfið á gripakaupum, G. was troublesome (extravagant) in buying finery; hvíldist Helgi, því at honum var orðit erfitt, for he was exhausted; þó at honum væri málit erfitt, though he spoke with difficulty.

erfi-drápa, f. funeral poem; -flokkr, m. a short funeral poem; -kvæði, n. = erfi-drápa.

erfingi (pl. -jar), m. heir, child (þau áttu engan erfingja).

erfingja-lauss, a. childless (deyja-lauss); -leysi, n. childlessness.

erfi-nyti (gen. -nytja), m. heir, child (ek á ungan erfinytja).

erfis-gørð, f. holding, a funeral, feast (þá eyddist erfisgørðin).

erfi-veizla, f. funeral feast.

erfi-vörðr, m. poet. heir.

erfi-öl, n. funeral feast, = erfi-veizla.

erf-skinn, n. the skin of the glutton.

ergi, f. (1) lewdness, lust; (2) wickedness, devilry (með allri ergi ok skelmisskap); (3) unmanliness, unwarrior-like behavior with a strong connotation of effeminacy and passive homosexuality.

ergjast (ð), v. refl. to lose courage, grow faint-hearted (svá ergist hverr sem hann eldist).

erja (er, arða, arinn), v. (1) to plough (e. jörð sína); (2) to scratch, scrape (hann lætr erja skóinn um legginn).

erju-samr, a. intrusive.

erki-biskup, m. archbishop.

erki-biskupligr, a. archiepiscopal.

erkibiskups-dómr, m., -dœmi, n. archbishopric; -efni, m. archbishop-elect; -garðr, m. archbishop’s dvelling; -kosningr, m. election of an archbishop; -stóll, m. archiepiscopal seat (cf. erki-stóll).

erki-býsn, f. great portent.

erki-djákn, m. archdeacon; -prestr, m. archpriest; -stóll, m. = erki-biskupsstóll.

er-lendast, v. refl. to go into exile; -lending, f. exile; -lendis, adv. abroad, in a foreign land.

erlendis-víg, n. a manslaughter committed abroad.

erlendr, a. foreign, = ørlendr.

erma-drög, n. pl. sleeves reaching down to the feet; -kápa, f. cloak with sleeves; -langr, a. with long sleeves; -lauss, a. sleeveless.

erma-kjós, f. ‘sleeve-bag’, wide sleeve; -stúka, f. short sleeve.

ermita-klæði, n. pl. hermit clothes; -lífi, n. hermit life.

ermiti, m. hermit, = einsetumaðr.

Erm-land, n. (1) Armenia; (2) a province in Prussia.

erm-lauss, a. sleeveless, without sleeves = ermalauss.

ermr (gen. -ar, dat. and acc. -i; pl. -ar), f. sleeve.

ermskr, a. Armenian.

ern, a. brisk, vigorous; -ligr, a. vigorous-looking, sturdy.

erpi, n. a kind of wood.

erriligr, a. = ernligr.

erta (erta, ertr), v. to taunt, tease (er eigi gatt at erta illt skap); refl., ertast við e-n, to lease one.

erting (pl. -ar), f. teasing, provocation (margskonar ertingar).

ertinga-maðr, m. one who will stand teasing (engi-maðr).

ertla, f. wagtail (bird).

ertr (gen. ertra), f. pl. pease.

ertra-akr, m. pea-field; -reitr, m. bed of pease; -réttr, m. dish of pease; -soð, n., -vellingr, m. pea-soup.

es, old form for ‘er’, rel. part., and 3rd pers. sing. from ‘vera’.

eski, n. ashen box (e. Friggjar).

eski-mær, f. a lady’s maid.

eskingr, m. fine snow (like ashes).

eski-stöng, f. ash pole.

espingr, m. a ship’s boat.

ess, n. riding horse, steed.

eta (et; át, átum; etinn), v. (1) to eat (e. kjöt, mat sinn, dagverð); fig., e. orð sín, to eat one’s own words; (2) to consume; sorg etr hjarta, sorrow eats away the heart; refl., Gyðingar átust innan, er þeir heyrðu þetta, the Jews fretted inwardly on hearing this.

eta, f. (1) crib, manger; standa öllum fótum í etu, to live at rack and manger; (2) pl., etur, cancer (etur í andliti).

etall, a. consuming (e. ryðr).

etari, m. great eater, glutton.

etja (et, atta, attr), v. (1) to incite, egg (goad) on to fight, with dat.; e. hestum, to make horses fight; with acc., e. e-n til þolinmœði, to exhort one to patience; (2) e. hamingju, afli, við e-n, to match one’s luck, strength, with anolher’s; e. kappi við e-n, to contend in rivalry, vie with one; e. ráðum, hvárt …, to consider, if …; e. saman manndrápum, to incite two parties to manslaughter; (3) e. við e-t, to contend against; e. við aflsmun (liðsmun), to fight against odds; (4) to put forth; hann etr fram skallanum, he exposes his bare skull (to the blows); (5) to cause to be eaten; e. heyvi, heyjum, to feed cattle upon hay; (6) refl., etjast við e-n, to contend with one; ef menn etjast vitnum á, if men contend (plead) with witnesses.

etju-hundr, m. deer-hound, fox-hound; -kostr, m. hard condition; -tík, f. female hound, bitch-hound.

etki, neut. sing. from ‘engi’ and adv. = ekki.

etu-stallr, m. crib, manger (U. fal hann í etustalli), = eta (1).

ey, adv. (1) always, ever, = ei, æ; (2) not, = ei, eigi; ey manni þat veit, no man knows.

ey (gen. eyjar, dat. ey and eyju; pl. eyjar), f. an island; -bui, m. islander.

eyða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to make empty (auðr), clear of, deprive of its contents (e. allan fjörðinn bæði at mönnum ok fé); e. bygð (bœi ok borgir, heröð), to desolate, lay waste; (2) to desert, depart from (féllu sumir, en sumir eyddu hálfrýmin); e. veizluna, to break up the feast; e. þing, to dissolve the meeting; (3) to do away with, destroy, with dat. (eyddi eldr konum ok börnum); (4) to spend, squander (e. fé, peningum); (5) to render void in law, annul, with acc. or dat. (e. vígsmál or vígsmálum); (6) refl., eyðast, to come to nought; eyddist erfisgørðin fyrir honum, he let the funeral feast drop.

eyði, n. waste or ruinous state; leggja í e., to lay waste; vera (liggja) í e., to be deserted or ruined.

eyði-, in compds., deserted, uninhabited; -borg, f. deserted town or castle; -bygð, f. desert country; -dalr, m. desolate valley; -ey, f. desert island; -fjall, n. wild (barren) mountain; -fjörðr, m. desolale firth; -haf, n. a sea whose coasts are desolate; -hus, n. pl. deserted dwellings; -jorð, f. deserted farm; -land, n. desert land; -liga, adv. in a desolate state; -ligr, a. (1) perishable; (2) sad, cheerless (mér sýnist siðr þeirra veikligr ok -ligr); -mörk, f. desert wilderness; -rjóðr, n. desert clearing; -skemma, f. a deserted bower; -sker, n. desolate rock, skerry; -skógr, m. wild wood; -staðr, m. barren, desolate place; -tröð, f. deserted pen (for cattle); -veggr, m. ruinous wall.

eyðla, f. adder, = eðla.

Ey-firðingar, m. pl. the men of or from Eyjafirth; -firzkr, a. belonging to Eyjafirth.

eyfit, adv. poet. not at all (e. hefi ek fé); eyfit eitt, nothing at all.

eygðr, a. = eygr.

eygja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to furnish with a loop or eye (e. snöru); (2) to look (til e-s, at one).

eygló, f. ‘the everglowing’, poet. the sun.

eygr, a. having eves of a certain kind; vel e., with fine eyes; mjök e., large-eyed.

eyja-maðr, m. islander.

eyjar-endi, m. point of an island; -engi, n. meadow along a river; -kálfr, m. a small island close to a larger one; -maðr, m. islander; -nef, n. = -endi; -skeggi (pl. -skeggjar), m. = -maðr; -skekill, -skiki, m. strip of an island, small island; -sund, n. = eyjasund; -vist, f. stay in an island.

eyja-sund, n. a strait between islands (öll eyjasund ok firdir).

eyjóttr, a. full of islands.

eyk-hestr, m. cart-horse.

eyki, n. vehicle, cart.

eykja-fóðr, n. fodder for eyk(i)r; -gerfi, n., -reiði, m. = eykreiði.

eykr (-jar, -ir), m. beast of draught.

eyk-reiði, m. harness of an eykr.

eykt, f. (1) half-past three o’clock, p. m. (var þat nær e. dags); (2) time of three hours (þá er þógn hafði verit nær hálfa e.).

eyktar-helgr, f. = nónhelgr; -staðr, m. the place of the sun at half past three, p. m. (sól sezt í -stað); -tíð, f. = nóntíð.

eykt-heilagr, a. to be kept holy from eykt (half past three) of the preceding day, = nónheilagr.

ey-land, n. island; -lendingr, m. islander.

eyma (-da, -t), v. (1) to commiserate, pity; e. sík, to lament; (2) impers., eymir af e-u, one feels sore after something.

eymd, f. (1) misery, wretchedness; sjá e. á e-m, to pity one; (2) stinginess, meanness.

eymdar-dagr, m. day of distress; -ligr, a. piteous, pitiful; -orð, n. pl. wailing, lamentalion; -tíð, f. time of distress or tribulation; -tíðindi, n. pl. disastrous news; -tími, m. = eymdar-tíð.

eyra (pl. eyru), n. ear (eyrum hlýðir gestr, en augum skoðar); setja hnefa við e. e-m, to give one a box on the ear; leiða e-n af eyrum, to get rid of one; koma e-m til eyrna, to come to one’s ears, of news; hafa nef í e. e-m, to put the nose in one’s ear, to whisper to one, of a tell-tale.

eyrar-tangi, m. point of a gravel-bank (eyrr).

eyra-rúna, f. poet. mistress, wife.

eyrendi, -indi, n.; see ‘erendi’.

eyrir (gen. -is, pl. aurar), m. (1) ounce of silver, the eighth part of a mark (átta aurar í mörk); hringr, er stendr sex aura, a ring weighing or worth six aurar; verðr þá at hálfri mörk vaðmála e., then the eyrir is equal to half a mark in wadmal; e. brendr = e. brends silfrs, an ounce of pure silver; (2) ounce (svá var haglit stórt, at hvert haglkornit vá eyri); (3) money in general, property; ljósir aurar verða at löngum trega, bright silver brings long, woe; ilir af aurum, a miser; gefin til aura (= til fjár), wedded for money; hann vissi ekki aura sinna tal, he knew not the tale (extent) of his riches; lausir aurar, opp. to ‘fastr e.’, movables, chattels (lönd ok lausir aurar); fríðr eyrir (= frítt fé, kvikfé), cattle; (4) money, currency; Flosi spurði í hverjum aurum hann vildi fyrir hafa, asked in what money he wished to be paid.

eyris-bót, f. a fine of an eyrir; -kaup, n. a bargain to the amount of an eyrir; -lag, n. the worth of an eyrir (-lag lérepts); -land, n. land yielding a rent of an eyrir; -skaði, m. loss to the amount of an eyrir; -tíund, f. tithe of an eyrir; -tollr, m. toll of an eyrir; -þungi, m. the weight of an ounce.

eyrna or ørna, gen. pl., see ‘erendi 3’.

eyrna-blað, n. lobe of the ear; -bora, f. orifice of the ear; -búnaðr, m. ornament of the ear; -gull, n. earring; -heill, a. having sound ears; -lof, n. vain praise; -mark, n. earmark, on sheep and cattle.

eyrr (gen. eyrar, dat. and acc. eyri; pl. eyrar), f. sand or gravelbank, either of the banks of rivers (áreyrar, dalseyrar) or of a small point of land running into the sea, a spit.

eyr-silfr, n. quicksilver, mercury.

eyr-skár (acc. -skáan), a. galloping over the gravel banks.

eyröggr, a. = ørrugr.

Eystra-salt, n. the Baltic.

eystri, a. compar. more eastern; hit eystra, the eastern way.

ey-vana, a. much used to.

ey-verskr, a. pertaining to the Orkneys, from the Orkneys.

ey-vit, adv. = eyfit; ey-vitar (for ‘ey vættar’), adv., ey-vitu, adv. not, not at all.

ey-þolinn, m. the rivet in a clasp knife.

F

faðerni, n. (1) fatherhood, paternity; ganga við f. at e-m or e-s, kennast f. e-s, to acknowledge or admit paternity; at f. eða móðerni, on father’s or mother’s side; var hann ljóss ok fagr eptir f. sínu, like his father; (2) patrimony.

faðir (gen., dat. and acc. föður, pl. feðr), m. father.

faðma (), v. to embrace; refl., faðmast, to embrace one another.

faðman, f. embracing.

faðm-lag, n. embrace; -lagast, v. refl. = faðmast; -leggjast, v. refl. = leggjast í faðma, faðmast.

faðmr (-s, -ar), m. (1) the out-stretched or embracing arms; sofa (liggja) í faðmi e-m, to sleep (lie) in one’s arms; leggjast í faðma, to embrace each other; fallast í faðma, to be set off against each other, balance each other (málin vóru í dóm lagin, ok féllust vígin í faðma); (2) bosom (legg hönd þína í sjálfs þíns faðm); (3) a measure of length, fathom.

fagna (), v. (1) to rejoice in a thing (f. e-u, í e-u or af e-u); (2) f. e-m, to welcome one, receive one with good or bad cheer (var honum þar vel fagnat); (3) f. vetri, jólum, sumri, to rejoice, make a feast, at the beginning of winter, Yule, summer.

fagnaðar-atburðr, m. joyfull event; -dagr, m. day of rejoicing; -efni, n. matter of joy; -eyrendi, n. joyful message; -eyru, n. pl., e-t -eyrum, to hear with joy; -fullr, a. joyfull; -fundr, m. joyfull meeting; -grátr, m. weeping for joy; -heit, n. joyful promise; -krás, f. dainty; -kveðja, f. joyful greeting; -lauss, a. joyless; wretched, poor; -lof, n. praise from a joyous heart (syngja -lof guoi); -lúðr, m. trunpet of joy; -mark, n. sign of joy; -orð, n. pl. joyful words; -óp, n. shout of joy; -raust, f. voice of joy; -ráð, n. happy resolution; -saga, f. joyful news, = feginsaga; -samliga, adv. joyfully; -samligr, a. joyous, joyful; -skrúð, n. raiment of joy; -staðr, m. place of joy; -sýn, f. joyful sight; -sæll, a. (1) happy; (2) graceful, gracious; -söngr, m. song of joy; -tíð, f. time of joy; -tíðindi, n. pl. joyful, glad tidings; -tími, m. = -tíð; -veizla, f. joyful feast; -vist, f. abode of joy; -öl, n. joyous banquet.

fagnaðr (gen. -ar), m. (1) joy (eilífr f.); (2) welcome, greeting; (3) hospitable entertainment (gerðu henni fagnað þá viku alla); öl ok annar f., ale and other good cheer; (4) kunna sér þann fagnað, to be quite satisfied or content (kunni hann sér þá þann fagnað at girnast ekki á Svíakonungs veldi).

fagna-fundr, m. = fagnaðarfundr.

fagr (fögr, fagrt; comp. fegri), a. fair, fine, beautiful; f. sýnum, álitum, fair to see; fagrt veðr, fair (fine) weather; f. söngr, beautiful (sweet) song; fagrt kvæði, a fine poem; talaði fagrt, en hugði flátt, spoke fair, but thought else.

fagr-búinn, pp. beautifully, dressed, equippied; -endi, n. pl. costly, fair things; -eygr, a. fair-eyed; -ferðugr, a. graceful, virtuous; -flekkóttr, a. fair-flecked (of a snake); -gali, m. flattery (bera -gala á e-n, slá í -gala við e-n); -glóa, a. fair-glowing; -grœnn, a. bright or light, green; -hárr, a. fair-haired; -hljóðandi, pr. p. sweet-sounding; -hljóðr, a. sweet-voiced; -hljómandi, pr. p. = -hljóðandi; -klæddr, pp. fair-clad; -leikr, m. beauty, = fegrð; -leitr, a. of a fair complexion, beautiful; -liga, adv. fairly, beautifully; -ligr, a. (1) fine-looking, handsome; (2) agreeable (-lig þjönasta); -limi, m. ‘fair-branch’, a wood (poet.); -læti, n. blandishment; -máll, a. fair-spoken; -málugr, a. = -máll; -mæli, n. fair language; -mæltr, a. = -máll; -orðr, a. fair-spoken, bland; -rauðr, a. light-red; -skapaðr, pp. fair-shapen; -skrifaðr, pp. finely drawn, decorated with fine figures; -skýddr, pp. dressed in fine clothes; -variðr, pp. wearing fine clothes (of a lady); -vaxinn, pp. of fair stature; -yndi, n. = -endi; -yrði, n. pl. fair words; -yrðr, a. = -orðr.

fala (), v. to demand for purchase (f. e-t af c-m or at e-m; f. til e-s).

falda (feld; félt, féldura; faldinn), v. to array with a woman’s hood (f. e-n or e-m e-u, or með or við e-u); f. sik motri, með or við motri, to hood oneself with a motr; Brandr var faldinn, Brand had on a woman’s headgear; hjálmi faldinn, wearing a helmet.

falda (), v. (1) to hood (see prec.); (2) to fold; fá mer skyrtu þína, en ek skal f. hana saman, I shall fold it up; falda aptr, to unfold.

falda-feykir, m. a magical dance in which the hoods (faldar) flew off the ladies’ heads.

fald-lauss, a. hoodless.

faldr, m. (1) old; (2) hem of a garment; kyrtill hlaðbúinn í fald niðr, a kirtle laced down to the hems; (3) a sort of (woman’s) headgear, hood.

fall, n. (1) fall; f. er fararheill a fall bodes a lucky journy; koma e-m til falls, to cause one to fall; föll berast á e-n, one begins to reel or stagger; (2) fall, death in battle (í flótta er í. veist); (3) carcase of a slaughtered animal (cf. ‘nautsfall’, ‘sauðarfall’); (4) frequent deaths from plague (ef mýss gørðu mein á mat eða klæðum, þá kom f. í þær); (5) heavy sea (reis f. mikit alit frá grunni); (6) sin, transgression; (7) downfall, ruin, decay; f. engla, the fall of angels; gózin eru at falli komin, the estates are dilapidated; (8) quantity (of a vowel or syllable); (9) gramm., case.

falla (fell; féll, féllum; fallinn), v. (1) to fall; eigi fellr tré við fyrsta högg, a tree falls not with the first stroke; f. af baki, to fall from horse back; f. á kné, to fall on one’s knees; f. áfram (á bak aptr), to fall forwards (backwards); f. flatr, to fall prostrate; f. til jarðar, to fall to the ground; refl., láta fallast (= sik falla), to let oneself fall (þá lét Loki f. í kné Skaða); (2) to drop down dead, be killed, fall (in battle); (3) to die of plague (féllu fátœkir menn um alit land); (4) to flow, run (of water, stream, tide); særinn fell út frá landi, ebbed; féll sjór fyrir hellismunnann, the sea rose higher than the cave-mouth; síðan féll sjór at, the tide rose; þeir sá þá ós mikinn f. í sjóinn, fall into the sea; á fél (a river flowed) við skála Ásólfs; var skipit svá hlaðit, at inn féll um söxin, that the sea rushed in at the prow; (5) of clothes, hair, to fall, hang down; hárit féll á herðar honum aptr, the hair fell back on his shoulders; létu kvennváðir um kné falla, they let women’s dress fall about hi s knees; (6) to fall, calm down (of the wind); féll veðrit (the storm fell) ok gerði logn; (7) to fail, be foiled; sá eiðr fellr honum til útlegðar, if he fails in taking the oath, he shall be liable to outlawry; f. á verkum sínum, to have been caught red-handed, to be justly slain; f. or fallast at máli, sókn, to fail in one’s suit; f. frá máli, to give it up; fallinn at frændum, bereft of kinsmen; dœmi ek fyrir dráp hans fallnar yðrar eignir, I sentence your estates to be forfieited for his slaughter; refl., ef gerðarmenn láta fallast, if the umpires fail to do their duty; þá fallust öllum Ásum orðtök ok svá hendr, then voice and hands alike failed the Gods; féllust þeim allar kvéðjur, their greetings died on their lips; vill sá eigi falust láta andsvör, he will not fail or falter in replying; (8) to fall out happen; mér féll svá gæfusamliga (it befell me so quickly), at; stundum kann svá at f., at, sometimes it may so happen that; (9) to be had or produced (þat járn fellr í firði þeim; þar fellr hveiti ok vín); (10) with adv., e-m fellr e-t þungt, létt, a thing falls heavily, lightly upon one (þetta mun ðr þungt f.); féll þá keisaranum þyngra bardaginn, the battle turned against the emperor; e-m fellr e-t nær, it falls nigh to one, touches one nearly; henni féll meinit svá nær, at, the illness fell on her so sore, that; mér fellr eigi firr en honum, it touches me no less than him; hörmuliga fellr oss nú, at, it falls out sadly for us, that; (11) to please, suit; kvað sér, þat vel f. til attekta, said that it suited him well for drawing revenue from; honum féll vel í eyru lofsorð konungs, the king’s praise was pleasant in his ears; jarli féllst þat vel í eyru, the earl was well pleased to hear it; mun mér illa f., ef, it will displease me, if; féll vel á með þeim, they were on good terms; refl., honum féllst þat vel í skap, it suited his mind well, he was pleased with it; féllst hvárt öðru vel í geð, they loved each other; (12) with preps. and advs., f. af, to fall, abate (féll af vindr, byrr); f. á e-n, to befall one; þær féllu lyktir í, at, the end was, that; f. í e-t, to fall into; f. í brot, to fall in a fit; f. í óvit, to faint, swoon; f. í villu, to fall into heresy; f. í vald e-s, to fall into one’s power; féll veðrit í logn, the storm calmed down; f. niðr, to fall, drop; mitt kvæði mun skjótt niðr f., my poem will soon be forgotten; féll svá niðr þeirra tal, their conversation dropped, they left off talking; f. saman, to fill in with, agree; þó at eigi félli alit saman með þeim, though they, did not agree in everything; f. til, to occur, happen, fall out; ef auðna fellr til, if luck will have it so; litlu síðar féll til fagrt leiði, fair wind came on; öll þingviti, er til falla, all the fines that may fall in, be due; nema þörf falli til, unless need be; sem sakir falla til, as the case falls; f. undir e-n, to fall to one’s lot (of inheritance, obligation); arfr fellr undir e-n, devolves upon one; f. út, to recede, of the tide (þá er út féll sjórinn); f. við árar, to fall to at the oars.

fallerast (), v. refl., (1) to be mistaken; (2) to prove false; (3) to fall (with a woman).

fall-hætt, a. n., e-m verðr -hætt, one staggers, is in great danger of falling.

falligr, a. pretty, handsome (f. litr).

fallinn, pp. (1) svá f., such-like, so made or constituted (hví man hinn sami maðr svá f.); svá f. órskurðr, a decision as follows; (2) vel, illa f., well, ill-disposed (hann var vænn maðr ok vel f.); fitted, worthy (bezt til konungs f.); at hann væri betr til f. at deyja fyrir þá sök en faðir hans, that he more deserved to die than his father did; (3) neut., fallit, fit; ok hætti þá er honum þótti f., stopped when he thought fit; kallaði vel til f., said it was quite right; (4) suited to one (e-m); eigi þykki mér þér sú ferð vel fallin, I think this journey will not do for thee.

fall-jaki, m., -jökull, m. ice-berg; -sótt, f. plague (ef fallsótt kemr í fé manns); -staðr, m. a place to fall upon (leita sér -staðar); -valtligr, -valtr, a. unsteady, changeable, uncertain (-valtr fagnaðr þessa heims).

falr (-s, -ir), m. the socket of a spear-head, into which the shaft fits (spjótsfalr).

falr, a. for sale, to be sold; eiga (hafa, láta) falt, to have a thing for sale; mér eru e-t fait, I am willing to part with; þeir er mér eru falastir til þungs hlutar, whom I would most willingly let suffer.

fals, n. fraud, deceit, imposture.

fals-, in compds., false, fraudulent, forged.

falsa (), v. (1) to falsify, forge (f. rit, bréf, innsigli); (2) to defraud, impose upon (f. e-n); f. e-t af e-m, to get a thing from one by fraud (vil ek eigi, at þú falsir fé af mínum þegnum); to spoil (f. brynju).

falsaðr, pp. false, falsified, adulterated (f. guð, f. drykkr).

falsara-dómr, m. fraud, imposture.

falsari, m. impostor, deceiver.

fals-blandaðr, pp. blended with fraud, guileful; -bréf, n. false deed; -bróðir, m. false friar; -greifl, m. false count (Heinrekr -greifi); -guð, m. false god; -heit, n. false promise; -kona, f. false woman, harlot; -konungr, m. false, self-made king; -kostr, m. false virtue; -kristr, m. false Christ; -lausliga, adv. without fraud; -lauss, a. guileless; -laus máli, good money; -laust kaup, a bargain in good faith; -laust, adv. = -lausliga; -leysi, n. sincerity, honesty; -liga, adv. falsely; -ligr, a. false; -mær, f. harlot; -óttr, a. deceitful; -peningar, m. pl. false money; -postoli, m. false apostle; -púsa, f. unfaithful wife; -samliga, adv. = falsliga; -samligr, a. false, fraudulent; -silfr, n. bad (adulterated) silver; -spámaðr, m. false prophet; -trú, f. false doctrine, heresy; -váttr, m. false witness; -vilnan, f. deceitful hope; -vitni, n. false witness (evidence); -vitr, a. crafty, cunning.

fambi, m. fool: cf. ‘fimbul-fambi’.

fang, n. (1) grasp, hold; fá f. á e-m or af e-m, to get hold of one (fekk engi þeirra f. á mér); sá þeir, at þeir fengu ekki f. at Erlingi, they saw that they could not catch H.; (2) wrestling, grappling (taka f. við e-n, ganga til fangs); ganga á f. við e-n, g. í f. e-m, to grapple with one, provoke one; fangs er ván at frekum úlfi, it is hard to deal with a hungry wolf; (3) the space between the arms, the breast and arms; kom spjótit í f. honum, the spear pierced his breast; reka í f. e-m, to throw in one’s face; hafa e-t í fangi sér, to hold in one’s arms, to have in one’s power; taka í f. sér, to take into one’s arms (tók manninn í f. sér ok bar út); fœrast e-t í f., to undertake a thing, take upon oneself; fœrast e-t ór fangi, to throw off, refuse; (4) catching fish, fishing; halda (fara) til fangs, to go a-fishing; take, catch, draught (f. þat, er þeir áttu báðir); (5) fœtus in sheep and cows (ef graðungr eltir f. ór kú); (6) pl., föng, baggage, luggage; föng ok fargögn, luggage and carriage, provisions (öll vóru f. hin beztu); borð með hinum beztum föngum, a table with the best of cheer; (7) pl. means, opportunily; engi f. eru önnur á, there is no other choice; hafa f. á e-u, to be enabled to do a thing (höfðu eigi f. á at reka langt flóttann); af (eptir) föngum, to the best of one’s power, according to one’s means.

fanga (), v. to capture (áðr en hann var fangaðr); f. dauða, to catch one’s death, die.

fanga-brekka, f. wrestling ground (at the Althingi).

fangaðr, a. having means (föng) for doing a thing.

fanga-fár, a. short means or provisions; e-m verðr -fátt, falls short of provisions; -kviðr, m. a body of jurymen taken at random; -lauss, a. void of means or provisions; -leysi, n. want of stores; -lítill, a. vile, not worth fetching; -ráð, n. device, expedient; góðr, fljótr -ráðs, ready, quick at expedients.

fangari, m. wrestler.

fanga-stakkr, m. wrestling jerkin; -váttr, m. a witness taken at random; -vitni, n. testimony of a -váttr.

fang-brögð, n. pl. wrestling (takast -brögðum).

fangelsi, n. prison, jail.

fang-hella, f. a stone set on edge on a wrestling ground.

fangi, m. prisoner (rare).

fanginn, pp. captured; fig. enticed.

fang-lítill, a. yielding little produce; -staðr, m. a place to grasp or lay hold of; fá -stáð e-m, to get a hold of one; ljá -staðar á sér, to let oneself be caught; fangs-tíð, f. wedding season.

fang-sæll, a. having a good grasp, lucky; -taka, f. taking a hold (in wrestling); -vinr, m. an antagonist in wrestling (poet.).

fann-hvítr, a. snow-white; -mikill, a. snowy.

fantr (-s, -ar), m. (1) servant, footman (fant sé ek hvern á hesti, en lendir menn ganga); (2) landlouper, vagabond.

far, n. (1) a means off passage, ship; bjarga fari á floti, to save a vessel qflaat; in compds., a trading vessel (Íslands-far, Englands-far); (2) passage; taka (fá, ráða) sér fari or far, to take a passage in a ship; beiðast fars, to ask for a passage; synja e-m fars, to deny one a passage; banna e-m f., to forbid one to sail (cf. ‘farbann’); (3) trace, print, track (Sveinki rak lömb sín til fjöru í förin); villast hundarnir farsins, the hounds lose the track; of et sama f., on the same subject; (4) life, conduct, behaviour; í fari konungsins in the king’s character; (5) state, condition (gefa þeir eigi gaum um hennar far) f. veðranna, the course of the winds; at fornu fari, of yore, of old.

fara (fer; fór, fórum; farinn), v. (1) to move, pass along, go; gekk hann hvargi sem hann fór, he walked wherever he went; f. heim (heiman), to go home (from home); f. á fund e-s to visit one; fjöld ek fór, I travelled much; hann sagði, hversu orð fóru með þeim, what words passed between them; absol., to go begging (ómagar, er þar eigu at f. í því þingi); (2) with ‘ferð, leið’ or the like added in acc., gen., or dat.; f. leiðar sinnar, to go one’s way, proceed on one’s journey (= f. ferðar sinnar or ferða sinna, f. ferð sina, f. för sina, förum sínum); f. þessa ferð, to make this journey; f. fullum dagleiðum, to travel a full days journeys; f. stefnuför, to go a-summoning; f. bónorðsför, to go a-wooing; f. sigrför, to go on the path of victory, to triumph; f. góða för, to make a lucky journey; fig., f. ósigr, to be defeated; f. mikinn skaða, to suffer great damage; f. hneykju, skömm, to incur disgrace; f. erendleysu, to fail in one’s errand; with the road in acc. (f. fjöll ok dala); (3) f. búðum, bygðum, vistum, to move, change one’s abode; f. eldi ok arni, to move one’s hearth and fire; (4) f. einn saman, to go alone; f. eigi ein saman, to go with child (= f. með barni); (5) with infin.; f. sofa, to go to sleep (allir menn vóru sofa farnir); f. vega, to go to fight; f. leita, to go seeking (var leita farit); (6) with an adj., &c.; f. villr, to go astray; f. haltr, to walk lame; f. vanstiltr, to go out of one’s mind; f. duldr e-s, to be unaware of; f. andvígr e-m, to give battle; f. leyniliga (leynt), to be kept secret; eigi má þetta svá f., this cannot go on in that way; fjarri ferr þat, far from it, by no means; fór þat fjarri, at ek vilda, I was far from desiring it; (7) to turn out, end; fór þat sem líkligt var, it turned out as was likely (viz. ended ill); svá fór, at, the end was, that; ef svá ferr sem ek get til, if it turns out as I guess; á sómu leið fór um aðra sendimenn, it went the same way with the other messengers; (8) to fare well, ill; biðja e-n vel f., to bid one farewell; (9) to suit, fit, esp. of clothes, hair (ekki þykkir mér kyrtill þinn f. betr en stakkr minn; hárit fór vel); impers., fór illa á hestinum, it sat ill on the horse; (10) impers., e-m ferr vel, illa, one behaves or acts well, ill; honum hafa öll málin verst farit, he has behaved worst in the whole matter; e-m ferr vinveittliga, one behaves in a friendly way; (11) refl., esp. of a journey; farast vel, illa, to go well, ill; fórst þeim vel, they got on well; fórst þeim þá seint um daginn, they got along slowly; recipr., farast hjá, to pass one another without meeting, = f. á mis; f. í móti, to march against one another; (12) f. e-t höndum, to touch with the hands, esp. of a healing touch, = f. höndum um e-t (bið hann f. höndum meinit); f. land herskildi, brandi, to visit a land with ‘warshield’, with fire, to ravage or devastate it (gekk síðan á land upp með liði sínu ok fór alit herskildi); (13) to overtake (Án hrísmagi var þeirra skjótastr ok gat farit sveininn); tunglit ferr sólina, the moon overtakes the sun; áðr hana Fenrir fari, before F. overtakes her; (14) to ill-treat, treat cruelly; menn sá ek þá, er mjök höfðu hungri farit hörund, that had chastened their flesh with much fasting; (15) to put an end to, destroy; f. sér (sjálfr), to kill oneself; f. lífi (fjörvi) e-s, to deprive one of life; þú hefir sigr vegit ok Fáfni (dat.) um farit, killed F.; (16) to forfeit (f. löndum ok lausafé); (17) refl., farast, to perish; f. af sulti, hita, mœði, to die of hunger, heat, exhaustion; of a ship, to founder (fórst þar byrðingrinn); to be drowned (alls fórust þar níu menn); þá er bæði himinn ok jörð hefir farizt, when heaven and earth shall have passed away; ferst nú vinátta ykkur, your friendship is done with; f. fyrir, to come to nought (at síðr muni fyrir f. nökkurt stórræði); (18) with preps. and advs., f. af klæðum, to take off one’s clothes; f. at e-m, to make an attack upon, to assault (eigi mundi í annat sinn vænna at f. at jarlinum); f. at e-u, to mind, pay heed to; ekki fer ek at, þótt þú hafir svelt þik til fjár (it does not matter to me, I do not care, though); to deal with a thing, proceed in a certain way; svá skal at sókn f., thus is the pleading to be proceeded with; f. at lögum, úlögum, to proceed lawfully, unlawfully; f. mjúkliga at, to proceed gently; hér skulu við f. at með ráðum, act with, deliberation; impers. with dat., to do, behave; illa hefir mér at farit, I have done my business badly; to go in pusuit (search) of (víkingar nökkurir þeir sem fóru at féföngum); f. at fuglaveiðum, to go a-fowling; f. at fé, to tend sheep; f. á e-n, to come upon one; sigu saman augu, þá er dauðinn fór á, when death seized him; f. á hæl or hæli, to step back, retreat; f. eptir e-m, to follow one; f. eptir e-u, to go for, go to fetch (Snorri goði fór eptir líkinu; f. eptir vatni); to accommodate oneself to, conform to (engi vildi eptir öðrum f.); þau orð er eptir fara, the following words; f. fram, to go on, take place; ef eigi ferr gjald fram, if no payment takes place; veizlan ferr vel fram, the feast went on well; spyrr, hvat þar fœri fram, he asked, what was going on there; f. fram ráðum e-s, to follow one’s advice; allt mun þat sínu fram f., it will take its own course; kváðu þat engu gegna ok fóru sínu fram, took their own way; segir honum, hversu þeir fóru fram, how they acted; f. e-t fram, to do., perform a thing; spyrr hann, hvat nú sé fram faranda, what is to be done; f. fyrir e-t, to pass for, be taken for (fari sá fyrir níðing, er); refl., farast fyrir, to come to nought (fórst þat fyrir); f. hjá sér, to be beside oneself; f. í e-t, to go into (f. í tunnu); f. í sæng, rekkju, to go to bed; f. í sess sinn, sæti sitt, to take one’s seat; f. í klæði, to put on clothes, dress; f. í vápn, brynju, to put on armour; f. í lag, to go right or straight again (þá fóru brýnn hans í lag); f. í vöxt, to increase; f. í þurð, to wane; f. í hernað, víking, to go a-freebooting; nú ferr í úvænt efni, now matters look hopeless; to happen, occur (alit þat, er í hafði farit um nóttina); f. með e-t, to wield handle, manage; fór Hroptr með Gungni, H. wielded (the spear) Gungnir; f. með goðorð, to hold a goðorð; f. með sök, to manage a lawsuit; to practice, deal in; f. með rán, to deal in robbery; f. með spott ok háð, to go scoffing and mocking; f. með galdra ok fjölkyngi, to practice sorcery; to deal with, treat, handle (þú munt bezt ok hógligast með hann fara); f. af hljóði með e-t, to keep matters secret; f. með e-m, to go with one, follow one (ek skal með yðr f. með allan minn styrk); f. með e-u, to do (so and so) with a thing, to deal with, manage; hvernig þeir skyldu f. með vápnum sínum, what they were to do with their weapons; sá maðr, er með arfinum ferr, who manages the inheritance; f. með málum sínum, to manage one’s case; f. vel með sínum háttum, to bear oneself well; undarliga fara munkar þessir með sér, these monks behave strangely; f. með barni, to go with child; impers., ferr með þeim heldr fáliga, they are on indifferent terms; f. ór landi, to leave the country; f. ór klæðum, fötum, to take off one’s clothes, undress; f. saman, to go together; to shake, shudder; fór en forna fold öll saman, shivered all through; to concur, agree (hversu má þat saman f); f. til svefns, to go to sleep (= f. at sofa); f. um e-t, to travel over (f. um fjall); f. höndum um e-n, to stroke or touch one with the hands (hann fór höndum um þá, er sjúkir vóru); f. mörgum orðum um e-t, to dilate upon a subject; f. myrkt um e-t, to keep a matter dark; f. undan, to excuse oneself (from doing a thing), to decline, refuse (hvat berr til, at þú ferr undan at gera mér veizluna); borð fara upp, the tables are removed; f. út, to go from Norway to Iceland; to come to a close, run out (fóru svá út þessir fimm vetr); f. útan, to go abroad (from Iceland); f. við e-n, to treat one, deal with one in a certain way; margs á, ek minnast, hve við mik fóruð, I have many things to remember of your dealings with me; f. yfir e-t, to go through; nú er yfir farit um landnám, now an account of the settlements has been given; skjótt yfir at f., to be brief.

fara-bók, f. a book of travels, an itinerary; -hagr, m. travelling circumstances or condition.

farald, n. (mode of) travelling, in the phrase, hverju (or með hverju) faraldi (how, by what means) hann afði þar komit.

farandi (pl. -endr), m. traveller.

farand-kona, f. beggar-woman.

far-angr (gen. -angrs), m. luggage.

farar-bann, n. = farbann; -beini, m. furthering one’s journey; -blómi, m. travelling with pomp; -broddr, m. the front of a host; -búinn, pp. = farbúinn; -dvöl, f. delay; -efni, n. pl. equipment; -eyrir, m. money for travelling; -gögn, n. pl. necessaries for a journey; -greiði, m. conveyance; -haft, n. hindrance, stoppage; -hestr, m. nag, horse; -leyfi, n. leave to go; -mungát, n. ale for use on a journey; -nautr, m. = förunautr.

fararskjóta-laust, adv. without means of conveyance.

farar-skjóti, m. means of conveyance; -snúðr, m. speed on a journey; -stafr, m. walking-stick; -tálmi, m. hindrance, delay in one’s journey.

far-bann, n. prohibition of sailing, embargo; -bauti, m. ogre; -beini, m. = fararbeini; -borði, m., in the phrase, leita sér farborða, to take precautions (so as to get safe and sound out of a danger); -búinn, pp. prepared to sail, ready for departure.

fardaga-helgr, f. the Sunday in fardagar; -skeið, n. the time of fardagar.

far-dagar, m. pl. removing days (four successive days in summer, at the end of May, old style); -drengr, m. sea-faring man; -flótti, a. fugitive, exiled; -fúss, a. eager for departing; -fýsi, f. eagerness to depart or travel.

farga (), v. (1) with acc., to press; (2) with dat., to destroy, make away with.

far-gæfa, f. good luck on a Journey; -gögn, n. pl. luggage, baggage; -gørvi, n. travelling gear; -hirðir, m. ferry-man.

-fari, m. sea-farer, voyager, only in compds. (Dyflinnar-fari, Englands-fari); traveller (Jórsala-fari).

farinn, pp. (1) gone, undone; þá er farnir vóru forstöðumenn Troju, when the defenders of Troy were dead and gone; hans tafl var mjök svá farit, his gaine was almost lost; farinn af sulti ok mœði, famished and exhausted; f. at e-u, destitute of (f. at vistum, lausafé); tungl farit, a ‘dead’ moon, new moon; sól var skamt farin, the sun was little advaned, not long risen; þá var dagr alljós ok sól farin, broad day and the sun high in the sky; (2) so and so conditioned; vel andlits f., vel f. í andliti, well-favoured; mjök aldri f., stricken in years; vel orði (or orðum) f., well-spoken, eloquent; impers., e-m, er e-n veg farit, one is so and so; er eigi einn veg farit úgæfu okkar, our ill-luck is not of one piece; veðri var þannig farit, at, the weather was such that; hversu landinu er farit, what the condition of the country is; henni er þannig farit, at hón er mikil ey, löng, (viz. the island) is so shaped that it is large and long; fig., of disposition, character; er honum vel farit, he is a well-disposed man; þeim var úlíkt farit at mörgu, they were unlike in many respects; undarliga er yðr farit, ye are strange men; adding the prep. til: nú er annan veg til farit, now matters are altered; nú er svá til farit, at ek vil, now the case is, that I wish; (3) á förnum vegi, on the high-road (ef maðr andast á förnum vegi); hann kom heim af förnum vegi, from a journey.

far-kona, f. beggar-woman.

farkonu-sótt, f. a kind of disease.

far-kostr, m. a vessel, a ship; -lami, a. unable to go further on a journey; -leiga, f. passage-money; -lengd, f. journey, travels; -ljóss, a. light enough for travelling (nótt var þá farljós); -lög, n. pl. nautical law; -maðr, m. sea-faring man, seaman, travelling merchant.

farmanna-búðir, f. pl. merchant booths; -lög, n. pl. = farlög.

far-móðr, a. weary from travelling.

farmr (-s, -ar), m. freight, cargo (bera, flytja farm af skipi); load (in general); (2) contents (maðrinn finnr fötuna með sínum farmi).

far-mœða, f. tiredness or weariness from travelling.

farnaðr (gen. -ar), m. furtherance, speed (til farnaðar mér ok til ferðar); þar tit er hón kynni nökkurn farnað, till she had learned how to get on in the world.

far-nagli, m. plug (in a boat).

farnast (), v. refl., f. vel, to speed well; to be fortunate.

far-nest, n. provisions for a journey (í bagga hans var farnest hans).

farning, f. ferrying over, passage (veita e-m f.).

farningar-maðr, m. = ferjumaðr.

farningr (gen. -s), m. = farning.

far-rak, -rek, n. strait, dillema; at þú komir aldri síðan í slíkt farrak, in such a strait; þat hafði Þórði orðit til farreks, at, that mishap had befallen Thord, that.

farri, m. landlouper, vagrant.

far-skip, n. ferry-boat.

fars-kostr, m. = farkostr.

far-snilli, f. nautical art; -synjan, f. refusing to ferry one over.

far-sæla, f. good speed, prosperity, happiness; -sælast (d), v. refl., to speed well, have luck; -sæld, f. = -sæla; friðr ok farsæld, peace and happiness; -sæll, a. (1) speeding well in voyages (svá farsæll, at hann kaus sér jafnan höfn); (2) prosperous; -sælliga, adv. prosperously; -sælligr, a. prosperous, advantageous, useful (farsælligir hlútir).

farsælu-lauss, a. (1) luckless; (2) miserable.

far-tálmi, m. = farartálmi; -tekja, f. taking a passage in a ship; -vegr, m. (1) track (manna farvegr); (2) channel, bed of a river; (3) road, journey (langr farvegr); -þegi, m. passenger.

fast, adv. firmly, fast (sitja, standa binda, halda f.); sofa f., to sleep fast; drekka f., to drink hard; leita f. eptir, to urge, press hard; ryðjast um f., to make a hard onslaught; leggja f. at, to close with one (in a sea-fight); telja f. á e-n, to give one a severe lesson.

fasta (), v. to fast, abstain from food; f. þurt, to fast on dryfood.

fasta, f. (1) fast, fasting; (2) season appointed for fasting (níu vikna f.).

fasta-eign, f. real property, opp. to ‘lausafé’, ‘lauss eyrir’; -far, n., only in dat., (í) fastafari, eagerly, constantly; -góz, n. = fasta-eign.

fast-eygðr, -eygr, a. firm-eyed; -garðr, m. fastness, stronghold; fastgarðr er fyrir, there are great obstacles in the way; -haldr, a. (1) tenacious, saving; (2) steadfast, constant (fasthaldr á sinni fyrirætlan); -heitinn, a. true to one’s word; -heldi, f. (1) closeness, parsimony; (2) tenacity constancy; -hendr, a. close-fisted.

fasti, m. poet. fire; fœra e-n í fasta, to bring one into a strait.

fastla, adv. = fastliga.

fast-liga, adv. firmly, strongly; trúa -liga, to believe firmly; e-t horfir -liga, it looks hard, difficult; vera -liga kominn, to be set fast; -ligr, a. fast, firm, strong; -lyndr, a. firm, strong-minded; -máll, a. trusty; -mæli, n. pl. fast engagement (binda e-t fastmælum).

fastna (), v. (1) to pledge, promise solemnly (f. e-m lögbót); (2) to betroth (fastnaði Mörðr Hrúti dóttur sína); f. sér konu, to engage a wife; refl. fastnast, to be betrothed.

fastnaðar-mál, n. = festarmál; -öl, n. = festaröl.

fastnaðr (-ar), m. betrothal.

fastnandi (pl. -endr), m. betrother.

fast-næmr, a. (1) close-fisted; (2) firm, trusty (-næmr við vini sína).

fast-orðr, a. true to one’s word.

fastr, a. (1) fast, firm, sticking fast to the spot; hrútr f. (held fast, entangled) á meðal viða; f. á velli, standing fast (in battle); standa f. fyrir, to stand fast (firm); (2) close, close-fisted; f. ok fégjarn, close and covetous; f. af e-u, sparing of (f. af drykk); (3) of a meeting: þá er sóknarþing er fast, during the session; (4) firm, faithful (fast heit, loforð, föst trú); fullr ok f., definitive, permanent (þessi grið skulu vera full ok föst); (5) strong, hard (f. bardagi); fast atkvæði, hard syllable (ending in a double consonant); (6) til fasta, fast, firmly; ráða, mæla, heita til fasta, to make a firm agreement.

fast-ráðinn, pp. determined (-ráðinn í e-u); hafa e-t ráðit, to have made up one’s mind (about); -ríki, n. strong rule, tyranny; -settr, pp. fast-rooted (-sett villa); -tekinn, pp. determined, resolved (hafa e-t fast-tekit með sér, -tekinn í e-u); -tœkr, a. headstrong, stubborn; -úðigr, a. staunch, firm of mind; -úðliga, adv. firmly; -úðligr, adv. = -úðigr; -vingr, a. steadfast as friend, = vinfastr; -yrðr, a. = -orðr.

fat, n. (1) vat, vessel, pail (kona vildi bera vatn en hafði ekki f.); eitt fat (basket) með vínberjum; (2) luggage, baggage (bera föt sín á skip, bera föt á land); (3) article of clothing, garment, pl. (föt), clothes, dress (hann hafði föt sín í fangi sér, en sjálfr var hann naktr).

fata, f. pail, bucket.

fata (), v. to step, = feta.

fata-búningr, m. apparel; -búr, n. wardrobe; -gørvi, n. luggage, gear; -hestr, m. pack-horse; -hirzla, f. wardrobe; -hrúga, f. heap of clothes; -kista, f. clolhes-chest.

fatlaðr, pp. impeded; fjötri fatlaðr, fettered.

fat-lauss, a. (1) without clothes, = klæðlauss; (2) without luggage.

fatl-byrðr, f. a burden fastened with straps (cf. ‘fetill’).

fatnaðr (gen. -ar), m. clothing.

fat-prúðr, a. dressy, finely dressed; -prýði, f. dressiness.

fatr, n. impediment, delay.

fatrast (), v. refl. to be entangled or impeded in a thing (fatrast mjök fyrir honum).

fats-töturr, m. tatters.

fattir, a. (easily) bowed backwards.

fatt-skolptaðr, a. with upturned snout.

fauska-gröptr, m. digging dry logs out of the earth for fuel.

fauskr (-s, -ar), m. a rotten dry log (fúinn fauskr, forn fauskr).

fax, n. mane; poet., vallar fax, the field’s mane, wood.

faxaðr, pp. maned, having a mane.

(; fekk, fengum; fenginn), v. (1) to grasp with the hands, get hold of; hón hefir fengit einn stein, she has taken a stone; (2) to take, capture (fengu þeir Gunnar); (3) to get, gain, win; sá fær er frjár, he that woos wins; fá fljóðs ást to win a woman’s love; hann bað konunnar ok fekk heitit hennar, he asked the woman in marriage and got the promise of her hand; fá sitt eyrindi, to accomplish one’s errand; fá haærra hlut, to get the better of it; fá góðar viðtökur, to get a good reception; fá skilning á e-u, to get knowledge of; (4) to suffer endure; fá úsigr, to be defeated; fá skaða, to suffer harm; fá úvit, to fall senseless, to faint; fá líflát, to fall lifeless; fá bana, to come by one’s death; (5) to get, procure; hann fekk sér gott kvánfang, he got a good wife; (6) to give, deliver to one, put into one’s hands; fá mér (give me) leppa tvá ór hári þinu; fáit nú konungi festu (give the king bail) þá er honum líki; fá e-m sök, to charge one; var sá sveinn fenginn í hendr okkr, delivered into our hands; fá e-m e-t at geyma, to give a thing into one’s charge (= fá e-m e-t til geymslu); (7) with pp. following, to be able to; fá e-n veiddan, to be able to catch one; hon fœr með engu móti vakit þá, she could by no means awaken them; þeir munu mik aldri fá sótt, they will never be able to overcome me; fengu þeir honum ekki nát, they could not catch him: skaltu hvergi fá undan hokat, thou shall have no chance of sneaking away; hann fekk þó eigi víss orðit, he could not make out for certain; (8) with gen., to get, take, gain, win; þeir fengu fjár mikils, they took a rich booty; vel er þess fengit, it is well earned, well done; hann var eigi skáld, ok hann hafði ei þeirrar listar fengit, he had not received that gift: fá verðar, to take a meal; hann tekk sér sveitar (he raised a band) ok gørðist illvirki; fá konu, to get a wife, marry (hon var átján vetra, er þorsteinn fekk hennar); (9) to conceive, of sheep and cattle (fá burðar, lambs); (10) to touch, affect; þat fekk mikils hinum hertekna manni, it touched the captive deeply, þá fær þorbirni svá. mjök (Th. was so much moved), at hann grætr; (11) impers., one can get or find; vápn svá góð, at eigi fær önnur slík, that the like are not to be got; at varla fái vitrara mann, that a wiser man is hardly to be found; also, one may or can (do something); þat skip fær vel varit eldi, that ship can well be guarded against fire; (12) with preps.; fá af sér (with infin.) to bring oneself to; þeir fengu af verra, they got the worse of it; fá at veizlu, brúkaupi, blóti, to get provisions for a feast (hann fekk at blóti miklu); sá dagr er at jólum skal fá, the day when preparations are to be made for Yule (cf. ‘atfangadagr’); fá á e-u, to get hold of, grasp with the hand; faðir Móða fekk á þremi, the father of M. caught hold of the brim; fá e-n, to touch, affect one, move (opt fá á horskan lostfagrir, litir); láta e-t á sik fá, to be (deeply) affected by, take it to heart; drykkr fær á e-n, the drink intoxicates one (er drykkr fekk á Hákon jarl); fá í e-t, to take hold of, grasp with the hand (= fá á e-u); forðuðu fingrum, fengu í snœri, they took hold of the strings; fá e-t or e-s til, to get, procure (var kirkja gör ok kennimanna til fengit); fá e-n til at gøra e-t, to get one to do a thing; þeir fengu menn til at ryðja skip sitt, they got men to clear their ship fá til e-s, to lay hold of; þar var fjöld fjár, fengu til margir, there was wealth of money, and many took a share of it; (13) refl., fást í e-u, to be busy, exert oneself, engage in a matter (dróttningin mátti þar ekki í fást); Helgi leitaði þá, ef Sigurðr vildi í fást við Þorvald, if S. would try with Th.; segir hann ljúga ok fást í rógi, and deal in slander; fást við e-t = f. í e-u; f. við e-n, to have to do with, to contend with one (H. segist þá vilja … fást eigi við fjánda þenna); to wrestle (grapple) with one (skaltu fást við blámann várn).

(, fáða, fáðr), v. to draw, paint; fá rúnar, to draw runes or magic characters; vér höfum fáða unga brúði á vegg, we have painted the young bride on the wall; gulli fáðr, gilded.

fá-bygðr, pp. thinly peopled.

fádœma-mikill, a. uncommonly great (högg fádœma-mikit).

fá-dœmi, pl. exceptional things; vera með fádœmum, to be exceptional, portentuous; -dœmiligr, a. exceptional, extraordinary.

fádœmis-heimska, f. extraordinary foolishness; fá-einir, a. pl. only a few (= fáir einir); -frœðr, a. ignorant; -frœði, f. want of knowledge, ignorance.

fága (), v. (1) to adorn, embellish (gjörð fáguð með brögðum); (2) to polish, clean = fægja (hún fágar ok þvær fœtr þeirra allra); (3) to take care (charge) of, to tend (f. farsælulausa, sjúka); (4) to cultivate (f. rangan átrúnáð); f. jörðina, to till the earth; (5) to worship (f. heiðin goð).

fágan, f. worship (f. guða).

fáganar-maðr, m. worshipper.

fágandi (pl. -endr), m., fágari, m. cultivator, worshipper (víngarðs fágandi, fágari skurðgoða).

fá-glýjaðr, pp. of little glee, sad.

fágu-ligr, a. neatly polished.

fá-gætr, a. scarce, rare, uncommon; -heyrðr, pp., -heyriligr, a. unusual; -hjúaðr, a. few in family (var þár fáhjúat); -hœfr, a. of little use.

fái, m. image, figure.

fáinn, a. polished, stained.

fá-kátr, a. sad, in low spirits.

fák-hestr, m. = fákr.

fá-klæddr, pp. having few clothes only thinly clad.

fákr (-s, -ar), m. horse (poet.).

fá-kunnandi, f., -kunnasta, f. ignorance; -kunnigr, a. ignorant; -kunnleikr, m. = -kunnasta; -kunnligr, a. unusual, rare; -kynsl, n. pl., -kynstr, n. shocking accident.

fála, f. giantess, hag, witch.

fá-látr, a. silent, reserved; -leikr, m. coldness, melancholy (taka fáleika ok úgfleði); -liða, a. indecl., -liðaðr, -liða, a. with few followers; -liga, adv. coldly (fell með þeim heldrfáliga); -ligr, a. cold, reserved.

fálka-kaup, n. purchase of falcons; -veiðr, f. catching of falcons.

fálki, m. falcon.

fálma (), v. to fumble, grope about (f. höndum, saxi); f. til e-s, to try to get hold of one (Hrappr vildi f. til mín); (2) flinch (f. af hræzlu).

fá-lyndi, n. steadfastness, faithfulness; -lyndr, a. steadfast, faithful, opp. to ‘fjöllyndr’; -máligr, a. chary of words, reticent; -menni, n. few people; -mennr, a. having few followers (fara fámennt); -mæltr, a. = -máligr; -nefndr, pp. seldom mentioned; -nýtr, a. of little use; -orðr, a. sparing of words.

fár (, fátt; compar. færi or færri, superl. fæstr), a. (1) few; með fá liði við fá menn, with few men; fáir (= fáir menn), few; fáir einir, only a few; í fám orðum, in few, words; the sing. often instead of plur., esp. in old sayings (fár er fagr, ef grætr; f. bregðr hinu betra, ef hann veit hit verra); neut. fátt, few things (fátt veit sá er sefr); var eigi boðit færa en hundraði, no fewer than a hundred were invited; fátt af þeirra mönnum, only a few of their men; with gen., fátt manna, few men; fátt góðs, but little good: þeir ugðu fátt at sér, they feared little for their own safety; with numerals, fátt í, less than, short of, save; vetri fátt í fjóra tigu, forty years all but one, thirty-nine years; lítit fátt í fimm tigi vetra, little short of fifty years; hálfum eyri fátt í átta merkr, eight marks less half an ounce; sex menn it fæsta, six men at least; (2) cold, reserved, in low spirits = fálátr; var þá Gunnarr við hana leng fár, was cold to her for a long time; neut. fátt, coolness: var fátt um með þeim brœðrum the brothers were on indifferent terms; fátt var með þeim Hrúti um samfarar, there was a coolness between H. and his wife: hvárt er var í milli þeirra mart eða fátt, whether they, stood on good or bad terms, were friendly or not.

fár, n. (1) bale, harm, mischief; lesa f. um e-n, to speak foul calumnies of one; af fári, from evil passion; ef ek vissa þat f. fyrir, if I could foresee that bale; full skal signa ok við fára sjá, and so prevent harm from it; þat er f. mikit (‘tis a bad omen), ef þú fœti drepr; (2) dangerous illness (lá hann í þessu fári nær viku); (3) fraud false dealing.

fá-ráðr, a. perplexed, helpless.

fár-hugr, m. wrath, grudge; -kaldi, m. piercing coldness (-kuldi veðrs); -leikr, m. disaster; liga. adv. (1) wrathfully; (2) abominably; -ligr, a. harmful, disastrous; -ramr, a. terribly strong.

fárs-fullr, a. ill-natured, malignant.

fárs-skapr, m. fierceness.

fárs-kona, f. wicked woman; -maðr, m. wicked man.

fár-sótt, f. pestilence; -verkr, m. severe pain; -viðri, n. baleful weather, tempest; -yðri, n. pl. foul language.

fá-rœddr, pp. little spoken of (þar var fárœt um); -rœðinn, a. chary of words (= fámáligr, fáorðr); -sénn, a. seldom seen, rare; -sinni, n. loneliness, isolation; -skiptinn, a. little meddling, quiet; -skrúðigr, -skrúðligr, a. meagre, poor; -skýrliga, adv. foolishly (spyrja fáskrliga); -skýrligr, a. foolish, silly; -staðar, adv. in few places; -talaðr, pp. (1) = -orðr; (2) having few vowel-sounds; -tíðindi, n. pl. rare occurrence; -tíðliga, adv. rarely; -tiðligr, a., -tíðr, a. uncommon, rare; -tœkdómr, m. poverty; -tœki, n. want, poverty; ganga á fátœki, to go a begging; fátœkis-dómr, m. = fátœkdómr; -fölk, n. poor folk; -land, n. land of affliction; -lið, n. poor people; -maðr, m. poor man.

fátœk-leikr, m. poverty; -liga, adv. poorly; -ligr, a. poorly, poor.

fá-tœkr, a. poor; -tœkt, f. poverty; -vingaðr, pp. having few friends (hafa fávingat); -vitr, a. unwise, foolish, silly; -vitra, -vizka, f. unwisdom, folly; -vizkr, a. = fávitr; -víss, a. foolish.

(gen. fjár), n. (1) cattle, esp. sheep; þeir ráku féit (the sheep) upp á geilarnar; gæta fjár, to herd or tend sheep; ganganda fé, live stock, opp. to ‘dautt fé’, or ‘liggjanda fé,’ valuables, money; (2) property, money (hvárt sem fé þat er land eðr annat fé); fyrirgøra fé ok fjörvi, to forfeit property and life; fé er fjörvi firr, life is dearer than money; fé veldr frænda rógi, money makes foes of kinsmen; afla sér fjár ok frægðar (frama), to gain wealth and fame; hér er fé þat (the money), er Gunnarr greiddi; þiggit þat, herra, fé er í því, there is value in it; pl. fé (dat. fjám), property, means.

féauðnu-maðr, m. a man lucky with his sheep; fé-boð, n. offer of money.

fébóta-laust, adv. without any compensation being paid.

fé-brögð, n. pl. devices for making money; -bœtr, f. pl. compensation, esp. as weregild, opposed to ‘mannhefndir’.

feðgar, m. pl. father and son (or sons); við f. we, father and son; vin þeirra Sturlu feðga, a friend of Sturla and his father.

feðgin, n. (1) father or mother (hvárttveggja feðginit); (2) pl. parents; várra fyrstu feðgina, of our first parents; f. eða ná-frændr, parents or near kinsfolk; hjá feðginum sínum ok forellrismönnum, by his parents and forefathers.

feðma (), v. to span or encompass with the arms.

feðr, m. father, = faðir.

feðr-betrungr, m. = föðurbetrungr.

feðr-land, n. fatherland, = föðurland; -munir, m. pl. patrimony.

fé-drengr, m. open-handed man (-drengr góðr við sína vini); -drjúgr, a. rich in sheep and cattle.

fé-fang, n. booty; -fastr, a. close-fisted, = fastr af fé; -fátt, a. n. in want of money (e-m er or verðr féfátt); -fellir, m. loss of sheep (from plague or starvation); -festi, f. close-fistedness; -fletta (-tta, -ttr), v. to strip (one) of money, cheat (one); -frekr, a. greedy for money; -föng, n. pl. booty, plunder, spoil, cf. ‘féfang’; -gefinn, pp. given for (and to) gain.

fegin-leikr, m. joyfulness.

feginn, a. glad, joyful; verða f. to rejoice; fegnari en frá megi segja, happy beyond description; with dat., Ingi konungr varð honum hinn fegnasti, king Ingi was delighted with his coming; illu f. ver þú aldrigi, never rejoice in mischief; taka við e-m fegins hendi, to receive one joyfully, with heart and hand; finnast á fegins degi, to meet on the day of joy, at the resurrection.

fegin-saga, f. joyfull news; -samliga, adv. joyfully; -samligr, a. joyful.

fé-girnd, -girni, f. avarice; -gjald, n. payment, fine; -gjarn, a. covetous, avaricous; -gjöf, f. gift of money; -gloggr, a. close-handed; -góðr, a. good, current (i fégóðum peningum).

fegra (að or -ða), v. to embellish, beautify; kanna siðu inanna ok f. to improve, better; ekki þarf þat orðum at f. there is no use trying to extenuate it; f. um e-t, to mend, polish up.

fegrð, f. beauty (f. sólarinnar).

fegrðar-fullr, a. beautiful; -lauss, a. void of beauty.

fé-grið, n. pl., security for property; -gyrðill, m. money-bag, purse (worn on the belt); -gætni, f. saving habits; -göfugr, a. blessed with wealth; -hirðir, m. (1) herd, shepherd; (2) treasurer; -hirzla, f. (1) treasury; (2) treasure.

féhirzlu-hús, n. treasure-house; -maðr, m. treasurer.

fé-hús, n. (1) = fjós, cattle-house; (2) treasury.

feigð, f. approach, foreboding, or sign of death (þú sátt þegar í dag feigðina á honum).

feigðar-greip, f. hand of death.

feig-ligr, a. (1) looking `feylike’; (2) boding death.

feigr, a. fated to die, fey; ekki má feigum forða, there is no saving, or rescuing, a ‘fey’ man; standa, ganga feigum fótum to tread on the verge of ruin; mæla feigum munni, to talk wilh a ‘fey’ mouth; vilja e-n feigan, to wish one’s death; dead (fyllist fjörvi feigra manna).

feikn, a. awful, terrible.

feikn, f. portent, terrible things.

feikna-lið, n. terrible host; -veðr, n. fearful weather, tempest.

feikin-stafir, m. pl. balejul runes, evils, curses.

feilast, v. refl. to falter, be timid (Sinfjötli lét sér ekki feilast).

feima, f. bashful girl.

feita (-tta, -ttr), v. to fatten.

feiti, f. fatness.

feiting, f. fattening.

feit-leikr, m. fatness feiti.

feitr, a. fat.

fé-kátr, a. proud of one’s wealth; -kostnaðr, m. expenditure, expense; -kostr, m. = -kostnaðr; -krókar, m. pl. ‘money-crooks’; viz. wrinkles about the eyes, marking a greedy man (sýndist Hallfreði fékrókar í augum hans).

fel, f. the folded skirt of a cloak (?).

fela (fel; fal, fálum; fólginn), v. (1) to hide, conceal (fálu þeir gullit í Rín; þær austr ok vestr enda fálu); fel sverð þitt, sheathe thy sword; yrkja fólgit, to use obscure phrases (in poetry); impers., fal þá sýn (acc.) milli þeirra, they lost sight of one another; (2) f. e-m e-t, to make over, to give in trust or charge to one; hann fal Óðni allan þann val, he gave all the slain to Odin; mey frumunga fal hann (entrusted to) megi Gjúka; f. e-m e-t á hendi, to commit a thing to one’s charge, to commend; fálu sik ok sálir sínar guði almáttkum á hendi, they commended themselves and their souls to God Almighty; f. e-t undir eið sinn (þegnskap sinn), to vouch upon one’s oath (upon one’s honour); f. e-t undir e-m, to put under one’s charge; er und einum mér öll um fólgin hodd Niflunga, the whole hoard of the Niflungs is in my hands alone; man hér öll vár vinátta undir felast, all our friendship will depend upon this; f. e-n á brott, to put one out for alimentation; f. e-n inni = f. e-n á brott; sá bóandi, er hann felr sik inni, the man with whom he boards and lodges; f. búfé inni at e-m, to put out (cattle, sheep) to one to keep; (3) refl. felast, to hide oneself (mörg leyni þau, er f. mátti í); f. í faðmi e-m, to be locked in one’s arms; f. á hendi e-m, to put oneself in another’s hands, enter his service (Kolskeggr falst á hendi Sveini Dana-konungi).

fé-lag, n. fellowship, partnership; eiga -lag saman, to be partners; eiga (hafa) félag við e-n, hafa félag e-s, to be in partnership wilh one: leggja til félag við e-n, to enter into partnership with one; leggja til félags, to contribute to a common land; skipta. til félags, to share in a partnership.

félaga-erfð, f. a partner’s inheritance.

fé-lagi, m. (1) partner, shareholder of any kind; also used of married people, partner, mate (hvat segir þú mér frá Hrúti, félaga þinum); ek vil skilja við félaga minn, I wish to part with my mate; (2) fellow, mate, comrade; góðr (gamansamr) félagi, a good (merry) fellow; félagi minn ok frændi, my comrade and kinsinan.

félag-leikr, m. friendliness; -ligr, a. friendly, kind (e-m, við e-n).

félags-bú, n. joint household; -fé, n. common fund; -gørð, f. (1) entrance into partnership; (2) contract (nema annan veg hati mælt verit í fégørð þeirra); -hross, n. a horse owned in partnership with others.

félagskap-ligr, a. = félagligr.

félag-skapr (gen. -skapar), m. (1) fellowship, partnership; (2) companionship, friendship; gørðist þar brátt -skapr góðr, they soon became intimate friends; binda saman lag sitt ok -skap, to enter into close alliance.

félags-lagning, f. entering into partnership; -maðr, m. partner; -vætti, n. a witness in matters of a félag.

fé-lauss, a. penniless, poor; -laust, adv. gratis, = kauplaust; -lát, n. loss of money.

feldar-blað, n. = -skaut; -dálkr, m. cloak-pin; -röggvar, f. pl. the long hairs of the outside of a cloak; -skaut, n. the skirt of a cloak; -slitr, n. tatters of a cloak.

feldr (-ar, -ir), m. cloak.

feldr, pp. fitted; vera vel (illa) f. til e-s, to be well (ill) fitted for a thing; neut., þér er ekki felt at, it is not for thee to.

fé-leysi, n. want of money; -ligr, a. valuable, handsome (esp., ekki féligr); -lítill, a. (1) short of money, poor; (2) of little value (félítill skógr).

feljóttr, a. shabby, rough (verja feljótt sem laki).

fell, n. ‘fell’, (isolated) hill, mountain. Cf. ‘fjall’.

fella (-da, -dr), v. (1) to fell, make fall; f. víð, to fell timber; f. segl, to take down sails; (2) to kill, slay (in battle); f. e-n frá landi, to slay or dethrone (a king); f. fénað sinn, to lose one’s sheep or cattle from cold or hunger; (3) to cause to cease, abolish (f. blót ok blótdrykkjur); f. rœðu sína, to close one’s speech; f. niðr, to put an end to, abandon, give up (f. niðr þann átrúnað); (4) f. heitstrenging á sik, to bring down on one’s head the curse of a broken vow; (5) to tongue and groove, to fit; f. stokk á horn, to put a board on the horns of a savage bull; (6) fig., f. ást (hug) til e-s, to turn one’s mind (love) towards one, to fall in love with; f. bœn at e-m, to address prayer to one, to beg of one; f. sik við e-t, to fit oneself to a thing: f. sik mjök við umrœðuna, to take a warm parl in the debate.

fella, f. (1) framework, a framed board; (2) mouse-trap.

felli-hurð, f. trap-door; -kápa, f. a kind of plaid.

felling, f. (1) felling, knocking down; (2) joining, framing.

fellir, m. death, esp. of cattle.

felli-sótt, f. sudden illness; -vetr, m. a hard winter when the cattle die of cold or hunger.

fellu-járn, n. wrought iron.

felms-fullr, a. alarmed, frightened.

felmta (-mta, -mtr), v. to be in a state of fright and alarm (fari menn stilliliga ok felmti eigi); felmtr, frightened (fara f.); e-m verðr felmt við, one gets frightened.

felmtr, m. sudden fear, fright (slær felmt á e-n).

fé-maðr, m. moneyed man; -mál, n. pl. money matters; -mikill, a. (1) moneyed, rich; (2) valuable, costly; -mildr, a. open-handed (= mildr af fé); -missa, f. loss of property; -munir, m. pl. valuables, property; -múta, f. bribe in money; -mætr, a. valuable.

fen (gen. pl. fenja), n. bog, quagmire (mýrar ok fen).

féna (), v. impers., e-m fénar, one gains (fénaði þér nú).

fénaðr (gen. -ar), m. sheep, cattle.

fengi, n. booty = herfang; fengi-liga, adv. advantageously (dreyma -liga).

fenginn, pp. fitted (vel til e-s f.).

fengi-sæll, a. making a good haul.

feng-lítill, a. of little value.

fengr (gen. fengjar), m. (1) haul, take; (2) gain, booty (verðr lítit til fengjar); (3) store, supply.

feng-samr, a. making large provision; -semi, f. being fengsamr.

fé-níðingr, m. miser.

fenjóttr, a. boggy (cf. ‘fen’).

fenna (-ta, -t), v. to cover with snow; impers., fennti fé, the sheep were snowed up.

fé-nýta (-tta, -ttr), v. to turn to account, make use of (-nýta sér e-t); -nýtr, a. that will bring in money; -penningr, m. penny-worth, money; -pynd, f. extortion; -ráð, n. pl. advice in money matters; -rán, n. plunder.

féráns-dómr, m. court of execution.

ferð, f. (1) journey (gera ferð sína heiman); vera í ferð með e-m, to travel with one; (2) conduct, behaviour (kurteiss í ferð).

ferða-maðr, m. traveller.

ferðar-broddr, m. van (= fararbroddr); -búinn, pp. ready for a journey; -leyfl, n. leave to travel.

ferðast (), v. refl. to travel.

ferða-stafr, m. walking-staff, pilgrim’s staff.

ferðugr, a. ready (eigi var hann f. at fara þessa ferð).

fer-elingr, m. a fish four ells long; -falda (), v. to make fourfold, multiply, by four; -faldr, a. fourfold; -fœtingr, a quadruped; -fœttr, a. four footed; -hyrndr, a. with four corners, square.

fé-rikr, a. rich, wealthy.

ferill (dat. ferli), m. (1) track, trace; (2) vera á ferli, to be on the move, out of bed; (3) traveller (veg-, Róm-ferill).

ferja (að, old form farða, farðr), v. to ferry over a river or strait.

ferja, f. ferry-boat, large boat.

ferju-ár, f. ferryman’s oar; -búi, m. one who lives near a ferry; -karl, m. ferryman, boatman; -maðr, m. = -karl; -skattr, m. ferry toll; -skip, n. = ferja; -smíð, f. making a ferja.

fer-liga, adv. monstrously; -ligleikr, m. monstrosity; -ligr, a. monstrous, hideous; -líkan, n. monstrous shape, monster; -líki, n. = -líkan.

ferma (-da, -dr), v. to load, lade (f. skip af e-u).

ferming, f. confirmation.

fernir (fernar, fern), a. distrib. (a set of) four.

fer-skeyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to square; -skeyttr, a. square; -strendr, a. four-edged, four-sided; -tugandi, a. fortieth; -tugfaldr, a. forty-old; -tugr, a. (1) forty years old; (2) measuring forty (ells, fathoms, etc.); fertug drápa, a poem of forty verses; -ærðr, a. four-oared.

fé-samr, a. lucrative; -sátt, f. agreement as to payment; -sekr, a. fined, sentenced to a fine; -sekt, f. fine; -sínki, f. niggardliness; -sínkr, a. niggardly; -sjóðr, m. bag of money; -sjúkr, a. greedy of money; -skaði, m. loss in money; -skipti, n. division of property; -skjálgr, a., féskjálg augu, eyes squinting towards money; -skortr, m. shortness of money; -skuld, f. money debt; -skurðr, m. detriment; -skygn, a. covetous; -skylft, a. n., e-m er féskylft, one has many expenses to defray; -snauðr, a. poor in money, penniless; -sníkja, -sníkni, f. intruding as a parcisite, begging; -snúðr, m. lucre; -sparr, a. sparing close-fisted; -spjöll, n. pl. spells to get wealth.

fé-skylmt, a. n. = féskylft.

festa (-sta, -str), v. (1) to make fast, fasten (f. skip, bát, hval); (2) to hang up (= f. upp); f. á gálga, to hang on the gallows; f. út til þerris, to hang out for drying; f. e-t við e-t, to fasten to a thing; (3) in various fig. phrases, festa trúnað á e-t, to believe in; f. hug við e-t, to fix the mind upon; f. yndi, to feel happy (in a place); f. e-t í minni, to fix in the memory; also absol., f. kvæði, to learn a poem by heart; (4) to settle, stipulate; f. sátt mál, to make a settled agreement; f. járn, to pledge oneself to the ordeal of red-hot iron; (5) to betroth (f. e-m dóttur sína); (6) impers. to cleave, stick fast (spjótit festi í skildinum); eld festir, the fire catches, takes hold; bein (acc.) festir, the bone unites (after a fracture); (7) refl., festast, to grow to, stick fast to (nafnit festist við hann); bardagi festist, the battle closes up fast.

festa, f. bail, pledge (svardagi ok f.).

festar-auga, f. loop or eye at the end of a rope (festr); -endi, m. end of a rope; -fé, n. dowry; -garmr, m. chain-dog; -hald, n. holding the rope; -hundr, m. = -garmr; -hæll, m. peg, for a rope; -kona, f. betrothed woman; -maðr, m. betrothed inan; -mál, n. pl. betrothal, affiance; -mær, f. = festar-kona; -penningr, m. pledge bail; -váttr, m. a witness at a betrothal; -vætti, n. evidence to a betrothal; -öl, n. betrothal-ale.

fé-sterkr, a. wealthy, rich.

festi-liga, adv. firmly, violently.

festing, f. (1) fixing, fastening; (2) firmament; festning, f., festningar-himinn, m. = festing 2.

festr (gen. festar, dat. and acc. festi; pl. festar), f. (1) rope, cord, cable (for mooring a ship to the shore); (2) pl. betrothals (festar fara fram).

festu-maðr, m. bail, surety.

fé-sæla, f. wealth; -sæll, a. wealthy; -sætt, f. an agreement as to payment (of weregild); -sök, f. suit, action for money.

fet, n. (1) pace, step; ganga (stíga) feti framarr, to go a step forward; fara fullum fetum, to go at full pace; fetum (dat.) as adv. at a pace; (2) as a measure, foot.

feta (fet, fat, —) v. (1) to step, find one’s way (f. leið, heim); (2) poet. with infin., hve ek yrkja fat, how I managed to make my poem.

fé-taka, f. taking (receiving) money.

feti, m. blade of an axe.

fetill (dat. fetli; pl. fetlar), m. strap (of a shield or sword).

fé-vani, a. short of money; -ván, f. expectancy of money; -vænliga, adv. in a manner promising profit; -vænligr, a. profitable; -vænn, a. = -vænligr; -vöxtr, m. increase in one’s proterty, gain, profit.

feykja (-ta, -t), v. (1) to blow, toss (f. e-u); (2) to rush (hann feykir inn í húsit).

fé-þurfi, a. in need of money.

fiðla, f. fiddle; fiðlari, m. fidaler.

fiðraðr, a. feathered (of arrows).

fiðri, m. feathers, plumage.

fimbul-fambi, m. monstrous fool; -ljóð, n. pl. mighty songs; -týr, m. mighty god; -vetr, m. the great and awful winter; -þulr, m. the mighty sage or speaker.

fim-leikr, m. nimbleness, agility; -liga, adv. nimbly; -ligr, a. nimble.

fimm, card. numb. five.

fimr, a. nimble, agile (f. við leika).

fimt, f. number of five.

fimtán, card. numb. fifteen.

fimtándi, ord. numb. fifteenth.

fimtán-sessa, f. a ship with fifteen rowers’ benches.

fimtar-dómr, m. the Fifth or High Court (of law) in the Icelandic Commonweallh.

fimtardóms-eiðr, m. the oath to be taken in the Fifth Court; -lög, n. pl. the institution of the F. C.; -mál, n. an action before the F. C.; -stefna, f. a citation before the F. C.

fimtar-tala, f. the number of five.

fimti, ord. numb. fifth.

fimtugr, a. (1) fifty years old; (2) measuring fifty (ells, fathoms).

fimtungr, m. the fifth part.

fingr (gen. fingrar or fingrs; pl. fingr), m. finger (fingr digrir); rétta e-m f., to point one’s finger at.

fingr-brjóttr, m. wrong move (in chess); -gull, n. finger-ring of gold; -mjór, a. thin-fingered.

fingrungr (-s, -ar), m. finger-ring.

finna (finn; fann, fundum; fundinn), v. (1) to find (þá fundu þeir Hjörleif dauðan); (2) to meet one (ok vildi eigi f. Hákon konung); (3) to visit, to interview (gakk þú at f. konung); (4) to find out, invent (rúnar munt þú finna); (5) to discover (ok fundu þar land mikit); (6) fig. to find, perceive, notice, feel (fundu þeir þá brátt, at); (7) f. e-m e-t, to find fault with, blame (þat eitt finn ek Gunnlaugi, at); (8) with preps., f. á e-t, to come across, fall in with (= hitta á e-t); impers., fann þat á, it could be perceived; fann lítt á honum, hvárt, it was little to be seen whether, etc.; f. at e-u, to find fault with, censure, blame; f. e-t til, to bring forward, give as a reason (hvat finnr þú til þess?); (9) refl., finnast til e-s, to be pleased with; impers., fannst Grími fátt til hans, Grim was little pleased with him; láta sér lítit um finnast, to pay little heed to, rather dislike; Ölvi fannst mikit um hann, Ölvir admired him much.

Finna, f. Finn woman.

Finnar, m. pl. Finns (usually the early non-Aryan inhabitants of Norway and Sweden; not identical with the modern Lapps or Finns).

Finn-ferð, -för, f., -kaup, n. travelling or trading with the Finns; -gálkn, n. fabulous monster; -kona, f. = Finna; -land, n. Finland; -lendingar, m. pl. the Finns; -mörk, f. Finmark; -skattr, m. tribute paid by the Finns.

finnskr, a. Finnish.

firar, m. pl. poet. men, people.

firin-verk, n. pl. poet. abominations.

firn, n. pl. abomination, monstrous thing.

firna (), v. to blame, reproach (f. e-n e-s, e-n um e-t).

firna-, gen. pl., used as an intensive prefix with adjectives and nouns; firna-djarfr, a. very daring; -frost, n. awful frost; -fullr, a. awful; -harðr, a. violent.

firr, adv. compar., first, adv. superl., see ‘fjarri’.

firra (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) f. e-n augum, to lose sight of; (2) to deprive one of (f. e-n e-u); (3) to save, defend (f. e-n ámæli); (4) refl. to keep away from, shun, avoid (firrast fund e-s).

firri, a. compar. farther off; fé er fjörvi firra, money is less dear than life. Cf. ‘fjarri’.

firring, f. shunning, removal.

fiska (), v. to fish (= fiskja).

fiska-kaup, n. purchase of (dried) fish; -stöd, f. fishin-place; -stöng, f. = fiskistöng; -ver, n. = fiskiver.

fisk-bein, n. fish-bone; -bleikr, a. pale as fish; -gengd, f. shoal of fish; -hryggr, m. fish-spine.

fiski (gen. fiskjar), f. fishing; róa fara til fiskjar, to go a-fishing.

fiski-bátr, m. fishing-boat; -fang, n. catch of fish; pl. (-föng), stores of fish; -gengd, f. shoal of fish; -karl, m. fisherman; -kufl, m. fishing-jacket; -ligr, a. fit for fishing; -lœkr, m. a brook full of fish, fish-brook; -maðr, m. fisherman.

fiskinn, a. good at fishing.

fiski-róðr, m. rowing out for fish; -saga, f. fish-news; -skáli, m. fishermen’s hut; -skip, n. fishing-boat; -stöng, f. fishing-spear; -veitr, f. catching of fish; -ver, n. fishing place or station.

fiskja (-ta, -t), v. to fish (= fiska).

fiskr (-s, -ar), m. fish; flatr f., heilagr f., flat-fish, halibut.

fisk-reki, m. ‘fish-driver’ (a kind of whale).

fit (pl. fitjar), f. (1) webbed foot of swimming birds; flipper (of a seal); (2) meadow-land on the banks of a lake or river.

fita, f. fat, grease.

fitja (), v. to web, knit (hann lét f. saman fingrna).

fitje-skammr, a. having short flippers (selr ekki fitjaskammr).

fitna (), v. to become fat.

fífil-bleikr, a. dandelion-yellow.

fífill, m. dandelion.

fífl, n. fool, clown, boor.

fífla, f. wanton girl, romp.

fífla (-da, -dr), v. to beguile, seduce; refl., fíflast, to act as a seducer.

fíflingar, m. pl. beguilement.

fífl-megir, m. pl. monsters, giants.

fíflska, f. foolishness, folly.

fíflsku-fullr, a. full of folly.

fífl-yrði, n. pl. foolish language.

fífrildi, n. butterfly.

fíkjast (t), v. refl. to have an eager desire (á e-t, for a thing).

fíll (-s, -ar), m. elephant.

fínn, a. fine, smooth (rare).

fítons-andi, m. spirit of prophecy heathen soothsaving. (From med. L. Phiton for Python.)

fjaðraðr, a. feathered (= fiðraðr).

fjaðra-spjót, n. = fjaðr-spjót.

fjaðr-broddr, m. point of a spearblade; -hamr, m. feather-coat; -lauss, a. featherless; -sárr, a. ‘feather-sore’, moulting; -spjót, n. a kind of spear.

fjala-brú, f. a bridge of planks (fjöl); -kottr, m. mouse-trap.

fjal-högg, n. chopping-block.

fjall, n. mountain, fell.

fjalla-dalr, m. dale, valley; -gol, n. light breeze from the mountains; -sýn, f. mountain-view.

fjall-berg, n. crag, precipice; -bygð, f. district among fells; -dalr, m. dale in the fells; -ferð, f. mountain excursion; -garðr, m. range of mountains; -hagi, m. mountain pasture; -maðr, m. a man searthing the fells for sheep; -rapi, m. dwarf-birch.

fjalls-brún, f. brow (edge) of a mountain; -hlíð, f. mountain-side; -múli, m. a hill projecting between two valleys.

fjall-stöng, f. fellman’s staff; -vegr, m. mountain road; -vindr, m. wind blowing from the mountains, opp. to ‘hafvindr’.

fjara, f. (1) ebb-tide, ebb; (2) fore-shore, beach (var þá skógr milli fjalls ok fjöru).

fjara (), v. impers. to ebb; skip (acc.) fjarar uppi, fjarar undan skipi, the ship is left aground, or remains, high and dry.

fjar-borinn, pp. remotely related.

fjarða-gol, n. a breeze blowing out of the firths.

fjarðar-botn, m. botton, or head of a firth; -horn, n. creek at the head of a firth; -íss, m. ice in a firth, land-ice; -kjaptr, m., -mynni, n. mouth of a firth.

fjarg, n. heathen god (poet.).

fjarg-hús, n. heathen temple.

fjar-kominn, pp. by no means entitled or obliged to (til e-s); -lægjast (ð), v. refl. to withdraw (recede) from; -lægr, a. far off, distant.

fjarra-fleinn, m. landlouper (rare).

fjarri (firr, first), adv. (1) far off (svá at f. flugu brotin); with dat. far from (sólu f); standa f. e-m, to stand far from one; compar., firr, farther off farit firr húsi, keep off from the house; allt er fjörvi firr, life is the nearest (dearest) thing; firr meirr, farther aloof (bóndamúgrinn sat firr meirr); (2) fig., taka e-u fjarri, to take a thing coldly, show disinclination, refuse (Ormr tók því ekki f.); ok er þat ekki f. hennar skapi, it is not far from her mind; f. ferr því, far from it, by no means; nú sé ek eigi, at mér mætti firr um fara en þér, now I see not how I can fare worse than thou; (3) far from, bereft of; f. feðrmunum, bereft of my patrimony.

fjarski, m. far distance; vera (liggja) í fjarska, to be (lie) afar off.

fjar-stœðr, a. far off; -stœtt er um áfl várt, there is a great difference between our strengths; -sýnis, adv. at a great distance; -tœki, n. refusal (hafa -tœki um e-t); -tök, n. pl. = -tœki; -vist, f. living far off.

fjá (early form fía), v. to hate; refl., fjást e-n = fjá e-n.

fjáðr, a. moneyed, rich (f. vel).

fjánda-kraptr, m. fiendish power.

fjándi (pl. fjándr), m. (1) enemy, foe; gefat þínum fjándum frið give no truce to thy foes; (2) fiend, devil.

fjánd-liga, adv. fiendishly; -ligr, a. fiendish; -maðr, m. foeman; -mæli, n. pl. words of a foe; -semi, f. enmity; -skapaðr, a. hostile, ill-disposed (við e-n).

fjándskapar-fullr, a. full of hostility; -máðr, m. = fjándmaðr.

fjánd-skapast (), v. refl. to show hostility towards (við e-n, til e-s); -skapr, m. hostilily, enmity, hatred (leggja -skap á e-n).

fjár-aflan, f. making money; -afli, m. property; -auðn, f. losing all one’s money; -ágirnd, -ágirni, f. greed for money; -beit, f. pasture for sheep; -bón, f. asking for money; -burðr, m. bribery; -dráttr, m. making money; -eigandi, pr. p. wealthy (vel -eigandi); -eign, f. wealth, property; -eyðsla, f. spending of money; -eyðslumaðr, m. spendthrift; -fang, n. booty, plunder (pl. -föng); -far, n. money affairs; -forráð, n. administration (management) of one’s money; -framlag, n. laying out contributions of money; -fundr, m. ‘find’ of money; -fóðr, n. fodder for sheep; -fœði, n. fodder for sheep; -gjald, n. payment; -gjöf, f. gift of money; -geymsla, -gæzla, f. tending of sheep and cattle.

fjárgæzlu-maðr, m., -maðr mikill, a thrifty man.

fjarhaga-maðr, m., góðr (lítill) -maðr, a good (bad) manager.

fjár-hagr, m. (management of one’s) money matters; -hald, n. (1) withholding one’s money; (2) administration of one’s money; -heimta, f. claim for money, owing one; -hirzla, f. = féhirzla; -hlutir, m. pl. = -munir; -kostnaðr, m. expenses; -lán, n. loan of money; -lát, n. loss of money; -leiga, f. rent; -missa, f. = -lát; -munir, m. pl. property, valuables; -nám, n. seizure of money, plunder; -orkumaðr, m. wealthy man; -pynd, f. extortion; -rán, n. robbery; -reiður, f. pl. money matters; -rekstr, m. drove of sheep; -reyta, f. cheating, plunder; -sekt, f. fine in money; -sjóðr, m. treasure; -skaði, m. loss in money; -skakki, m. ujust sharing; -skipti, n. division of property; -stáðr, m. a (good or bad) investment; -starf, n. management of one’s money matters; -taka, f. seizure of money; -tilkall, n. claim for money; -tillag, n. contribution in money; -tjón, n. loss of money; -upptaka, f., -upptekt, f. seizure of one’s property; -útlát, n. pl. outlay; -varðveizla, f. (1) administration (management) of another’s property; (2) = -geymsla; -ván, f. expectation of money; -verðr, a. valuable; -viðtaka, f. receipt of money; -þurfi, a. needing money; -þurft, f. need of money.

fjón, f. hatred; reka e-n fjónum, to persecute; vekja f., to stir up quarrels.

fjór-dagðr, a. having lain four days in the grave.

fjórðunga-lok, n. the last quarter of a verse; -mót, n. pl. the borders of the fjórðungar (3); -skipti, n. division into quarters.

fjórðungr (-s, -ar), m. (1) the fourth part, quarter; f. rastar, a distance of about a mile; (2) a weight = ten pounds; (3) in Iceland, one of the Quarters into which the whole land was divided (Austfirðinga, Vestfirðinga, Norðlendinga, Sunnlendinga fjórðungr).

fjórðungs-dómr, m. Quarter (district) court; -menn, m. pl. inhabitants of a Quarter; -úmagi, m. a pauper charged to a Quarter; -þing, n. Quarter (district) assembly.

fjór-faldr, a. fourfold; -fœttr, a. four-footed.

fjórir (fjórar, fjögur), card. numb. four; fjögurra vegna, to the four cardinal points.

fjórtán, card. numb. fourteen.

fjórtandi, ord. numb. fourteenth.

fjórtán-sessa, f. ship with fourteen thwarts.

fjós, n. cow-house, byre; vera í fjósi, to attend to the cows; -dyrr, f. pl. door of a cow-house; -gata, f. path to a cow-house; -hlaða, f. a barn connected with a cow-house.

fjúk, m. drifting snow-storm.

fjúka (fýk; fauk, fukum; fokinn), v. (1) to be drifted (tossed, blown) by the wind; tók þá at f., it began to snow and drift; var fjókanda veðr, there was a (drifting) snow-storm; nú er fokit í flest skjól, now most places of shelter are snowed up; no refuge is left; (2) fig. to fly off (fauk at höfuðið); láta fjúka í kveðlingum, to let satiric verses fly.

fjúk-renningr, m. drifting snow; -viðri, n. snow-storm.

fjöðr (gen. fjaðrar, pl. fjaðrar), f. (1) feather, quill; draga f. um e-t, to slur over a thing; (2) fin or tail of a fish; (3) blade of a spear.

fjöl (gen. fjalar, pl. fjalar, fjalir), f. deal, board.

fjöl-, used as a prefix, much, manifold; -beiðni, f. hard begging, insistance; -breytinn, a. changeable, whimsical; -bygðr, pp. thickly peopled.

fjöld, f. multitude, great number, much; f. ek fór, I have travelled far.

fjöldi, m. multitude; f. manna, skipa, a great number of men, ships.

fjölga (), v. to make more numerous; impers., fjölgar e-t, and refl., fjölgast, to become numerous, increase in number.

fjölgan, f. increase in number.

fjöl-höfðaðr, a. many-headed.

fjöl-kunnigr, a. skilled in magic.

fjöl-kyngi, f. the black art, witchcraft, wizardry, sorcery.

fjölkyngis-fólk, n. wizard-folk; -íþrótt, f. magic art; -kona, f. sorceress, witch; -veðr, n. gale produced by sorcery.

fjöllóttr, a. mountainous.

fjöl-lyndi, n. looseness, fickleness; -lyndr, a. loose, fickle; -margr, a. very many; -málugr, a. tattling; -menna (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to make numerous, increase in number; (2) to crowd, meet in crowds; -menni, n. many people, crowd; -mennr, a. numerous, with many people (riðu menn -mennir til þings); fjöl-menn veizla, a great banquet; kemr þar fjölmennt, many people; -mæli, n. (1) common talk (fara, fœra, í -mæli); (2) slander; -orðr, a. talkative; -ráðr, a. fickle, loose; -rœðinn, a. = -orðr; -rœðr, a. much talked of; gerist (er) -rœtt um e-t, it is much talked of; -skruðigr, a. dressy; -skyld, f. important business; -skylda, f., -skyldi, n. much business, duties; -skyldr, a. important (-skylt embætti).

fjöl-nýtr, a. useful in many ways.

fjör (dat. fjörvi), n. life; eiga fótum fjör at launa, to make the heels save the head.

fjör-baugr, m. ‘life-money’.

fjörbaugs-garðr, m. the lesser outlawry; -maðr, m. one sentenced to this; -sök, f. a case involving this.

fjör-brot, n. pl. death-struggle (ligga, vera, í -brotum).

fjörðr (gen. fjarðar, dat. fjarðar; pl. firðir, acc. fjörðu), m. firth, inlet.

fjör-gjafi, m. one who saves anothers life.

Fjörgyn (gen. -jar), f. Mother-earth, mother of Thor.

fjör-lag, n. death slaughter (verða e-m at -lagi); -lausn, f. (1) release from life; þola-lausn, to suffer death; (2) ransom for one’s life (Æsir bjóða fyrir sik -lausn); -löstr, m. loss of life, death; verða e-m at -lesti, to cause one’s death; -ráð, n. plotting against one’s life.

fjör-lok, n. pl. end of life, death.

fjörráða-sók, f. a case of fjörráð.

fjörráðs-mál, n. a suit for fjörráð.

fjör-segi, m. ‘life-muscle’, the heart; -sjúkr, a. dangerousiy ill.

fjörsungr, m. a kind of fish.

fjöru-grjót, n. the gravel (pebbles) on the beach; -mál, n. (1) low-water mark; (2) foreshore, beach; -steinn, m. pebble.

fjötra (), v. to fetter; f., hest, to hobble a horse.

flötra-brot, n. pl. fragments of fetter.

fjötrar-bora, -rauf, f. a hole in a sledge through which the strap goes.

fjötur-lauss, a. unfettered.

fjöturr (gen. fjöturs and fjötrar, pl. fjötrar), m. (1) fetter, shackle (setja e-n í fjötur); (2) the straps of a sledge (sleða-fjötrar).

flaðra (), v. to fawn (f. at e-m).

flag-brjóska, n. cartilage of the breastbone.

flagð, n. female monster, ogress, giantess; opt eru flögð í fögru skinni, oft lurks a witch under a fair skin.

flagð-kona, f. ogress = tröllkona.

flagna (), [p]v.[/p] to flake (scale) off.

flag-spilda, f. slice cut.

flaka (-ta, -t), v. to gape, esp. of wounds (f. sundr af sárum).

flaki, m. wicker-work shield (for defence in battle).

flakka (), v. to rove about (as a beggar).

flakna (), v. to flake off, split.

flat-liga, adv. = flatt (fara flatliga = fara flatt, see ‘flatr’); -nefr, a. flat-nosed (a nickname).

flatr, a. (1) flat, level (um slétta dali ok flata völlu); f. fiskr, flat fish, halibut; (2) flat, prostrate (falla f., kasta ser flötum niðr); draga e-n flatan, to drag one flat on the ground; (3) of the flat side of a thing; bregða flötu sverðinu, to turn the sword flat; stýra á flatt skip e-s, to steer on the broad side of another’s ship; (4) neut. flatt, as adj., fara f. fyrir e-m, to fare ill, be worsted.

flat-sæng, f. bed made on the floor, shakedown; -vegr, m. flat side (telgja -veg á tré).

flaug, f. (1) flying, flight (taka flaug sem fuglar); allt er á för ok flaugum, in a commotion; (2) vane.

flaugar-skegg, n. the tail of a vane.

flaug-trauðr, a. = flugtrauðr.

flaugun, f. flying, flight.

flaum-ósi, a. rushing heedlessly on.

flaumr, m. eddy, violent stream.

flaum-slit, n. pl. breach of friendship.

flaust, n. poet. ship.

flautir, f. pl. a kind of whipped milk.

flá (flæ; fló, flógum; fleginn), v. (1) to flay (f. belg, húð af e-m); f. e-n kvikan, to flay alive; (2) to strip; f. e-n af or ór klæðum, to strip one of his clothes; f. e-n at gripum, to strip one for his money.

flá (pl. flár), f. float of a net.

flár (flá, flátt), a. false, deceitful;mæla fagrt, en hyggja flátt, to speak fair, but think false.

flá-ráð, n. deceit, fraud; -ráðr, a. false, deceitful; -ræði, n. = -ráð; fleinn (-s, -ar), m. (1) pike; (2) fluke, of an anchor (akkeris-fleinn); (3) dart, shaft (fljúgandi fleinn).

fleipa (), v. = fleipra.

fleipr, n. babble, tattle.

fleipra (), v. to babble, prattle.

fleiri, a. compar., flestr, a. superl. (1) more, most; fleira lið, more troops; mun þat flestrum manni úfœra þykkja, it will seem impossible to most people; neut., fleira, flest, more, most things (ekki sagði hann honum fleira; flest í þessu bréfi); with gen., fleira manna, more people (cfr. ‘margt manna’); pl., hinir vóru þó miklu fleiri, more numerous; flestr allr (vel flestr), flestir allir (vel flestir), almost all (flest allt stórmenni; flest öll hof); (2) more communicatlive, hearty; hann gerðist við hann fleiri ok fleiri, more and more intimate.

fleki, m. = flaki.

flekka (), v. to slain, pollute.

flekk-lauss, a. unspotted, immaculate (fœddr af flekklausri mey).

flekk-óttr, a. flecked, spotted.

flekkr (-s, -ir), m. fleck, spot, stain.

flenging, f. scourging (= húðstroka).

flengja (-da, -dr), v. to scourge.

flenna (-ta, -tr), v. to set wide open.

flenn-eygr, a. with distended eyelids, open-eyed.

flensa (), v. to kiss (?).

flesk, fleski, n. pork, ham, or bacon.

fleski-sneið, f. slice of bacon.

flestr, a. superl., see ‘fleiri’.

flet (gen. pl. fletja), n. the raised flooring along the side walls of a hall (to sit or lie on) together with the benches thereon. Also in pl.

fletja (flet, flatta, flattr), v. to make flat, cut open (f. þorsk); refl., fletjast, to stretch oneself, lie flat on the ground.

flet-roð, n. clearing the house.

fletta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to strip (f. e-n klæðum or af klæðum); f. e-t af e-m, to strip (something) off one; (2) to strip, plunder.

flétta (), v. to braid, plait.

flétta, f. = fléttingr.

fletting, f. stripping, plunder.

fléttingr, m. braid, plait.

fley, n. poet. a kind of swift ship.

fleygi-gaflak, n. javelin; -kvittr, m. loose rumour, vague report.

fleygja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to make fly (f. haukum); (2) to throw (f. e-u).

fleygr, a. able to fly.

fleymi, n., fleymingr, m. jest, sport; hafa e-t í fleymingi, to make sport of.

fleyta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to set, afloat, launch (f. skipum); (2) to lift slightly from the ground.

flikki, n. flitch of bacon.

flikkis-sneið, f. slice of bacon.

flim, n. lampoon, libel (in verse).

flim-beri, m. lampooner.

flimska, f. mockery.

flimta (), v. to lampoon, satirise.

flimtan, f. lampooning, satire.

flís (pl. -ir), f. splinter, chip.

fljóð, n. poet. woman.

fljót, n. (1) = flot (2); vera á fljóti, to be afloat; (2) river, lake.

fljóta (flýt; flaut, flutum; flotinn), v. (1) to float on the water (hann sá þar f. langskip tjaldat); (2) to run, stream; (3) fig. to float about, spread (of news); (4) to be flooded, to flow (flaut í blóði gólf allt); flaut hann allr í tárum, he was bathed in tears.

fljót-leikr, m. fleetness, speed; -liga, adv. (1) speedily; (2) readily, promptly; -ligr, a. speedy.

fljótr, a. swift, speedy; neut., fljótt, as adv. swiftly, quickly; sem fljótast, as soon as possible, at once.

fljót-tœkr, a. quick at apprehending (-tœkr á e-t); -virki, f. quickness in working; -virkr, a. quick in working.

fljúga (flýg; flaug, flugum; floginn), v. (1) to fly (fór svá hart sem fugl flygi); (2) fig. of weapons, sparks, rumours, etc. (spjótit flaug yfir hann; gneistarnir flugu); (3) f. á e-n, to fly at or on one.

flog, n. flight, flying, = flug.

flogall, a. lively, brisk, volatile.

flokka-dráttr, m. raising of bands.

flokkr (-s, -ar), m. (1) body of men (f. eru fimm menn); (2) company, host (þeir gengu allir í einum flokki); (3) band, troop, party; hefja, reisa, flokk, to raise a band; fylla flokk e-s, to join one’s party, to side with one; (4) short poem, without refrains (opp. to ‘drápa’).

flokks-foringi, -höfðingi, m. captain, leader; -maðr, m. a man belonging to a party (flokkr).

flokk-stjóri, m. = flokksforingi.

flot, n. (1) fat, dripping (from cooked meat); (2) floating; koma á f., to be set afloat; vera á floti, to be afloat.

flota (), v. to float, launch (f. e-u).

flota-hölmr, m. floating islet.

flot-brúsi, m. floating jar, poet. boat; -fundinn, pp. found afloat.

floti, m. (1) float, raft; (2) fleet.

flotna (), v. to get afloat; f. upp, to float up, come to the surface.

fló (gen. flóar; pl. flœr), f. layer, stratum.

fló (gen. flóar; pl. flœr), f. a flea.

flóa (), v. to flood, be flooded.

flóð, n. (1) flood, innundation, deluge; (2) flood, flood-tide; at flóði, at flóðum, at high-water.

flói, m. (1) marshy moor; (2) bay, large firth.

flóka-hetta, f. felt hood; -ólpa, f. felt coat; -stakkr, m. felt jacket; -trippi, n. a foal or young horse with a matted coat.

flóki, m. (1) matted hair or wool, felt; (2) cloudlet (skýflóki); flókinn, a. entangled, matted.

flóna (), v. to become warm.

flórr, m. floor of a cow-house.

flótta-búinn, a. ready to flee; -gjarn, a. eager to flee, craven; -maðr, m. one who flees; -menn, m. the flying host; -rekstr, m. pursuit of the flying host; -stigr, m. path of flight.

flótti, m. (1) flight; leggja á flótta, to take to flight; støkkva e-m á flótta, to put to flight; (2) reka flóttann, to pursue the flying host.

flug, n. (1) flight (= flugr); á ferð ok flugi, all in one motion; (2) precipice.

fluga (gen. pl. flugna), f. (1) fly; (2) lure, bait; koma flugu í munn e-m, to allure, entrap one; gína (taka) við flugu, to swallow the fly, to be allured, entrapped.

fluga-bjarg, n., -hamarr, m. beetling crag, precipice; -straumar, m. violent and rapid stream.

flugði, a pret. of a lost verb flyggja, hon flugði öll, she shuddered all over.

flug-dreki, m. flying dragon; -dýr, n. flying insect; -liga, adv. swiftly; -ormr, m. flying snake.

flugr (gen. -ar), m. (1) flight (= flaug); beina flug, to spread the wings for fight; (2) flight (= flótti); trauðr flugar, slow to take to flight, bold.

flug-sjór, m. deep sea; -skjótr, a. very swift; -stigr, m. steep path.

flugu-maðr, m. hired bandit, assassin; -mannligr, a. having the look of an assassin.

flug-vápn, n. javelin, dart.

flutning, f. (1) transport, carriage of goods, conveyance of persons; (2) statement, report (cf. flutningr).

flutningar-maðr, m. one engaged in conveying goods.

flutningr (-s, -ar), m. (1) = flutning (1); (2) = flutning (2); (3) pleading (f. máls).

flutnings-maðr, m. a spokesman, pleader (-maðr okkarr við konung).

flúð, f. low skerry, reef flooded by the sea (á flúð eða skeri).

flúr, n. (1) flower; (2) flour.

flyðra, f. flounder.

flygill, m. flying apparatus.

flyka, f. phantom, ghost.

flykkjast (t), v. to crowd.

flysja (flusta), v. to split, cut in slices (at flysja epli).

flytja (flyt, flutta, fluttr), v. (1) to carry, convey (f. vöru til skips); (2) to recite, deliver (f. or f. fram kvæði); f. mál e-s, to plead one’s cause, interceed for one; f. (fram) sitt erendi, to state one’s errand; (3) to perform (f. járnburð, skírslu); f. fórn, to bring an offering; (4) refl., flytjast, to flit, remove.

flytjandi, (1) pr. p., f. eyrir, movables, chattels; (2) m. (pl. -endr), promoter, pleader (f. máls).

flýja (flý; flýða; flýiðr, flýðr), v. (1) to flee, take flight (f. á land upp); f. undan e-m, to flee from one pursuing; (2) with acc., f. land, to flee the country; úhœgt mun forlögin at f., it will be hard to avoid what is fated.

flýta (-tta, -tt), to hasten (f. ferðinni); f. sér, to speed oneself, make haste.

flýtir (gen. -is), m. haste, speed.

flæma (-da, -dr), v. to drive away ignominiously (f. e-n brott).

Flæmingi (pl. -jar), m. Fleming.

flæmska, f. Flemish (language).

flæmskr, a. Flemish.

flærð, f. falsehood, deceit.

flærðar-fullr, a. deceitful; -orð, n. pl. false (but fair) language; -samligr, a. deceitful; -stafir, m. pl. falseness, deceit.

flærðari, m. impostor.

flærð-lauss, a. sincere; at -lausu, faithfully, honestly.

flærðr, pp. adulterated, poisoned (f. er drykkrinn).

flærð-samligr, -samr, a. false, deceitful; -vitni, n. false witness.

flœða (-ddi, -ddr), v. (1) to flood over; impers., þá flœðir uppi, they are overtaken by the floodtide; (2) impers., flœðir, the tide rises.

flœðar-bakki, m. a bank covered at high-water; -mál, n. flood-mark; -sker, n. a reef flooded at high-water; -urð, f. rocks reached at high-water.

flœði-bakki, m. = flœðar-bakki; -sker, n. = flœðar-sker.

flœðr (gen. -ar, acc. and dat. -i; pl. -ar), flood-tide.

flœja (flœða, flóða; flœit, flót), v. = flýja.

flœkjast (t), v. refl. to be entangled; f. fyrir e-m, to cross one’s path, to be constantly in one’s way.

flœr, m. warmth, heat, = hiti.

flögra (), v. to flutter.

flökr, n. roaming about.

flökra (), v. to roam about.

flökta (-kta, -kt), v. (1) to, flutter and fly about; (2) to roam, meander.

flöktan, f. fluttering, roaming about.

fnasa (), v. to snort with rage.

fnasan, f. sneezing, snorting.

fnýsa, fnœsa (-ta, -t), v. to sneeze; f. eitri, to blow out poison.

fogl (-s, -ar), m. = fugl.

folald, n. young fool.

fold, f. earth; á foldu (dat.) on earth.

fold-vegr, m. = fold.

forað, n. (1) dangerous place or situation, abyss, pit; (2) ogre, monster (þú ert et mesta f.).

foraðs-hár, a. terribly tall; -illr, a. abominable; -veðr, n. abominable weather.

forátta, f. pretext; finna e-t til foráttu, to plead as one’s excuse.

for-beini, m. furtherance; -berg, n. projecting rock; -bergis, adv. down-hill; -boð, n. prohibition (leggja -boð á e-t); -boða (), v. (1) to forbid (= fyrirbjóða); (2) to put under an interdict; -brekkis, adv. down-hill; -brekkt, a. n. down-hill; -bœnir, f. pl. evil wishes, imprecations (biðja e-m forbœgna).

forða (), v. (1) to put forth (forðuðu fingrum); (2) to save, f. fjörvi, lífi, f. sér, to save one’s life; (3) refl., forðast, to shun, avoid, escape; f. fund e-s, to shun one.

forði, m. help, aid.

forðum, adv. formerly; f. daga, in former days.

for-dyri, n. vestibule (= anddyri).

for-dæða, f. witch, sorceress.

fordæðu-maðr, m. wizard, sorcerer; -skapr, m. witchcraft, sorcery; -verk, n. execrable deed.

for-dœma (-da, -dr), v. to condemn.

for-dœmi, n., -dœming, f. condemnation.

for-ellrar, m. pl. forefathers, ancestors; -ellri, n. coll. = forellrar (úlíkir sínu forellri).

forellris-menn, m. pl. = forellrar.

for-faðir, m. (1) forefather; (2) predecessor; -fall, n. hindrance, drawback; -flótti, a. exiled fugitive; verða -flótti fyrir e-m, to flee before one; -ganga, f., -gangr, m. ‘going before’, help, support.

forgangs-maðr, m. leader, guide.

for-garðr, m. fore-court (of a house); vera á -görðum, to be wasted and squandered, of stores; -gipt, f. payment for alimentation; -gísl, m. hostage; -gísla (), v. to give (a person) as hostage.

forgöngu-maðr, m. leader = forgangsmaðr.

for-hleypi, n.; hafa e-n at -hleypi, to use one as a cat’spaw.

forhleypis-maðr, m. = forhleypi.

for-hugaðr, pp. premeditated, aforethought; -hugsan, f. design, purpose.

for-hús, n. porch.

foringi (pl. -jar), m. leader.

forka (), v. to punt (a ship).

for-kast, n. fodder (hay) thrown before cattle; -kirkja, f. church-porch; -kostuliga, adv. very finely; -kólfr, m. leader, chief.

forkr (-s, -ar), m. pole, staff, stick.

for-kuðr (gen. -kunnar), f. eager desire; e-m er -kúðr á e-u, one desires eagerly; gen., forkunnar, remarkably, exceedingly (-kunnar vænn, mikill); -kunn(ar)liga, adv. (1) fervently (biðja forkunnliga); (2) exceedingly (forkunnliga fríðr); -kunnligr, a. excellent.

forlag, n. (1) provision for living, means of subsistance; (2) settlement (in life, by marriage); (3) pl. forlög, fate, destiny.

for-lagðr, pp. done with, forlorn; -lendi, n. the land between sea and hills; -ljótr, a. exceedingly ugly; -lýta (-tta, -ttr), v. to blame.

for-lög, n. pl., see ‘forlag’.

form, n. form, shape (rare).

for-maðr, m. leader, chief; -maðr konunga, the foremost among kings; -mannligr, a. leader-like; -máli, m. (1) preamble; (2) stipulation (með þvílíkum formála, sem); (3) foreword; (4) prayer; -menntr, pp. well trained, highly skilled; -messa, f. matins; -mikill, a. exceedingly great; -mælandi (pl. -endr), m., -mælari, m. spokesman; -mæli, n. (1) pleading; veita e-m formæli, to plead for one, pray for one; (2) prescribed form, formula.

forn, a. (1) old (f. vinátta, f. mjóðr); (2) ancient; fornir menn, the men of old; f. siðr, the old (heathen) custom, religion; f. átrúnaðr, the old creed, heathenism; f. í skapi, inclined to old, or heathen, ways; hann var f. mjök, he was a great wizard; at fornu, til, forna, formerly, in times fast.

fornaðr, m., see ‘fórnaðr’.

for-nafn, n. pronoun.

for-nám, n. obstacle, hold-fast.

forneskja, f. (1) old times; (2) heathenism; (3) oldlore, witchcraft (fara með forneskju).

forneskju-klæðabúnaðr, m. old-fashioned apparel; -maðr, m. sorcerer, wizard.

forn-fáguligr, a. old and worn-out; -fróðr, a. skilled in old lore, versed in witchcraft; -frœði, f. ancient lore, witchcraft.

for-njósn, f. foresight (-njósnaraugu).

forn-konungr, m. ancient king; -kveðinn, pp. said of old; hit -kveðna, the old saw; -kvæði, n. old poem; -ligr, a. old-looking, old-fashioned; fornlig fræði, old lore; -maðr, m. man of the olden time; -mæli, n. old saw; -mæltr, pp. = forn-kveðinn; -orðr, a. swearing; -saga, f. old (mythical) tale; -skáld, n. ancient scald; -spjöll, n. pl. old lore; -spurðr, pp., gera e-n fornspurðan at e-u, to do a thing without asking one’s leave; -tíðindi, n. pl. old tales; -vinr, m. oldfriend; -yrði, n. old saw.

for-ráð, n. (1) management, superintendent; (2) administration, guardianship; -ráðandi (pl. -endr), m. overseer, manager.

forráða-maðr, forráðs-maðr, m. manager, head man; -maðr á skipi, captain of a ship.

for-ríkr, a. exceedingly rich.

for-ræði, n. = for-ráð.

fors, n. vehemence, wrath.

fors (pl. -ar), m. waterfall.

for-sát, f. ambush; -senda, f., -sending, f. dangerous mission.

fors-fall, n. torrent.

fors-fullr, a. wrathful, vehement.

for-sjá or -sjó, foresight, prevision.

forsjá-lauss, a. (1) improvident; (2) helpless; -leysi, n. want of foresight; -liga, adv. with foresight, prudently; -ligr, a. prudent.

for-sjáll, a. prudent, foresigh led.

forsjá-maðr, m. overseer, manager.

for-skáli, m. ante-chamber, entrance-hall; -skepti, n. handle of a hammer or axe; -sköp, n. pl. ill fate; -smá (-smái, -smáða, -smáðr), v. to despise; -smán, f. disgrace; -smiðr, m. master-smith; -spá, f. prophecy; -spár, a. foreseeing, prophesying; -spell, n. heavy loss; -staða, f. shielding, protection; mæla e-m forstöðu (við e-n), to say a good word for one; -stjóri, m. overseer, leader; -stjórn, f. rule, management.

forstjórnar-maðr, m. manager.

for-stoð, f. = -staða; -stofa, f. = -skáli; -stórr, a. exceeding tall; -streymis, adv. down stream, opp. to ‘andstreymis’; -sýn, f. foreboding; -sýnn, a. (1) foresighted; (2) second sighled; -sæti, n. front bench; -sœla, f. shade (from the sun); -sögn, f. (1) prophecy; (2) superintendence; (3) dictation, instruction (eptir hinna vitrustu manna forsögn).

for-taka, v. to deny; fortaks-orð, n. word of contradiction.

for-tjald, n. curtain, bed-curtain; -tölur, f. pl. persuasion(s), representations; -vaði, m. a ford before a projecting cliff; -veðjaðr, pp. forfeited; -verari, m. forebear, predecessor; -verk, n. (1) work done in another’s service; (2) harvest of hay; (3) hireling’s work; gera ekki forverkum við e-n, not to treat one meanly.

forverks-lítill, a. able to do but little forverk; -maðr, m. able workman.

for-viða, a. indecl. overcome in a fight; -viðris, -vindis, adv. before the wind; -virki, n. = -verk (1); -vist, f., -vista, f. management; -vitinn, a. curious; -vitna (), v. to pry into, enquire about (forvitna e-t or um e-t); refl., forvitnast e-t, um e-t, til e-s, to enquire about; impers., e-n forvitnar e-t, one is curious to know; -vitni, f. curiosity; -vitri, a. very wise; -yflast (d), v. refl. to shrink from (e-s); -ynja, f. appearance, foreboding; -ysta, f. headship, leadership.

forystu-geldingr, m. = -sauðr; -lauss, a. unprotected; -sauðr, m. bell-wether.

for-þokki, m., -þykkja, f. dislike.

foss (pl. -ar), m. waterfall; = fors.

fóa, f. she-fox.

fóarn, n. gizzard.

fóðr, n. fodder, foddering.

fóðra (), v. (1) to fodder, feed; (2) to fur or line (a garment).

fóðr-lauss, a. (1) fodderless; (2) unlined.

fól, n., fóli, m. fool.

fólk, n. (1) folk, people; (2) the people of a household; (3) kinsfolk; (4) host; (5) battle (poet.).

fólk-djarfr, a. brave in battle; -liðendr, m. pl. wayfarers; -ræði, n. rule over people; -vítr, f. ‘battle wight’, Valkyrie.

fólk-drótt, f. = fólk (4); -orrusta, f. battle of hosts, great battle.

fólks-jaðarr, m. chief, lord.

fólk-skár, a. destructive to men; -stjóri, -valdi, m. captain; -vápn, n. pl. weapons; -víg, n. great battle, war; -vörðr, m. chief, captain.

fólska, f. foolishness, folly.

fólskr, a. foolish.

fólsku-ferð, f. foolish expedition; -orð, n. pl. foolish words; -verk, n. foolish (mad) act.

fórn (pl. -ir), f. (1) gift; (2) offering.

fórna (), v. (1) to offer as a present (f. e-m e-t) to offer, bring as an offering (to God).

fórnaðr, m., at fórnaði, furthermore, in addition, to boot.

fórn-fœra (-ða, -ðr), v. to bring an offering (konungr fórnfœrði goðunum); -fœring, f. offering.

fóst-bróðir, m. (1) foster-brother; (2) sworn brother (= eiðbróðir).

fóstbrœðra-lag, n. (1) foster-brotherhood; (2) sworn brotherhood (sverjast í fóstbraðralag).

fóstr, n. (1) the fostering (of a child); (2) maintenance.

fóstra (), v. to bring up as a foster-child, be a foster-father to.

fóstra, f. (1) foster-mother; (2) foster-daughter.

fóstr-dóttir, f. foster-daughter.

fóstr-faðir, m. foster-father.

fóstri, m. (1) foster-father; (2) foster-son; (3) foster-brother; (4) pl., fóstrar, foster-father and foster-son.

fóstr-jörð, f., -land, n. native country; -laun, n. pl. reward for fostering; -man, n. nurse (bondmaid); -móðir, m. foster-mother; -mær, f. foster-daughter; -neyti, n. foster-parents; -sonr, m. foster-son; -systir, f. foster-sister; -systkin, n. pl. foster-brother(s) and sister(s).

fóta-afl, n. strength of the feet; -brík, f. footboard (of a bed); -burðr, m. gait; -festi, f. foot-hold; -fjöl, f. foot-board; -gangr, m. trampling, din; -hlutr, m. the nether part of the body; -læti, n. pl. kicking (of one hanged).

fótar-mein, n. sore leg; -sár, n. a wound in the foot; -verkr, m. pain in the leg (foot).

fóta-spyrning, f. spurning with the feet; -stapp, n. stamping with the feet; -þili, n. = fóta-brík; -þváttr, m. foot-washing.

fót-borð, n. foot-board; -brot, n. fracture of the leg; -brotinn, pp. broken-legged; -fimr, a. nimble-footed; -gangandi, pr. p. walking, going on foot.

fótgöngu-herr, m., -lið, n. host of footmen; -maðr, m. a man on foot, footman, foot-soldier.

fót-hár, a. long-legged (= há-fœttr); -hrumr, a. weak-footed; -hvatr, a. swift-footed; -högg, n. hewing one’s feet off; -höggva (see höggva), v. to hew one’s feet off; -lami, a. lame of foot; -langr, a. long-legged; -laug, f. foot-bath; -lauss, a. footless; -lágr, a. low-legged, short-legged; -leggr, m. the leg; -mál, n. step; -mikill, a. big-footed; -mjúkr, a. nimble-looted; -pallr, m. footstool.

fótr (gen. fótar, dat. fœti, pl. fœtr), m. (1) foot, foot and leg; spretta (støkkva) á fœtr, to start to one’s feet; vera á fótum, to be out of bed, be up; skjóta fótum undir sik, taka til fóta, to take to one’s heels; eiga fótum fjör at launa, to save one’s life by running away; hlaupa sem fœtr toga, to run as fast as feet can carry; kominn af fótum fram, off one’s feet, decrepit; hverr á fœtr öðrum, one after the other; (2) foot (as a measure).

fót-sárr, a. foot-sore; -síðr, a. reaching down to the feet; -skemill, m. footstool; -skriða, f. sliding; renna-skriðu, to slide on the ice; -skör, f., footboard; -spor, n. foot-print (stíga í e-s fót-spor); -stallr, m. pedestal; -stirðr, a. stiff-legged; -trob, n. trampling under feet; -troða (see troða), v. to trample under one’s feet, tread upon; -veill, a. with a bad leg.

frakka, f. spear, lance (rare).

Frakka-konungr, m. the king of the Franks.

Frakkar, m. pl. the Franks.

fram, adv. (1) forward; hann féll f. á. fœtr konungi, he fell forward on his face at the king’s feet; f. rétt, straight on; koma f., to reappear; (2) out of the house; opp. to ‘inn, innarr’ (var hon ávalt borin f. ok innarr); (3) on the fore part, in front, opp. to ‘aptr’ (maðr f., en dýr aptr); aptr ok f., fore and aft, of a ship; (4) joined with preps. and particles, bíða f. á dag, f. á nótt, to wait far into the day, or night; bíða f. um jól, to wait till after Yule; fyrir lög f., in spite of the law; f. undan eyjunni; off the island; (5) of time, hversu er f. orðit, how late is it, what time is it? f. orðit dags, late in the day.

frama (), v. to further; f. sik, to distinguish oneself; of a woman, in pp. neut., með barni A mjök framat, and far advanced.

frama-ferð, f. famous enterprise; -leysi, n. obscurity.

framan, adv. (1) from (on) the front side; f. at borðinu, to the front of the table; f. á (skipinu), on the fore part (of the ship); á stálhúfuna f., on the front of the steel cap; (2) fyrir f., before, in the front of, with acc. (fyrir f. slána); (3) f. til (= fram til), up to, until; nú líðr til þings f., it drew near to the time of assembly.

framandi, pr. p. distinguished, of distinction (f. menn).

framan-vátr, a. wet on the fore-side; -verðr, a. lying forward, foremost; á framanverðri brekkunni, on the front of the slope; í framanvert nefit, on the tip of the nose.

frama-raun, f. trial of fame.

framar-la, -liga, adv. (1) in a forward position, near the front; (2) fully, highly, much.

framarr, adv. compar., framast, adv. superl. (= fremr, fremst), (1) farther (farthest) on; feti framarr, a step further on; (2) more, most (mun þín leitat verða hér framarr en hvar annars staðar); miklu er sjá framarr (more prominent, superior) at hvívetna; því framarr sem, all the more as; konungr virði hann framast allra sona sinna, most of all his sons.

frama-skortr, m. lack of courage; -verk, n. exploit, feat.

fram-boðligr, a. that can be offered; -bógr, m. shoulder (of an animal); -bryggja, f. the gangway leading to the bow of a ship; -burðr, m. delivery (of a speech); -búð, f., vera til lítillar frambúðar, to be of little lasting use; -byggjar, -byggvar, m. pl. the men stationed in the bow of a warship (opp. to ‘aptrbyggjar’).

framdráttar-samr, a. putting oneself forward.

fram-dráttr, m. (1) launching (-dráttr skips); (2) support, maintenance; -eggjan, f. egging on; -fall, n. (1) falling on one’s face; (2) downfall; (-fall árinnar); -farinn, pp. departed; -ferð, f. (course of) procedure; -ferði, n. (1) = -ferð; (2) conduct; -flutning, f. (1) maintenance, suport; (2) pronunciation; -flutningr, m. (1) = fram-flutning (1); (2) pleading; -fótr, m. fore-leg; -fúss, a. eager, willing; -fœri, n. furtherance; -fœrinn, a. putting oneself forward; -fœrsla, f. support, maintenance.

framfœrslu-kerling, f. old pauper woman; -maðr, m. pauper.

fram-för, f. (1) advancing; (2) death; -ganga, f. (1) advancing; (2) boldness, courage; -gangr, m. (1) advancing in battle; (2) success; (3) = -ganga (2); -genginn, pp. departed, deceased; -gengt, a. n. brought about, successful; verða framgengt, to succeed; -girnd, f., -girni, f. forwardness; -gjarn, a. striving torward, eager.

framgöngu-máðr, m. valiant man.

fram-heit, n. pl. fair promises for the future; -hleypi, n. forwardness, rashness; -hleypiligr, a. rash; -hlutr, m. fore part; -hús, n. porch, entry; -hvass, a. forward, hold; -hvöt, f. encouragement.

frami, m. (1) boldness, courage; (2) luck; freista síns frama, to try one’s luck; (3) distinction, fame (vinna sér frama); (4) profit (mæla e-t í sinn frama).

fram-játan, f. promise; -kast, n. forecast, empty words; -kirkja, f. nave, opp. to ‘sönghús’, choir, chancel; -krókar, m. pl. exertion; leggja í króka, to exert oneself; kvæma (-da, -dr), v. to fulfil, bring about; -kvæmd, f. fulfilment, success, prowess.

framkvæmdar-lauss, a. unavailing, useless; -leysi, n. inaction; -maðr, m. enterprising man; -mikill, -samr, a. enterprising.

fram-kvæmr, a. efficacious.

fram-lag, n. outlay, contribution; -laga, f. advancing (with the ships in battle); -leiðis, adv. further, next; -leiðsla, f. conduct (-leiðsla hans lífdaga); -liðinn, pp. departed, deceased; -ligr, a. excellent; framligr maðr, a fine man; -lundaðr, a. bold, courageous; -lútr, a. (1) bending forward; (2) prone (til e-s); -lyndr, a. = framlundaðr.

frammi, adv. (1) out, away out; þeir Leifr sitja f. í húsum, near the outer door; standa f. fyrir e-m, to stand before one’s face; (2) hafa e-t f. or í f., to make use of, employ; hafa kúgan í f. við e-n, to try to browbeat one.

fram-mynntr, a. with a prominent mouth (mjök eygðr ok f.).

framr (compar. framarri, fremri; superl. framastr, fremstr), a. (1) forward, prominent; neut., framt, to such an extent; treysta framt á, to put full trust in; compar. the foremost of two; til hins fremra austrrúms, to the fore pumping room; hit fremra, the place nearest the door, the road along the coast (fóru sumir f. tit Seljalandsmúla); (2) fig., fremri e-m, superior to (öllum fremri) superl. foremost, best (fremstr at allri sœmd); furthest back (hvat þú fremst um veizt).

fram-rás, f. course; -reið, f. riding on; -reitir, m. pl. the fore-beds’ (in a garden); fig., hafa e-t á -reitum to display, make a show of; -saga, f. delivery (-saga sakar); -snoðinn, a. bald on the forehead; -sókn, f. further prosecution of a case (-sókn sakar); -stafn, m. stem, prow; -sýn, f. foresight; -sýni, f. fore-sightedness; -sýniligr, a. foreseeing; -sýnn, a. foreseeing, prophetic; -sögn, f. statement; -vegis, adv. further, for the future; -vísi, f. prophetic spirit; -víss, a. prophetic, foreseeing.

frauð, n. froth (= froða).

frá, prep. with dat. (1) from (ganga f. lögbergi); skamt f. ánni, a short distance from the river; (2) away from (nökkut f. öðrum mönnum); (3) of time, alit f. eldingu, all along from daybreak; dag f. degi, one day after another; (4) from among, beyond; gera sik auðkendan f. öðrum mönnum, to make oneself conspicuous; (5) against; frá líkindum, against likelihood; (6) of, about; er mér svá f. sagt konungi, I am told so about the king; (7) as adv. away; hverfa f., to turn away; til ok f., to and fro; héðan í f., hence, henceforlh; þar út í frá, secondly, next.

frá-bæriligr, -bærr, a. surpassing; -dráttr, m. diminution; -fall, n. (1) falling off, receding (-fall sjófarins); (2) decease, death; -ferð, f. departure.

frágørða-, gen. pl. from ‘frágørðir’; -lið, n. choice troops; -maðr, m. remarkable man; -mikill, a. exceeding great (fjöturr f.).

frá-gørðir, f. pl. surpassing feats; var þat at -gørðum, it was extraordinary; -laga, f. retreat (in a seafight; cf. leggja frá); -lauss, a. free, clear (from a matter).

frá-leikr, m. swiftness, briskness.

frá-ligr, a. quick, swift.

frán-eygr, a. with flashing eyes.

fránn, a. gleaming, flashing (of serpents and weapons).

frár (frári, frástr), a. swift, lightfooted (frár á fœti).

frá-saga, f. account, narrative.

frásagnar-verðr, a. worth relating.

frá-skila, a. indecl. separated, isolated (-skila e-m); -skilliga, adv. out of the way, far off; -skilligr, a. = -skila; -skilnaðr, m. separation.

frá-sögn, f. (1) the act of relating; (2) = frásaga.

frásögu-ligr, a. worth relating, interesting.

frá-vera, -vist, f. absence.

fregn (pl. -ir), m. news, intelligence information.

fregna (fregn; frá, frágum; fréginn), v. (1) to hear of, be informed of (þrándr frá andlát föður síns); (2) to ask (f. e-n e-s); f. e-n ráðs, to ask one’s advice.

fregna (-da or -að), v. = prec.

freista (), v. (1) to tempt, make trial of, with gen.; (2) to try; f. íþróttar, to try a feat; f. sín í móti e-m, to try one’s strength against another; with infin., f. at renna skeið, to try to run a race.

freistan, freisting, f. temptation.

freistinn, a. daring, trying.

freistni, f. (1) temptation; (2) trial.

freka, f. rigour, se verity, harshness; með freku, harshly.

frek-efldr, pp. forcible.

freki, m. wolf (poet.).

frekja, f. = freka.

frek-liga, adv. harshly, immoderately; -ligr, a. harsh, severe.

freknóttr, a. freckly.

frekr, a. (1) greedy (f. til fjár), eager; (2) harsh, rigorous (frek lög); nú skal ek vera yðr f. harðsteinn, a rough whetstone.

frelsa (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to free, deliver, rescue (f. landit af hernaði); (2) f. e-m e-t, to rescue (secure) a thing for one (til at f. honum sína föðurleifð); (3) refl., frelsast, to save oneself, escape.

frels-borinn, pp. = frjálsborinn.

frelsi, n. (1) freedom; (2) leisure; (3) privilege, immunity (f. kirkjunnar).

frelsingi (-ja, -jar), m. freedman.

frelsis-gjöf, f. gift of freedom (to a bondsman).

fremd, f. furtherance, honour.

fremdar-ferð, f. glorious, journey; -lauss, a. inglorious; -verk, n. feat.

fremi, adv. only in the phrase, svá f. er, so far; esp., svá f. er, not until, not before, only when; seg þú svá f. frá því, er þessi dagr er allr, wait till this day is past before you speak of that; svá f. ef, in case that.

fremja (frem, framda, framiðr and framdr), v. (1) to further, promote (f. kristni); f. sik, to distinguish oneself; (2) to perform, practice; f. heiðni, to practice heathen worship; f. sund, to swim; to gain distinction. (3) refl., fremjast, to gain distinction.

fremr, adv. compar., fremst, adv. superl. more, most (= framarr, framast); þeir er fremst vóru, those who were foremost.

fremri, a. compar., fremstr, a. superl., see ‘framr’.

frer or frør, n. frost, frosty soil; f. var hart úti, it was hard frost; esp. pl., bíða frøra, to wait for frost; -mánaðr, m. frost-month (December).

frerinn, pp. frozen (f. skór).

fress (pl. -ar), m. (1) tom-cat (eigandi fressa, Freyja); (2) bear.

frest, n. delay, respite; á viku fresti, at the end of a week; also pl., þótt frestin væri löng, although the delay was long; ljá e-m fresta, to give one respite; selja á f., to sell on credit.

fresta (), v. to defer, put off, with dat. (f. brúðlaupi); absol. to tarry.

frostan, f. delaying, delay.

freta (fret, frat, and ), v. to break wind (freta við).

fret-karl, m. contemptible fellow.

fretr, m. fart; reka fret, to break wind.

frétt (pl. -ir), f. (1) news, intelligence; (2) enquiry about the future (ganga til fréttar við e-n).

frétta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to hear, get intelligence; (2) to ask, enquire (f. e-n e-s or at e-u); f. tíðenda, to ask for news; f. e-n upp, to find one out; (3) refl. to get about, be reported (þetta fréttist um heraðit); fréttist alls ekki til hans, nothing was heard of him; fréttist mér svá til, I am told; fréttust þeir tíðenda, they asked each other for news; fréttast fyrir, to enquire.

fréttinn, a. eager for news, inquisitive (um e-t, about a thing).

freyða (-dda, -tt), v. to froth.

freyja, f. lady; the goddess Freyja.

freyr (gen. freys), m. (1) lord; (2) the god Frey.

Freys-goði, m. priest of Frey.

friða (), v. to pacify, restore to peace (f. ríki sitt); f. fyrir e-m, to make peace for, intercede for one (við e-n, with another); refl., friðast við e-n, to reconcile oneself to another.

friðan, f. pacifying.

friðar-bréf, f. letter of peace; -fundr, m. peaceful meeting; -gørð, f. conclusion of peace, truce, treaty; -koss, m. kiss of peace; -mark, n. token of peace; -maðr, m. = friðmaðr; -stefna, f. peace-meeting; -tákn, n. friðar-mark.

frið-benda (-da, -dr), v. to fasten the sword in the sheath with friðbönd; -bót, f. peace-making; -brot, n. breach of peace.

friðbrots-maðr, m. peace-breaker.

frið-bönd, n. pl. ‘peace-bonds’ (straps wound round the sheath and fastened to a ring in the hilt); spretta -böndum, to undo the peace-straps (before drawing the sword); -gjafi, m. peace-maker; -gjarn, a. peaceful; -gælur, f. pl. enticements to peace (bera friðgælur á e-n); -gørð, f. = friðar-gørð; -heilagr, a. inviolate; -helga (), v. to make inviolate; -helgr (gen. -helgar), f. inviolability, protection by law.

frið-drjúgr, a. peaceful.

friðill, m. lover.

frið-kastali, m. asylum; -kaup, n. purchase of peace.

friðla or frilla, f. a man’s mistress or concubine (friðlur áttu þeir brœðr).

frið-land, n. friendly country, place of retreat; -lauss, a. outlawed, proscribed; -leysi, n. insecurity; -liga, adv. peacefully; -ligr, a. peaceful, peaceable.

friðlu-, frillu-borinn, pp. bastard-born; -lifnaðr, m., -lífi, n. fornication, whoredom; -maðr, m. adulterer; -sonr, m. illegitimate son; -tak, n. in the phrase, taka -taki, to take as concubine.

frið-maðr, m. peaceful man, friend; -mark, n. token of peace; -mál, n. words of peace; bera -mál milli manna, to act as peacemaker; -mælast (t), v. refl. to sue for peace (ekki mun nú tjá at friðmælast).

friðr (gen. friðar), m. (1) peace, personal security; biðja e-n friðar, to sue for peace; (2) love, friendship frið at kaupa, to purchase (thy) love.

frið-samligr, a. peaceable; -samr, a. peaceful; -semd, -semi, f. peacefulness; -skjöldr, m. truce-shield; bregða upp -skildi, to lift the shield of truce; -spilli, n. breach of peace; -staðr, m. sanctuary in a temple, asylum; -stefna, f. = friðarstefna; -stóll, m. chair of peace; -sæla, f. bliss of peace; -sæll, a. blessed with peace; -ván, f. prospect of peace; -vænligr, a., -vænn, a. giving promise of peace.

Frigg (gen. -jar), f. the goddess Frigg (the wife of Odin).

frilla, f., frillu-, see friðla, friðlu-.

fría (), v. to deliver (f. e-n e-u) refl. fríast, to free oneself.

fríða (-dda, -ddr), v. to adorn.

fríðendi, n. pl. good or fine things; heita e-m fríðendum, to make fair promises.

fríð-leikr, m. personal beauty.

fríðr (fríð, frítt), a. (1) beautiful, handsome (f. sýnum); (2) fine (frítt lið, föruneyti); (3) paid in kind; tólf hundruð fríð, twelve hundred head of cattle in payment; fjórir tigir marka fríðs, forty marks of silver paid in cattle. cf. ‘úfríðr’

Frísir, m. pl. the Frisians.

frískr, a. Frisian.

Frís-land, n. Frisia, Friesland.

frjá (-ða, -ðr), v. to love; sá fær er frjár, he that woos wins.

frjá-aptann, m. Friday evening.

frjádaga-fasta, f. Friday fast.

frjá-dagr, m. Friday.

frjádags-aptann, m., -kveld, n. Friday evening (cf. ‘frjá-aptann, -kveld’); -nótt, f. Friday night.

frjá-kveld, n. (1) eve of Friday; Friday evening.

frjáls, a. (1) free, opp. to ‘þræll’ (f. maðr); (2) free, unhindered (láta e-n fara frjálsan); eiga. e-t at frjálsu, to possess freely, without restraint.

frjálsa (), v. to free (= frelsa).

frjálsan, f. rescue, preservation.

frjáls-borinn, pp. free-born; -leikr, m. liberty; -lendingr, m. franklin; -liga, adv. freely; -ligr, a. free, independent; -mannligr, a. appropriate to a free man.

frjá-myrginn, m. Friday morning; -nótt, f. Friday night.

frjó (dat. frjó and frjóvi), n. = fræ.

frjóa or frjóva (), v. to fertilize; refl., frjóvast, multiply, be fertile.

frjó-ligr, a. fruitfull.

frjór (frjó, frjótt), a. fertile.

frjósa (frýs; fraus, frusum; frosinn; also freri or frøri, frerinn or frørinn), v. to freeze, esp. impers., fraus um hann klæðin (acc.), the clothes froze on his body; fraus inni skip (acc.) Erlings, Erling’s ships were frozen in; veðr var kalt ok frjósanda, cold and frosty; frýss haf allt optliga á vetrum, the whole sea often freezes in winter.

fró-samr, a. fertile; -semd, f. fertility, truthfulness.

froða, f. froth (= frauð).

froskr (-s, -ar), m. frog.

frost, n. frost; f. var veðrs, it was frosty weather; in pl., frost mikil ok kuldar, much frost and cold; frost ok snjóar, frost and snow.

frosta (), v. impers. to freeze, = frysta (hvert haust, er f. tók).

frosta-vetr, m. frosty winter.

frost-viðri, n. frosty weather.

fró, f. relief (from pain), comfort.

fróa (), v. to relieve, with acc.

fróan, f. relief, = fró.

fróð-geðjaðr, -hugaðr, a. wise-minded, wise; -leikr, m. (1) knowledge, information; (2) magic, witchcraft; -liga, adv. sensibly; eigi fróðliga, foolishly; -ligr, a. sensible.

fróðr, a. knowing, learned, well-informed (hón var fróð at mörgu); fróðar bœkr, instructive books.

frói, m. relief, = fró.

frón, n. poet. land, country.

frum-burðr, m. the first-born, first child; -ferill, m. one making a first visit; -fórn, f. first-fruit; -gefinn, pp. first-born; -getnaðr, -getningr, m. = -burðr; -gögn, n. pl. the main proofs; -hending, f. the foremost rhyming syllable in a line; -hlaup, n. personal assault; -kveði, m. originator; -kviðr, m. the first verdict; -smíð, f. first attempt (in any art); -sök, f. original cause; -tign, f. the highest dignity; -ungr, a. very young; -vaxta, a. indecl. in one’s prime; -váttr, m. the first, original witness; -verr, m. first husband.

frú (gen. frú, pl. frúr), f. mistress, lady (= freyja).

frygð, f. blossoming, excellence.

frysta (-ti, -t), v. to freeze.

frýja (frý, frýða, frýt), v. (1) to defy, taunt (hón frýði honum með mörgum orðum): f. e-m hugar, to challenge one’s courage; þessi klæði frýja ykkr föður-hefnda, those clothes challenge you to revenge your father; (2) f. á e-t, to complain of; to egg (goad) on.

frýja, f. taunt, reproach; verja sik frýju, to clear one self of reproach.

frýju-laust, adv. blamelessly, beyond reproach; -orð, -yrði, n. taunt (leggja frýju-orð á e-n).

frýn-ligr, a., frýnn, a. pleasant (-looking), inviting (only with negative, cf. ‘úfrýnn’).

fræ (dat. frævi), n. seed (= frjó).

frægð, f. fame, renown.

frægðar-fullr, a. glorious; -för, f. glorious journey; -maðr, m. famous man; -mark, n. badge of glory; -samligr, a. glorious; -skot, n. famous shot; -verk, n. feat, exploit.

frægi-ligr, a. creditable, honourable.

frægja (-ða, -ðr), v. to make famous.

frægr, a. famous (f. konungr).

fræ-korn, n. seed of corn.

frænda-afli, m. strength in kinsmen; -bálkr, m. body of kinsmen; -gengi, n. = frændlið; -gipta, f. family luck; -lát, n. loss (death) of kinsmen; -róg, n. strife among kinsinen; -skömm, f. disgrace in one’s famly; -styrkr, m. strength (backing) of kinsmen.

frænd-bálkr, m. = frænda-bálkr; -gofugr, a. having distinguished kinsmen; -hagi, m. native place; -hollr, a. faithful to one’s kinsmen.

frændi (pl. frændr), m. kinsman (also used of a brother and a son); yðrir fyrri frændr, your ancestors.

frænd-kona, f. kinswoman; -leifð, f. patrimony, inheritance (after a kinsman); -lið, n. host of kinsmen, family; -lingr, m. = frændi; -maðr, m. = frændi; -margr, a. having many kinsmen; -mær, f. maiden kinswoman; -ríkr, a. rich in kinsmen; -rœkinn, a. attached to one’s kinsmen; -samliga, adv. kinsmanlike, kindly; -semi, f. relationship, kinship; ganga við frændsemi e-s, to acknowledge one is a kinsman; var góð -semi með þeim, there was good fellowship between them, they lived on good terms as kinsmen.

frændsemis-spell, n. breech of kinship, incest; -tala, f. tracing of kinship; vera í -tölu við e-n, to be of kinship with one.

frænd-skarð, n. loss of a kinsman; -stórr, a. having, great kinsmen; -sveinn, m. young kinsman; -sveit, f. body of kinsmen; -víg, n. slaying of a kinsman.

frær, a. yielding fruit, = frjór.

fræs, f. hissing (þú gerðir f. mikla).

fræva (), v. to fertilize.

frœða (-dd, -ddr), v. to teach.

frœði, f. and n. (1) knowledge, learning, lore; í sumum frœðum, in some old records (poems); (2) charms, spells (þau kváðu þar frœði sín, en þat vóru galdrar).

frœði-bœkr, f. pl. books of knowledge; -fýsi, f. love of knowledge; -maðr, m. learned man, scholar, historian; -nám, -næmi, n. acquisition of knowledge, learning, studying.

frœki-liga, adv. valiantly.

frœkinn, and frœkn, a. valiant, brave; frœk-leikr and frœkn-leikr, m. valour, bravery, prowess.

frœkn-liga, adv. = frœkiliga; -ligr, a. valiant-looking, brave.

fugl (-s, -ar), m. bird (fór hann svá hart sem f. flygi); hafa f. af landi, to meet with land-birds, to be near land.

fugla-dráp, n. bird-killing; -drit, n. bird’s dung; -kippa, f. bundle of fowls; -lið, n. flock of birds.

fuglari, m. fowler, bird-catcher.

fugla-söngr, m. singing of birds; -veiðr, f. bird-catching.

fugl-berg, n. fowling-cliff; fugl-heill, f. augury; -veiðr, f. = fuglaveiðr; -ver, n. fowling-place; -þúfa, f. knoll on which birds sit.

full, n. the fill of a drinking-vessel, a toast (Ódins-full, etc.).

full-, in compds. fully, quite, amply; -bakaðr, pp. full-baked; -borða, a. indecl. with bulwarks of full height (of a ship); -býli, n. full provision for a house; -ferma (-da, -dr), v. to load full; -frœgr, a. full famous; -gamall, a. very old; -góðr, a. quite good; -gøra (-ða, -ðr), v. to fulfil, complete. perform; -gørla (-gørva), adv. quite, fully; -görr, pp. fully done; -hugi, m. dauntless man, hero; -hyggja (see hyggja), v. to love dearly; -illa, adv. very badly; -keyptr, pp. bought full dearly; -kominn, pp. perfect; -kominn at aldi, full grown; -komliga, adv. fully; -kosta, a. indecl. fully matched (of man and wife); -kvæni, a. well married; -launaðr, pp. fully rewarded; -leiksa, a. indecl. quite enough to do (hafa -leiksa); -liða, a. indcl. having men (troops) enough; -malinn, pp. fully ground; -mikill, a. full great.

fullna (), v. to fulfil, finish.

fullnaðr (gen. -ar), m. fulfilment; hafa fullnað ór máli, to obtain one’s full claim (in a suit).

full-numi, a. having learnt fully, become an adept in a thing (-numi í göldrum); -nœgja (-ða, -t), v. to be sufficieni, to suffice; -orðinn, pp. full-grown, of age.

fullr, a. (1) full of (e-s or af e-u); f. upp úlfúðar, full of savageness; f. eitri (dat.), full of poison; (2) full, complete, entire; full vissa, full certainty; sœkja mil til fullra, laga, to the full extent of the law; halda til fulls við e-n, to stand on one’s full right against another; hafa fullara hlut, to get the better of it; at fullu, til fulls, fully, thorougly.

full-ráða, a. indecl. fully resolved; -rétti, n. a gross insult for which full atonement is due; -rýninn, a. fully wise; -ræði, n. (1) full efficiency; (2) full match; -rœtt, pp. n. enough spoken of; -röskr, a. in full strength; -sekta (), v. to make one a full outlaw; -skriða, a. indecl. at full speed; -spakr, a. full wine; -steiktr, pp. fully roasted; -sæla, f. wealth, bliss; -sæla fjár, great wealth; -sæll, a. blissful; -sœfðr, pp. quite dead; -sœmdr, pp. fully honoured; -tekinn, pp. -tekinn karl, a full champion; -tíða, a. indecl. full-grown; full-tíða aldr, full age.

fullting, n. help, assistance.

fulltingja (-da, -dr), v. to lend help, assist, with dat.

full-trúi, m. one in whom one puts full confidence, patron (deity); -týja (-týða), v. = -tingja; -vaxta, a. indecl. full-grown; -vegit, pp. n. having slain enough; -vel, adv. full well; -virði, n. full price; -þroskaðr, pp. full-grown, grown to full strength; -þurr, a. fully dry.

fundning, f. finding.

fundr (-ar, -ir), m. (1) finding, discovery (fundr fjárins, f. Íslands); (2) meeting; fara, koma á fund e-s, til fundar við e-n, to go to visit, or have talk, with, one; (3) fight, battle.

fund-víss, a. quick to find.

funi, m. flame (f. kveikist af funa).

fura, f. fir, fir-tree.

furða (-að), v. (1) to wonder; (2) to forebode, with dat.; illu mun f., ef, it will bode ill, if.

furða, f. (1) foreboding, omen; góðs (ills) f., good (bad) omen; (2) strange (wonderful) thing; ekki er þetra nein f., ’tis nothing strange.

furðu-, in compound’s, very, wonderfully; -djarfr, a. very insolent; -heimskr, a. very foolish; -liga, adv. very, exceedingly (-liga hár, mikill, vel); -ligr, a. wonderful, marvellous; -sterkr, a. very strong; -vel, adv. wonderfully well.

furu-kvistr, m. fir bough.

fussum, interj. fie, with dat.

fustan, n. fustian (foreign word).

fúinn, a. rotten, decayed.

fúlga, f. fee paid for alimentation.

fúlgu-fall, n. forfeit the alimentation fee; -fé, n. sheep or cattle put out to fodder; -fénaðr, m. sheep or cattle put out to fodder; -maðr, m. boarder, one boarded out.

fúll, a. (1) foul, stinking; fúlt egg, a rotten egg; (2) fig. foul, mean.

fúl-leitr, a. of foul appearance; -liga, adv. meanly; -mannligr, a. mean, paltry; -mennska, f. paltriness, baseness.

fúlna (), v. to become stinking.

fúl-yrði, n. pl. foul langwage.

fúna (), v. to rot, decay.

fúrr (gen. fúrs), m. fire (poet.).

fús-liga, adv. willingly.

fúss, a. willing, eager (f. e-s or til e-s; f. at fara, etc.); absol., f. (willing) vil ek mína hamingju til leggja.

fygla (-da, -t), v. to catch fowl.

fyl (gen. pl. -ja), n. foal or filly.

fylgð, f. (1) following, guidance; (2) support, help, backing; (3) party, followers; body-guard (of kings and princes); halda fylgð, to wait upon the king.

fylgðar-lauss, a. without attendants, alone; -maðr, m. follower, attendant.

fylgi, n. following, support; auka sér f., to win followers.

fylgi-kona, f. concubine, mistress.

fylginn, a. attached to (f. e-m).

fylgi-samr, a. = fylginn.

fylgja (-ða, -t), v. (1) to accompany, help, with dat.; f. e-m at, f. e-s málum, to side with one, take one’s part; (2) to lead, guide one (yðr var fylgt í kornhlöðu eina); (3) to pursue (f. fast flóttamönnum); (4) to follow, be about one (konungr lét sveininn f. móður sinni); (5) to follow, observe (f. e-s ráðom, f. hirðsiðum); (6) to belong, or pertain to (segl ok reiði er fylgðu skipinu); (7) láta f., to add; þat lét hann f., at, he added that; (8) refl., fylgjast, to follow one another; fig. to hold together (hann bað sína menn f. vel, hold well together).

fylgja, f. (1) guidance (beiða e-n fylgju); (2) female guardian spirit; attendant spirit in animal form (þú munt vera feigr maðr ok muntu hafa sét fylgju þína).

fylgjandi (pl. -jendr), m. follower.

fylgjari, m. = fylgjandi.

fylgju-engill, m. guardian angel; -kona, f. (1) = fylgja (2); (2) = fylgikona; -lag, n. concubinage; -samr, a. = fylgisamr.

fylgsni, n. hiding-place.

fylja, f. filly.

fylki (gen. pl. fylkja), n. (1) district, county, shire, in Norway (þat er f. kallat, er gøra má af tólf skip); (2) battalion, host (in battle).

fylking (pl. -ar), f. (1) battle array; (2) host, legion.

fylkingar-armr, m. wing of an army; -broddr, m. vanguard of a host (í öndverðum -broddi).

fylkir (gen. -is), m. chief, king.

fylkis-konungr, m. chief of a district; a petty king.

fylkja (-ta, -tr), v. to draw up (in battle array), with dat., or absol.

fylla (-da, -dr), v. (1) to fill (f. e-t e-s or af e-u); (2) to complete, make up (f. þat, er á skortir); (3) to fulfil; (4) f. flokk e-s, to side with one; (5) refl., fyllast áhyggju ok hræðslu (gen.), to be filled with care and fear.

fylli, f. one’s fill (gefa e-m f. sína matar ok drkkjar).

fylli-liga, adv. fully.

fylling, f. (1) filling; (2) fulfilment.

fyl-merr, f. a mare with a foal.

fyrðar, m. pl. men, warriors (poet.).

fyrir, prep., I. with dat. (1) before, in front of (ok vóru fyrir honum borin merkin); f. dyrum, before the door; (2) before one, in one’s presence; hón nefndist f. þeim Gunnhildr, she told them that her name was G.; (3) for; hann lét ryðja f. þeim búðina, he had the booth cleared for them, for their reception; (4) before one, in one’s way; fjörðr varð f. þeim, they came to a fjord; sitja f. e-m, to lie in wait for one; (5) naut. term. before, off; liggja f. bryggjum, to lie off the piers; f. Humru-mynni, off the Humber; (6) before, at the head of, over; vera f. liði, to be over the troops; vera f. máli, to lead the case; sitja f. svörum, to undertake the defence; (7) of time, ago; f. þrem nóttum, three nights ago; f. stundu, a while ago; f. löngu, long ago; vera f. e-u, to forebode (of a dream); (8) before, above, superior to; Hálfdan svarti var f. þeim brœðrum, H. was the foremost of the brothers; (9) denoting disadvantige, harm, suffering; þú lætr Egil vefja öll mál f. þér, thou lettest E. thwart all thy affairs; tók at eyðast f. herm lausa-fé, her money began to fail; (10) denoting obstacle, hindrance; mikit gøri þer mér f. þessu máli, you make this case hard for me; varð honum lítit f. því, it was a small matter for him; Ásgrími þótti þungt fyrir, A. thought that things looked bad; (11) because of, for; hon undi sér hvergri f. verkjum, she had no rest for pains; f. hræðslu, for fear; illa fœrt f. ísum, scarcely, passable for ice; gáðu þeir eigi f. veiðum at fá heyjanna, because of fishing, they neglected to make hay; f. því at, because, since, as; (12) against; gæt þín vel f. konungi ok hans mönnum, guard thee well against the king and his men; beiða griða Baldri f. alls konar háska, against all kinds of harm; (13) f. sér, of oneself; mikill f. sér, strong, powerful; minnstr f. sér, smallest, weakest; (14) denoting manner or quality, with; hvítr f. hærum, while with hoary hair; II. with acc. (1) before, in front of; halda f. augu sér, to hold (one’s hands) before one’s eyes; (2) before, into the presence of; stefna e-m f. dómstól, before a court; (3) over; hlaupa f. björg, to leap over a precipice; kasta f. borð, to throw overboard; (4) in one’s way, crossing one’s way; ríða á leið f. þá, to ride in their way, so as to meet them; (5) round, off; sigla f. nes, to weather a point; (6) along, all along; f. endilangan Noreg, all along Norway, from one end to the other; draga ör f. odd, to draw the arrow past the point; (7) of time, f. dag, before day; f. e-s minni, before one’s memory; (8) for, on behalf of; vil ek bjóða at fara f. þik, I will offer to go for thee, in thy stead; lögvörn f. mál, a lawful defence for a case; (9) for, for the benefit of; þeir skáru f. þá melinn, they cut the lyme-grass for them (the horses); (10) for, instead of, in place of, as; (11) for, because of (vilja Gunnar dauðan f. höggit); f. þín orð, for thy words (intercession); f. sína vinsæld, by reason of his popularity; (12) denoting value, price; f. þrjár merkr, for three marks; f. hvern mun, by all means, at any cost; (13) in spite of, against (giptast f. ráð e-s); (14) joined with adverbs ending in -an, governing acc. (f. austan, vestan, sunnan, norðan, útan innan, framan, handan, ofan, neðan); f. austan, sunnan fjall, east, south of the fell; f. neðan brú, below the bridge; f. handan á, beyond the river; f. innan garð, inside the fence; III. as adverb or ellipt. (1) ahead, before, opp. to ‘eptir’; þá var eigi hins verra eptir ván, er slíkt fór f., when this came first, preceded; (2) first; mun ek þar eptir gera sem þér gerit f., I shall do to you according as you do first; (3) at hand, present, to the fore; föng þau, er f. vóru, stores that were at hand; þar var f. fjöldi boðsmanna, a host of guests was already present (before the bride and bridegroom came); (4) e-m verðr e-t f., one takes a certain step, acts so and so; Kolbeini varð ekki f., K. was at a loss what to do; e-t mælist vel (illa) f., a thing is well (ill) spoken or reported of (kvæðit mæltist vel f.).

fyrir-banna (), v. to forbid, deny (e-m e-t); -bending, f. foreboding; -bjóða (see bjóða), v. to forbid; -boða (), v. to forebode; -boðan, f. foreboding; -boðning, f. forbidding; -bón, f. imprecation; -burðr, m. appearance, vision; -búa (see búa), v. to prepare; -búnaðr, m. preparation; -búningr, m. preparation; -dœma (-da, -dr), v. to condemn; -fara (see fara), v. to destroy; -fari, m. foreboding; -fólk, n. great folk, persons of distinction; -furða, f. = -fari; -ganga, f. walking ahead, leading; -gefa (see gefa), v. to forgive; -gefning, f. forgiveness; -gøra (-ða, -ðr), v. to forfeit (-gøra e-u); -heit, n. promise; -huga (), v. to intend for (e-m e-t); -hugsa (), v. to premeditate; -hyggja, f. forethought, care; -koma (see koma), v. (1) to destroy, with dat.; (2) avert, prevent; -kona, f. woman of distinction; -konungr, m. distinguished king; -kunna (see kunna), v. to blame one for (-kunna e-n e-s); -kveða (see kveða), v. to refuse (e-m e-t); -lát, n. forgiveness; -láta (see láta), v. (1) to let go, give up; (2) to forgive (e-m e-t); (3) to give way; -látr, a. not exacting, yielding; -látsamr, a., ekki -látsamr, stubborn; -leggja (see leggja), v. to lay aside, forsake; refl., -leggjast um e-t, to give it up; -leitinn, a. circumspect; -leitni, f. circumspection; -litligr, a. contemptible; -líta (see líta), v. to despise; -ljúga (see ljúga), v. (1) to forswear by lies (-ljúga trú sinni); (2) with acc. to slander; -maðr, m. (1) foreman, chief; (2) one who excels others; (3) predecessor; -mannligr, a. distinguished-looking; -muna (see muna), v. to grudge one a thing (e-m e-t); -mæla (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to injure one by one’s words (-mæla e-m); (2) to curse; -nema (see nema), v. (1) -nema e-m mál, to deprive one of speech, make one silent; (2) refl., -nemast e-t, to forbear; -rásari, -rennari, m. forerunner; -rúm, n. the ‘room’ in a ship of war before the ‘lypting’, the middle ‘room’ of a boat.

fyrirrúms-maðr, m. one stationed in the fyrirrúm.

fyrir-sát, f., -sátr, n. ambush; -segja (see segja), v. to foretell; -setning, f. preposition; -sjón, f. laughinigstock; -skyrta, f. ‘fore-shirt’, apron; -spá, f. prophecy; -sverja (see sverja), v. to forswear, renounce by oath; -sögn, f. dictation, instruction; -taka (see taka), v. (1) to deny, refuse; (2) to forbid; -tölur, f. pl. persuasion; -vari, m. precaution; -vega (see vega), v. to forfeit by manslaughter; -verða (see verða), v. to collapse, vanish; -verða sik, to be destroyed; refl., -verðast, to perish, collapse; -vinnast (see vinna), v. refl., láta fyrirvinnast, to be idle, forbear (doing a thing); -vist, f. leading, management; -ætlan, f. design, purpose.

fyrnast (d), v. refl. (1) to get old, decay; (2) to be forgotten (hans nafn mun aldri f.); henni fyrndist aldri fall Ólafs konungs, she never forgot king Olaf’s death.

fyrnd, f. (1) age, antiquity; í fyrndinni, in times of yore; (2) decay, dilapidation (f. kirkjunnar).

fyrnska, f. (1) age; slitinn af fyrnsku, worn with age; (2) witchcraft; vita fyrnsku, to be skilled in witchcraft.

fyrnsku-háttr, m. old fashion.

fyrr, adv. (1) before, sooner; því betr þykki mér er vér skiljum f., the sooner we part the better; svá sem f. sögðum vér, as we said before; f. en, before (conj.), sooner than; (2) rather.

fyrri, a. compar. former; fyrstr, a. superl. the first, foremost; hinn fyrra hlut vetrar, in the early part of the winter; hit fyrra sumar, the summer before last; yðrir fyrri frændr, your ancestors; verða fyrri til e-s, at e-u, to be the first to do a thing; eigi fellr tré við hit fyrsta högg, a tree does not fall at the first blow.

fyrri, adv. (= fyrr) before, sooner, rather (fyrri skal ek deyja, en).

fyrr-meirr, adv. formerly, in former times, previously.

fyrrum, adv. formerly, before.

fyrst, adv. superl. (1) first; gekk Hrútr fyrst (foremost) ok kvaddi konunginn; sem f., as soon as possible; f. í stað, directly, at once; (2) conj. (rare) as, since.

fyrsta, f., í fyrstunni, í fyrstu, in the beginning, at first.

fýla, f. (1) foulness, stink; (2) dirty fellow (= mannfýla).

fýsa (-ta, -tr), v. to urge (f. e-n e-s) impers., mik fýsir, I am eager, desire strongly (mik fýsir til Íslands, heim); refl., fýsast, to desire, feel desirous or eager; also ellipt. (hann kvaðst eigi f. til Íslands at svá búnu).

fýsi, f. wish, desire (= fýsn, fýst).

fýsi-liga, adv. willingly, desirably; -ligr, a. desirable, attractive.

fýsn, fýst, f. = fýsi; e-m er fýst á at gera e-t, one is desirous of doing (or eager to do) a thing.

fæð, f. (1) fewness, scantiness; (2) coldness (in intercourse); f. er með þeim, they are on indifferent terms; taka f., to become melancholy.

fægja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to polish; (2) to cleanse (f. sár).

fækka (), v. (1) to make few, reduce in number; (2) refl., fækkast, to grow cold, unfriendly (heldr tók at f. með þeim).

fæla (-da, -dr), v. to frighten, scare (f. e-n braut); refl., fælast e-t, to be frightened at; hestar fældust, the horses shied.

fæling, f. frightening.

fælinn, a. shy, timid.

fælt, adv. fearfully, in fearful mood (fóra f. þeygi).

fær, f. sheep.

Fær-eyingar, m. pl. the Faroe Islanders; -eyjar, f. pl. the Faroe Islands.

fær-eyskr, a. Faroese.

fæta, v. to have to do with (f. um e-t).

fætka, fætta (), v. = fækka.

fœða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to feed, give food to; (2) to rear, bring up (= f. upp); (3) to give birth to (fœddi Bergljót sveinbarn); (4) refl., fœðast, to feed, live on a thing (f. við e-t); to be born; to be brought up (= f. upp).

fœða, f., fœði, n. food (= fœzla).

fœðing, f. birth, delivery.

fœðingi (pl. -jar), m. native; vera f. í e-u landi, to be born in a country.

fœra (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to bring, convey (f. fé til skips); (2) to bring, present (f. e-m e-t); f. e-m höfuð sitt, to surrender to one; f. e-m kvæði, to deliver a poem; (3) to remove (f. kirkju, f. bú sitt); (4) with preps., f. e-t at e-m, to inflict on one; f. skömm at e-m, to sneer at one; refl., fœrast at, to bestir oneself; mega ekki at fœrast, to be unable to do anything; f. á e-n, to mock one; refl., fœrast á fœtr, to grow up; f. e-n fram, to maintain, feed; f. e-t í hljóðmæli, to hush up; f. e-n í kaf, to plunge one under water; f. sik í ætt, to vindicate one’s kinship (by a gallant deed); f. e-n niðr = f. e-n í kaf; f. korn (sáð) niðr, to put down corn (seed), to sow; f. e-t sundr, to split asunder; f. e-n til kristni, to convert to Christianily; f. til rétts máls, to turn into prose; refl., fœrast undan e-u, to quit (release) oneself of; f. upp, to put up (f. upp vef); to lift up (f. upp øxina); to take out (f. upp mat ór katli); f. út búðarveggi, to enlarge the walls of a booth.

fœrð, f. condition of the roads.

fœri, n. (1) opportunity; komast í við e-n, to get a chance to attack one; vera í fœrum til e-s or um e-t, to be able to do a thing; (2) what one is able to do (ekki ætla ek þetta mitt f.); (3) fishing-line.

fœri-ligr, a. (1) practicable, easy; (2) fœriligr hestr, a strong horse.

fœr-leikr, m. ability, strength.

fœrr, a. (1) able to go (vóru þeir allra manna bezt fœrir bæði á fœti ok á skíðum); (2) capable of being passed, passable, safe (Petlansfjorðr var eligi f.); fœrt veðr, weather fit for travelling; skip fœrt, fit for sea, seaworthy; (3) f. tíl e-s, capable of, able to do a thing.

fœzla, f. food, = fœða.

föður-arfr, m. inheritance after a father; -bani, m. slayer of another’s father; -betrungr, m. one better than his father; -bróðir, m. father’s brother, uncle; -bœtr, f. pl. weregild for a father; -frændi, m. kinsman on the father’s side; -garðr, m. a father’s house; -gjöld, n. pl. were gild for one’s father; -hefndir, f. pl. revenge for one’s father; -kyn, n. father’s kin; skozkr at -kyni, on the father’s side; -leif, -leifð, f. patrimony; -ligr, a. fatherly; -móðir, f. father’s mother, grandmother; -tún, n. = föður-garðr; -ætt, f. kinsfolk on the father’s side.

föl, f. thin covering of snow.

föl-leitr, a. pale-looking; -litaðr, pp. pale-coloured.

fölna (), v. to grow pale (fölnaði ok hræddist); to wither (gras fölnar); kirkja fyrnd ok fölnuð, decayed.

fölnan, f. withering, fading away.

fölr (acc. -van), a. pale; f. sem aska (gras, nár), pale as ashes (grass, a corpse).

folskatr, a. covered with fölski.

fölski, m. while ashes.

fönn (gen. fannar; pl. fannir), f. (1) snow (hvítr sem f. nýfallin); (2) snow-wreath.

för (gen. farar; pl. farar and farir), f. (1) journey; vera í f. með e-m, to be in company with one; vera í förum, to be on trading voyags; eiga skip í förum, to own a trading ship; (2) attack, assault (= atför); (3) fate (munt þú hafa farar Hákonar jarls); vér munum fara eina för allir, it will go with us all in the same way; (4) vera á föru (förum), to be on the wane (lausafé hans var heldr á förum).

förlast (), v. refl. to fall into decay; impers., e-m förlast, one grows weak (from age).

förnuðr, m. = farnaðr.

föru-kona, f. vagrant woman.

förull, a. rambling, strolling about.

föru-maðr, m. vagrant, beggar; -mannligr, a. beggarly; -nautr, m. fellow-traveller, companion; -neyti, n. (1) company; (2) retinue; -piltr, m. vagrant lad, beggar.

föstu-dagr, m. (1) fast-day; (2) friday (= frjádagr); -dagrinn langi, Good Friday; -inngangr, m. beginning of Lent, Shrove-tide; -kveld, n. Friday evening; -tíð, f., -tími, m. fast-time.

föxóttr, a. having a mane different in colour from the body (f. hestr).

G

gabb, n. mocking, mockery.

gabba (), v. to mock, make game of one (g. e-n).

gadda (), v. to gore, spike.

gadda-kylfa, f. club with spikes.

gaddan, n. a kind of headgear (rare).

gadd-hjalt, n. a sword-guard ending in sharp points.

gaddr (-s, -ar), m. (1) goad, spike; fig., var mjök í gadda slegit, at, it was all but settled that; (2) hard snow.

gafl, m. gable, gable-end.

gaflak, n. ‘gavelock’, javelin, dart.

gafl-hlað, n. gable-end (= gafl-veggr).

gaflok, n. = gaflak.

gafl-stokkr, m. gable-beam; -veggr, m. gable-wall = -hlað.

gagarr, m. dog (rare).

gag-háls, a. with the neck thrown back (hirtir gaghálsir).

gagl, n. small goose, gosling; bird; -bjartr, a. bright as a goose; -viðr, m. ‘bird-wood’.

gagn, n. (1) advantage, use; verða e-m at gagni, to be of use to one; er eigi mun vera g. í, that will be of no use; (2) produce, revenue, esp. of land; (3) domestic utensils; (4) luggage; (5) victory; hafa (fá) g., to have (gain) the victory; (6) pl. gögn, proofs, evidence.

gagna (), v. to be of use to one (gagna e-m) or for something; refl., gagnast, to avail, be of use.

gagn-auðigr, a. very productive (of land); well stored (bú gagnauðigt).

gagn-dagar, see ‘gangdagar’.

gagn-dyrt, a. n. with doors opposite one another.

gagn-fœriligr, -fœrr, a. penetrable, penetrating.

gagn-gört, a. n., only in the phrase, á -gört, straight.

gagn-hollr, a. mutually kind.

gagn-hræddr, a. much frightened.

gagn-kvoð, f. counter-summons.

gagn-lauss, a. useless, of no use (hann var g. flestum mönnum).

gagn-leið, gagn-leiði, n. short cut.

gagn-mæli, n. gainsaying.

gagn-orðr, a. speaking to the point, hitting the mark.

gagn-samligr, a. useful, profitable; -samr, a. beneficent, kind, hospitable (-samr við menn); -semd, f. hospitality, readiness to help.

gagn-sénn, pp. = -sær.

gagn-skorinn, pp. (1) cut through; (2) carved all over.

gagns-maðr, m. useful (beneficent) man; -munir, m. pl. useful things; veita e-m -muni, to help one.

gagn-staða, f. resistance; -staðligr, a. contrary, opposed to (e-u).

gagn-stigr, m. short cut.

gagn-stœðligr, a. = -staðligr.

gagnstöðu-flokkr, m. adverse party; -maðr, m. adversary, opponent.

gagn-sær, a. transparent (glerit er gagn-sætt).

gagn-sök, f. counter-action, countercharge.

gagn-tak, n. saddle-strap.

gagn-vart, prep. with dat. and adv., over against (sitja -vart e-m).

gagn-vegr, m. short cut, = -leið.

gagn-vert, prep. with dat. and adv., over against, opposite (to).

gagn-vænligr, a. profitable.

gala (gel; gól, gólum; galinn), v. (1) to crow (of a cock), cry, scream; (2) to sing, chant; g. galdra yfir e-m, to chant magic songs over one; afl gól hann Ásum, he chanted strength into the Æsir.

gal, n. screaming, howling.

galdr (gen. -rs, pl. -rar), m. (1) magic song, charm (gala, kveða galdra yfir e-m); (2) pl. witchcraft, sorcery (galdrar ok görningar).

galdra-bók, n. book of magic; -fullr, a. full of sorcery; -hríð, f. magic storm; -kind, f. foul witch; -kona, f. witch, sorceress; -list, f. magic art; -læti, n. pl. magical mummeries; -maðr, m. wizard; -raumr, m. great sorcerer; -smiðr, m. sorcerer.

galdr-ligr, a. magical.

galeið (pl. galeiðr and galeiðir), f. galley.

galinn, pp. (1) enchanted; (2) mad, frantic (fóru galnir sem hundar).

gall, n. gall, bile; sour drink.

galla-lauss, a. faultless.

gall-beiskr, a. bitter as gall; -blandinn, pp. mixed with gall.

gall-harðr, a. hard as stone.

galli, m. defect, fault, flaw.

galti, m. boar, hog (= göltr).

gamall (gömul, gamalt), a. (1) old; á gamals aldri, in his old age; opt er gott þat er gamlir kveða, old men’s sayings are often good; (2) old, aged, of a certain age; hve g. maðr ertu, how old art thou? tólf vetra (gen.) g., twelve years old.

gamal-ligr, a. elderly; -menni, n. old man; -órar, m. pl. dotage from old age; -œrr, a. in dotage.

gaman (dat. gamni), n. game, sport, pleasure, amusement; mér þykkir g. at e-u, I am amused by it; henda (sér) g. at e-u, to make game of; jötni at gamni, to the deight of the giant; taka undir í gamni, to respond in jest; hafa. e-t til gamans, to amuse oneself with.

gaman-leikr, m. game, amusement; -mál, n. merry talk, joking; -rúnar, f. pl. joyful conversation; -rœða, f. = gaman-mál; -samligr, a. amusing; -samr, a. merry, jocose.

gamans-ferð, f. pleasure trip; -fundr, m. merry-making.

gaman-vísa, f. a humorous verse; -yrði, n. pl. jesting talk.

gamban-reiði, f. great wrath; -sumbl, n. great banquet; -teinn, m. a kind of magic staff.

gambr (gen. -rs), m. a kind of bird.

gambra (), v. to brag, bluster.

gamlaðr, pp. stricken in years.

gammi, m. hut of a Finn.

gammr (-s, -ar), m. vulture.

gamna (), v. to divert, amuse (g. e-m með sögum).

gan, n. frenzy, frantic gestures.

gana (-da), v. (1) to gape, show a fissure; g. á e-t, to gape for or after (g. á rán); (2) to rush (g. at e-m); (3) to gaze, stare.

gandr (-s, -ar), m. magic staff; renna göndum, to ride a witch-ride.

gand-reið, f. witch-ride.

ganga (geng; gekk, gengum; genginn), v. (1) to walk (reið jarl, en Karkr gekk); (2) to go; g. heim, to go home; g. braut, to go away; g. til hvílu, to go to bed; g. á skip, to go on board; g. af skipi, to go ashore; with infin., g. sofa or at sofa, to go to sleep; g. at eiga konu, to marry a woman; (3) to go about grazing, to graze (kálfrinn gekk í túni um sumarit); (4) of a ship, to run, sail (gekk skipit brátt út á haf); (5) to stretch out, extend, project (nes mikit gekk í sæ út); (6) of report, tales, to be current (litlar sögur megu g. af hesti mínum); (7) to prevail; gekk þaðan af í Englandi Valska, thereafter the French tongue prevailed in E.; (8) of money, to be current (peningar þeir, sem nú ganga); of laws, to be valid (þau lög, er gengu á Uppsalaþingi); of sickness, plague, famine, to rage (þá gekk land-farsótt, drepsótt, hallæri); (9) to go on, last (gnustu þá saman vápnin, ok gekk þat um hríð); impers., gekk því lengi, so it went on for a long while; (10) láta g. e-t, to let go on; láta höggin g., to rain blows; Birkibeinar létu g. lúðrana, blew the trumpets vigorously; (11) to succeed; ef þat gengr eigi, if that will not do; impers., svá þykt, at þeim gekk þar eigi at fara, so close, that they could not go on there; þeim gekk ekki fyrir nesit, they could not clear the ness; (12) to turn out, go in a specified way; g. andæris, to go all wrong; mart gengr verr en varir, many a thing goes worse than is looked for; gekk þeim lítt atsókinn, they made little progress with the attack; impers., e-m gengr vel (illa), one fares (goes on, gets on) well (badly); (13) with acc., g. e-n á bak, to force one to go backwards (harm gengr bjöninn á bak); (14) with dat., to discharge (gekk bann þá blóði); (15) with preps. and adverbs; g. af e-u, to depart from, leave (þá gekk af honum móðrinn); g. af vitinu, to go out of one’s wits; g. af trú sinni, to apostatize; to pass (síðan gengu af páskarnir); to go off (gekk þegar af höfuðit); to be left as surplus (þat er af skuldinni gekk); nú gengr honum hey af, now he has some hay left; g. af sér, to go to extremities, to go beyond oneself (mjök ganga þeir fóstbrœðr nú af sé); g. aptr, to revert (return) to the former proprietor (síðan gengu þau lönd aptr undir Árna); to be void, annulled (þá skal kaup aptr g.); of a ghost, to walk again; of a door, to close, shut (gekk eigi aptr hurðin); g. at e-m, to attack one; g. at e-u, to agree to, accept a choice or offer (Flosi gekk fljótt at þessu öllu); to fit (skaltu fá mér lukla þá, sem ganga at kistum yðrum); g. á e-t, to encroach upon (g. á ríki e-s); to break (g. á orð sín, eiða, grið, sættir, trygðir); to pierce, penetrate; hann var í panzara, er ekki gekk á, that was proof against any weapons; g. á vald e-s or e-m, g. á hönd (hendr) e-m, to submit to, give oneself up to, surrender to one; g. á bak e-u, to contravene; g. eptir e-u, to go for, go to fetch (göngum heim eptir verðinu); to pursue, claim; g. eptir, to prove true, be fulfilled (þetta gekk allt eptir, sem M. sagði fyrir); g. frá e-u, to part with, lose (sumir munu g. frá öllu fénu); g. fram, to step forward; g. fram vel, to go forward bravely, in a battle; to come to pass, come into execution (skal þess bíða, er þetta gengr fram); to increase (fé Hall gerðar gekk fram ok gørðist allmikit); to depart this life (H. bóndi gengr fram til frænda sinna); g. fyrir e-n, to present oneself before one (g. fyrir konung); g. fyrir e-u, to take charge of, manage (var þar mart fólk, en húsbóndi gekk svá fyrir, at ekkert skorti); to yield to, be swayed by (hann gekk þá fyrir fortölum hennar); g. í gegn e-m, to set oneself against one; g. í gegn e-u, to confess, acknowledge; maðr gengr í gegn, at á braut kveðst tekit hafa, the man confessed and said that he had taken it away; g. í mál, to undertake a case; g. með e-m (of a woman), to marry; g. með barni, to be with child; g. með burði (of animals), to be with young; g. með e-u, to assist in, plead (g. með máli, bónorði); g. milli (á m., í m.), to go between, intercede; g. móti (á m., í m.) e-m, to go to meet one; g. móti e-u, to resist, oppose; to confess, = g. í gegn, g. við e-u; g. nær e-m, to be troublesome to one (þótti hón œrit nær g. Þórgerði); g. e-m nær, to approach, come near to one (sá hefir á brott komizt, er næst gekk Gunnari um alla hluti); g. saman, to marry; of an agreement, bargain, to be brought about; saman gekk kaupit með þeim, they came to a bargain; g. sundr (í s.), to go asunder, part; g. til, to go up to a thing (gangit til ok hyggit at); of the wind, to veer (veðrit gekk til útsuðrs); e-m gengr e-t til e-s, one has some reason for doing a thing; en þat gekk mér til þess (that was my reason), at ek ann þér eigi; hversu hefir ykkr til gengit, how have you fared? Loka gekk lítt til, it fared ill with L.; g. um e-t, to go about a thing; g. um beina, to wait upon guests; g. um sættir, to go between, as peacemaker; g. um e-n, to befall, happen to one (þess, er um margan gengr guma); of the wind, to go round, veer (gekk um veðrit ok styrmdi at þeim); to manage (fékk hón svá um gengit, at); g. undan, to escape to absent oneself; g. undir e-t, to take upon oneself, undertake (a duty); g. undir e-n, to subject oneself to; g. upp, to be wasted (of money); to get loose, to he torn loose (þeir glímdu svá at upp gengu stokkar allir á húsinu); of a storm, gale, to get up, rise (veðr gekk upp); of an ice-bound river, áin var gengin upp, swollen with ice; g. við staf, to walk with a stick; g. við e-u or e-t, to avow; g. yfir e-t, to go beyond, disregard (hann vildi eigi g. yfir þat, er hann vissi réttast); g. yfir e-n, to overcome, to befall, happen to one; slíkt sem yfir hefir gengit, all that has happened; eitt skal yfir okkr g., we shall share one fate; (16) refl., gangast, to be altered, to change, of tradition (g. í munni); láta e-t g., to waive, give up; e-m gengst hugr við, is moved to compassion by something (þá gekst Þorgerdi hugr við harmatölur hans); gangast at, to engage in a fight (þeir gengust at lengi); g. á, to be set off against one another (á gengust vígin húskarlanna); to dash against one another; á gengust eiðar, the oaths were broken; g. nær, to come to close quarters; g. við, to gain strength: áðr en við gengist hans bæn, before his prayer should be fulfilled; E. hafði mikit við gengizt um menntir, E. had much improved himself in good breeding.

ganga, f. (1) walking (hann mœddist í göngu); vera í göngu, to be on foot, to walk; (2) course (g. tungls, vinds).

gangandi, m. wayfarer.

gangdaga-vika, f. Rogation week; -þing, n. an assembly held during Rogation week.

gang-dagar, m. pl. Rogation days, ‘Gang days’; -fœri, n. the condition of the roads; illt (gott) gangfœri, bad (good) walking; -prúðr, a. with stately gait.

gangr (gen. gangs), m. (1) walking (vera á gangi); motion, activity of any kind (þá var hvert járn á gangi); (2) pace, pacing (temja hesta við gang ok hlaup); (3) course (g. himintungla); (4) prevailing, being in vogue; hafa mikinn gang, to be much in vogue; heldr er vaxandi g. at þeim, they (viz. the dreams) were rather on the increase; svá mikill g. var orðinn at eldinum, the fire had got to such a height.

gang-rúm, n. passage-room; -silfr, n. current money; -stigr, m. footpath; -tamr, a. well-trained in pacing (of a horse).

gap, n. (1) gap, empty space; (2) shouting, crying (háreysti ok g.).

gapa (-ta, -at), v. to gape, open the mouth wide.

gaps-maðr, m. gaping fool, gaby.

Garðar, m. pl. Russia; Garða-ríki, -veldi, n. the Russian empire.

garð-hlið, n. gate; -hús, n. privy; -hverfa, f. an enclosed plot; -lag, n. the building of a fence or wall.

garðr (-s, -ar), m. (1) fence, wall; (2) enclosed space, yard (cf. aldin-garðr, grasgarðr, kirkjugarðr); (3) court-yard, court (þeir gánga út í garðinn ok berjast); riða í garð, to arrive; riða (fara) ór garði, to depart; fig., helmingr skal falla í minn garð, the half shall fall into my share; skal aukast þriðjungi í þínum garði, in thy keeping; hyggjum vér, at í yðvarn garð hafi runnit, into your hands, your possession; gøra e-n af garði, to equip one (as a son, a friend, when departing from home); líðr vetr ór garði, the winter passes by; (4) house, dwelling; (5) stronghold, castle (cf. Ás-garðr, Út-garðar).

Garð-konungr, m. the Greek emperor (in ‘Miklagarðr’).

garð-staurr, m. fence-stake.

garmr, m. dog.

garn, n. (1) yarn (spinna garn af rokki); (2) warp-thread, warp, opp. to ‘vipta’, weft, woof.

garp-ligr, a. martial; -menni, n. martial man.

garpr (-s, -ar), m. a bold, dauntless man (g. mikill); also applied to a woman (hon var væn kona ok garpr mikill í skapi).

garp-skapr, m. bravery.

gassi, m. (1) gander; (2) rash fellow.

gat, n. hole, opening.

gata (gen. pl. gatna), f. path, way, road; vera á götu e-s, to be in one’s way; sitja á götu e-s, to lie in wait for (= sitja fyrir e-m); alla götu, always, throughout.

gatna-mót, n. junction of roads.

gauk-mánaðir, m. ‘cuckoo-month’ (the first summer month).

gaukr (-s, -ar), m. cuckoo.

gaul, n. lowing; bellowing; gaula (), v. to low, bellow.

gaum-gæfa (-ða, -t), v. to heed; -gieft, f. attention, care.

gaumr, m. heed, attention; gefa gaum at e-u, to pay attention to.

gaupa, f. the lynx.

gaupna-sýn, f. looking into one’s palms; covering one’s face with the hands (cf. ‘sjá í gaupnir’).

gaupnir, f. pl. (1) the two hands placed together so as to form a bowl; sjá, horfa, líta, lúta í g. sér, to cover one’s face with the hands (as a token of sorrow, or in prayer); (2) double handful (g. silfrs).

gaura-gangr, m. disorderly conduct.

gaurr, m. rough fellow.

gauta (), v. to prate, brag.

gautan, f. prating.

Gautar, m. pl. a Scandinavian people in southern Sweden.

Gaut-elfr, f. the river Gotha.

Gaut-land, n. the land of the Gautar.

gauzkr, a. from Gautland.

(gái, gáða, gát), v. to heed, with infin. (gá at gøra e-t) or gen.; guðs hann gáði, he gave heed to God; gá sín, to take care of oneself; gá til e-s, to mark; glýja þú né gáðir, thou hadst no mind for joy.

, f. barking (in ‘goðgá’, blasphemy; ‘hundgá’).

gala-samligr, a. waggish; -skapr, m. waggery.

gá-lausligr, a. heedless, wanton; -lauss, a. wanton, careless; -leysi, n. heedlessness.

gálga-tré, n. gallows-tree.

gálgi, m. gallows (reisa gálga).

gá-ligr, a. mindful of (e-s).

gár, n. buffoonery, mocking.

gár-fenginn, a. given to buffoonery.

gárungr (-s, -ar), m. buffoon.

gás (gen. gásar; pl. gæss), f. goose (galt hann gagl fyrir gás).

gá-samr, a. heedful, attentive; -semi, f. attention.

gás-veiðr, f. goose-catching.

gáta, f. riddle; geta (ráða) gátu, to read a riddle.

gátt (pl. -ir), f. (1) the rabbet of a doorsill or doorpost; var hnigin hurð á gátt, the door was shut; (2) pl. doorway; innan gátta, indoors.

geð, n. (1) mind, wits, senses; heimta aptr g. sitt, to come to one’s senses again; vera gætinn at geði, to be on one’s guard; vita til síns geðs, to be master of one’s wits; (2) disposition, liking; honum var vel í geði til Freysteins, he was well disposed to Fr.; þú fellst mér vel í g., you are to my liking; féllst hvárt öðru (féllust þau) vel í g., they liked one another well.

gedda, f. pike (fish).

geð-fastr, a. firm of mind; -festi, f. firmness of mind.

geðjaðr, a. to one’s mind, agreeable.

geðjast (), v. refl., e-m geðjast e-t, one is pleased with, one likes.

geð-lauss, a. fickle-minded; -leysi, n. fickleness of mind, inconstancy.

geðs-ligr, a. engaging, pleasing.

geð-speki, f. wisdom; -svinnir, a. wise, clever.

gefa (gef; gaf, gáfum; gefinn), v. (1) to give (g. e-m e-t); hann gaf þeim góðar gjafar, he gave them good gifts; g. e-m ráð, to give one advice; g. hljóð, to give a hearing; g. e-m sök, e-t at sök, to lay to one’s charge, to bring a charge against one; g. slög, to deal blows; g. e-m drekka, to give one to drink; impers., e-m gefr byr (byri), one gets a fair wind (gaf þeim byr ok sigla þeir í haf); absol., gaf þeim vel, they got a fair wind; ef fœri gefr á, if you get a chance; ef yðr (dat.) gefr eigi missýi í þessu máli, if you are not mistaken in this matter; þat gaf öllum vel skilja, it was clear for all to understand; (2) to give, grant; g. heimleyfi, to grant furlough; g. e-m grið, to grant quarter or pardon to one; g. e-m líf, to grant one his life; (3) to give in matrimony (ek var ung gefin Njáli); (4) to give fodder to cattle, to feed (g. göltum, nautum, kúm, hestum); (5) g. staðar, to stop; lét hann þá staðar gefa róðrinn, he stopped rowing; (6) e-m er e-t svá gefit, or svá gefit um e-t, one is so and so disposed, thinks so and so of a thing (ef þér er þetta svá gefit sem þú segir); (7) with preps.; g. sér litit (mikit) af (or at) e-u, to take little (much) notice of; g. á e-t, to pour water on; fig. to press on (gefr Ormr þá á); g. e-m til e-s, to give in return for a thing (g. fé til sátta); impers., honum hafði vel gefit til (had good luck) um hefndina; g. sér mikit (lítit) um e-t, to take great (little) interest in (= g. sér mikit, lítit, af or at e-u); g. sér fátt um e-t, to take coldly, take little notice of; g. e-t upp, to give up (g. upp alla mótstöðu); g. sik upp, to surrender; g. upp gamalmenni, to give old people up, let them starve; g. upp leiguna, to remit the rent; g. upp sakir, to remit offences; upp gefinn, exhausted; g. e-t við e-u, to give in payment for; g. sik við, to give in (þat er líkara, at ek gefa mik við); (8) refl., gefast vel (illa), to prove good (bad); opt hafa mér vel gefizt yður ráð, your counsels have often proved good for me; hefir þeim þat ok aldri vel gefizt, it has never turned out well; gefast gjöfum, to give gifts to one another; g. á vald e-s, to give oneself into another’s power; g. upp, to give in, surrender; e-m gefst e-t yfir, one does wrong in a thing (ef göfgum mönnum gáfust stórir hlutir yfir).

gefandi (pl. -endr), m. giver.

gefna-geð, n. conduct, behaviour.

gegn and í gegn, prep. with dat., against (í g. vindi sem forvindis); í g. eðli, against nature.

gegn, a. (1) honest (sannorðr ok g.); (2) fit (fór Ó. þar á land, sem honum þótti gegnast); (3) direct, straight (hinn gegnsta veg).

gegna (-da, -t), v. (1) to go against, meet (g. e-m); (2) to suit one, be meet for one; velit þat er yðr gegnir, choose what best suits you; (3) to signify, mean, matter; spurði, hverju gegndi úgleði sú, er hann hafði, asked what his sadness meant; sumir mæltu í móti ok kváðu øngu g., some denied it, and said it was of no use; meira en hófi gegnir, more than is due, above measure; g. tíðendum, to be of importance; (4) to amount to; svá at mörgum hundruðum gegndi, so that it amounted to many hundreds.

gegni-liga, adv. duly, properly.

gegning, f. suitableness; á þessu er engi g., this will not do.

gegnt, (1) adv. straight; compar., gegnra, gegnara, more straight; superl., gegnst, gegnast, the shortest way; most right, meetest; (2) prep. with dat. over against, opposite to (g. konungi).

gegnum, í gegnum (1) prep. with acc. through (g. vegginn); (2) adv., allan dag í g., all the day long.

geifla (), v. to mumble (g. á e-u).

geiga (), v. to take a wrong direction; eigi veit, hvar úskytja ör geigar, none can tell where a shaft ill-shol may stray to.

geigan, f. wavering.

geigr, m. (1) scathe, serious hurt; vinna, gera, veita e-m geig, to hurt one; (2) danger (er þat enn mesti g.).

geigu-skot, n. deadly shot.

geig-vænligr, a. dangerous, fatal.

geil (pl. -ar), f. narrow glen, lane.

geila-garðr, m. a fence along a geil.

gei-ligr, a. fine, beautiful (rare).

geip, n. idle talk, nonsense.

geipa (), v. to talk nonsense.

geipan, f. brag, nonsense.

geir-fálki, m. gerfalcon; -fugl, m. gare-fowl, the great awk.

geiri, m. gore, triangular strip.

geir-laukr, m. garlic.

geir-mímir, m. poet. warrior.

geir-nagli, m. the nail fastening a spear’s head to the shaft.

geir-njörðr, m. poet. warrior.

geirr (-s, -ar), m. (1) spear; (2) the point of an anvil (nefsteði).

geir-varta, f. nipple (of a man).

geis, f. impetuosity; geisa (), v. to rage, be furious; þeirra ofsi geisar hátt, their insolence runs high.

geisan, f. impetuosity (= geis).

geiska-fullr, a. frightened.

geiski, m. panic, fear.

geisl, m. (1) snow-skater’s staff; (2) ray, beam; geisla (), v. to shed rays, to beam; geisli, m. = geisl.

geispa (), v. to yawn, gape.

geispi, m. yawn.

geit (gen. -ar; pl. geitr), f. a she-goat (ragr sem geit).

geita-fœtir, m. pl. goats’ feet, feet like those of a goat; -hirðir, m. goat-herd; -hús, n. goat-house.

geitar-horn, n. goat’s horn; -hugr, m. cowardice; -hús, n. goat-house; -skegg, n. goat beard.

geita-sveinn, m. goat-herd.

geit-bjálfi, m. goat-skin coat or hairy jacket; -heðinn, m. goat-skin coat or hairy jacket; -skinn, n. goat-skin; -staka, f. = -skinn.

geitungr, m. wasp.

gelda (-da, -dr), v. to geld, castrate.

geld-fé, n. barren sheep.

geldjfár-höfn, f. pasture for geldfé.

gelding, f. gelding, castration.

geldingr (-s, -ar), m. (1) wether; (2) eunuch.

geld-neyti, n. barren cattle.

geldr, a. yielding no milk, dry.

gella (-da), v. to yell, roar, bellow (sem griðungr gelldi).

gemlingr (-s, -ar), m. a year-old sheep (at rýja gemlinga).

gems, n. gibe, scoff.

gemea (), v. to gibe, scoff.

gems-fullr, a. full of gibes.

gems-mikill, a. full of gibes.

gengi, n. (1) luck, success; án er ills gengis nema heiman hafi, ill luck is home-bred; (2) help, support; afla sér gengis, to gather troops.

genginn, pp. gone, dead.

gengr, a. (1) able to walk; (2) fit to walk on (vegr vel g.); (3) eiga heiman gengt, to have time and opportunity to leave home.

genta, f. girl, lass.

gera, v. see gøra; gerð, see gørð.

gerð, f. yeast, ferment.

gerð (pl. -ar), f. gear, harness; pl. armour (gerðar várar).

gerða (-ða, -ðr), v. to fence in.

gerði, n. a fenced field.

gerðing, f. fencing, hedging.

geri, m. ‘ravener’, wolf (poet.).

gerla, adv. see görla.

gerning, gerningr, see gørn-.

gerpi-ligr, a. martial (= garpligr).

gerr, a. see görr; adv. see gørr.

ger-samliga, -semi, -simi, -simligr, see gör-, gør-.

gersta (-sta, -str), v. to annoy, tease (g. hug e-s); gerstr, pp. (1) wearisome, dismal; gerstan dag, the long weary day; (2) sulky; hann leit g. við mér, he looked sulkily on me.

gerva, gervallr, gervi, see görva, görvallr, gørvi.

gerzkr, a. from Garðaríki.

gesta-bekkr, m. guests’ bench; -boð, n. banquet; -hús, n. guest-room; -höfðingi, m. chef of the guests; -skáli, m. guest-hall.

gest-gjafi, m. host (góðr -gjafi).

gestr (-s, -ir), m. (1) guest; (2) a royal retainer of inferior rank.

gest-risinn, a. hospitable; -risni, f. hospitality.

get, n. guess (rare).

geta (get; gat, gátum; getinn), v. I. with acc. (1) to get; g. orðstír, to get fame; g. sér e-t, to get for oneself (góðs um œðis ef sér g. mætti); g. gott af e-m, to get good of one; with dat. of the person, g. váluðum vel, to be kind to the poor; g. e-m illa, to do harm to one; impers., getr e-t, there is (got); eigi getr slíkan (there is none such) í konungs herbergjum; (2) with pp. of another verb, g. veiddan fisk, to be able to catch fish; ek get eigi fylgt yðr, I cannot follow you; (3) almost like an auxil. verb with infin.; ek Gunnari gat at unna, I loved G.; g. at lita, sjá (to get) to see; without ‘at’, er slíkt getr fœða jóð, that shall rear such a child; (4) to learn (lengi man þat er ungr getr); (5) to beget, engender (fótr gat son við fœti); geta börn, to beget children (said of both parents); (6) refl., getast at e-u, to like; því at mér gezt vel at þér, because I like thee well; láta sér getit at e-u, to be pleased with; eigi læt ek mér at einu getit, I am not pleased to have always the same, I want some change; II. with gen. (1) to guess; g. gatu, to guess a riddle; g. rétt, to guess right; g. e-s til, to guess, suppose; g. í hug e-m, to guess one’s thoughts; (2) to speak of, mention, in speech or writing (þess er getit, sem gört er); geta um e-t, to speak about (hann gat ekki um þetta fyrir sínum mönnum); þess er við getit, at, it is told that.

geta, f. guess, conjecture (er þat g. mín, at); spá er spaks g., a wiseman’s guess is a prophecy; ætla ek eigi þat til getu, at hann sé þar, it is not likely that he is there; leiða getum um e-t, to make a guess at.

getara, f. birth-giver, mother.

getari, m. begetter, father.

get-gangr, m. guessimg.

getnaðr (gen. -ar), m. (1) conception; (2) fœtus; vera með getnaði, to be with a child; (3) liking.

get-sakir, f. pl. imputations (without evidence); sœkja -sakir, to prosecute one upon loose imputations; -samligr, a. pertaining to guessing; -speki, f. gift of prophecy; getu-mál, n. doubtful case.

geyja (gey, ), v. (1) to bark (at e-m); (2) to scoff at (vil ek eigi goð g.); g. á e-n, to abuse.

geyma (-da, -dr), v. (1) to heed, mind, watch (geym þess, at enginn komist í braut); hann hafði geymt hlutverka sinna, he had minded his work; g. sin, to take care of oneself; g. at e-u, til e-s = g. e-s; (2) to watch, keep, with acc. (g. bœinn, heilræðit).

geymari, m. keeper.

geymdir, f. pl. heed, attention; gefa g. at e-u, to give heed to.

geymiliga, adv. = gætiliga.

geyminn, a. heedful (g. e-s, at e-u).

geymsla, f. keeping, care.

geymalu-lauss, a. unguarded.

geyra, geyrr, = gøra, görr.

geysa (-ta, -tr), v. to send out with violence (hann lætr g. eld ok járn); usually refl. to dash or rush furiously (þá geysist hafit á löndin; múgrinn geystist inn á skipin).

geysi-, very, exceedingly; g. mikill, very great; g. margir, very many, g. illa, very badly.

geysi-liga, adv. enormously; -ligr, a. enormous.

geysingr, m. impetuosity.

geystr, pp. (1) rushing hastily; (2) enraged (vóru bœndr mjök geystir á hendr honum).

-gi (or -ki after t or s), a suffix used esp. with negative, but also with positive and indefinite force.

gil (gen. pl. gilja), n. ravine, gully.

gilda-skáli, m. guild-hall.

gildi, n. (1) payment, tribute (rare); (2) recompense, return; æ sér til gildis gjöf (see gjald 4); (3) repute, esteem (þegar þér komist í g. við höfðingja); (4) feast banquet (þá gengu Æsir at g. sínu); (5) guild, brotherhood.

gildis-brœðr, m. pl. guild-brothers; -fundr, m. guild-meeting; -skáli, m. guild-hall; -tíð, f. guild-term.

gild-leiki, m. perfectness.

gild-liga, adv. properly.

gildr (gild, gilt), a. (1) valued at (g. tveim mörkum); (2) of full value; worth, great (g. konungr, höfðingi); með gildum sóma, with great fame; Hallfreðr var þá sem gildastr, H. was then at his best.

gildra, f. trap.

gildra (), v. to trap, set a trap.

gilja (áð), v. to beguile (a woman).

gils-þrömr, m. edge of a gully.

gim-steinn, m. gem, jewel.

gin, n. mouth (of a beast).

gin-kefli, n. gag.

ginna (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to dupe, fool one; g. e-n at sér, to fall out with one; (2) to decoy, entice (g. e-n til e-s, heiman af bœnum).

gin-heilagr, a. most holy.

ginning (pl. -ar), f. deception, befooling (Gylfa-ginning).

ginningar-fífl, n. one who runs a fool’s errand (vera ginningar-fífl e-s).

ginn-regin, n. pl. the great gods.

ginnunga-gap, n. the great void, primeval chaos; -himinn, m. the heaven over ginnunga-gap.

ginnungr, m. juggler, lister.

gipt, f. (1) gift (jarðligar giptir); (2) good luck (= gipta).

gipta, f. good luck.

gipta (-pta, -ptr), v. to give away in marriage (g. e-m e-a); refl. giptast, to marry.

gipting, f. marriage (of a woman).

giptu-drjúgr, a. lucky; -fátt, a. n. luckless (e-m verðr giptu-fátt); -liga, adv. luckily; -ligr, a. lucky, auspicious; -maðr, m. lucky man; -munr, m. difference in good luck; -ráð, n. good, auspicious match; -samliga, adv. auspiciously; -samligr, a. = -ligr; -skortr, m. want of luck, bad luck; -tómr, a. luckless; -vænligr, a. promissing good luck, auspicious.

girða (-ða, -ðr), v. to fence, = gerða.

Girkir, m. pl. the Greeks.

girna (-di, -t), v. impers., mik girnir, I desire; refl., girnast e-t, á e-t, til e-s, to desire something.

girnd (pl. -ir), f. desire; lust.

girndar-bruni, -eldr, -hiti, m. fire of lust, ardent lust; -ráð, n. (foolish) love match.

girni-ligr, a. desirable, pleasant.

girska, f. the Greek language.

girskr, a. (1) Greek; (2) = gerzkr.

gista (-sta, -st), v. to pass the night (g. at e-s, at or á e-m stað); g. e-n, to spend a night with one.

gisting, f. night-lodgings, accommodation for the night (beiðast gistingar; þiggja gisting).

gistingar-ból, n., -staðr, m. night-quarters.

gizki, m. a kind of kerchief (?).

gífr, n. witch, hag; -liga, adv. savagely (láta -liga).

gífr, a. poet. bloodthirsty, savage.

gígja, f. fiddle; gígjari, m. fiddler.

gína (gin; gein, ginum; ginit), v. to gape, yawn (gínandi ú fr); g. yfir e-t, to take into one’s mouth; g. við agni, to gape in order to take the bait.

gísl (pl. -ar), m. (1) hostage; (2) bailiff (g. keisarans); warder.

gísla (), v. (1) to give as hostage; (2) to take as hostage.

gíslar, f. pl. (1) sureties, securities; (2) securily, guard (setja g. fyrir).

gísling, f. (1) hostage (taka e-n í g.); (2) pl. guard (setja gíslingar fyrir e-n).

gjafa-laust, adv. (disinissed) without gifts; -leysi, n. lack of gifts.

gjafari, m. giver.

gjafa-skipti, n., -víxl, n. exchange of gifts.

gjaf-erfð, f. bequest; -falr, a. to be had for a trifle; -laust, adv. without gift; -lendingar, m. pl. feudatories; -lyndi, n. open-handedness; -mildr, a. open-handed; -orð, n. match (of a woman to be married); -vaxta, a. marriageable (of a maid); -vinr, m. open-handed friend.

gjald, n. (1) tribute (hann lagði g. á borgina); (2) payment; þá héldu bœndr galdinu, they kept back the payment; (3) retribution, esp. pl.; ella mun þér g. at verða, thou shalt pay dear for it; (4) reward, return, compensation; æ sér gjöf til gjalda, gift looks for gift.

gjalda (geld; galt, guldum; goldinn), v. (1) to repay, return; g. gjöf við gjöf, to pay back gift for gift; g. aptr, to restore, pay back; (2) fig. to give, yield; g. skynsemi við e-u, to give reason for; g. samkvæði at e-u, to consent to; g. varúð, varhuga við e-u, to be on one’s guard against; g. e-m fjándskap, to show ill-will towards one; (3) with gen. to pay for, suffer on account of (þar munuð þit min g.); g. e-s at = g. e-s; geldr at nýbreytni (gen.) konungs, it is a punishment for the king’s innovations.

gjald-dagi, m. pay-day; -fang, n. payment, equivalent; -gengr, a. taken in payment; -keri, -kyri, m. the king’s steward.

gjalla (gell; gall, gullum; gollit), v. to scream, shriek (ernir gjalla hátt); strengr gellr, the bow-string twangs; impers. to resound, echo (kvað Þorsteinn svá hátt, at gall í múrnum).

Gjallar-horn, n. (1) the horn (trumpet) of Heimdal; (2) the drinking horn used by Mimir.

gjallr, a. ringng, resounding; gjalti, only in the phrase, verða at gjalti, to turn mad with terror.

gjarn, a. (1) eager for, desirous of (g. á e-t, í e-t, til e-s); (2) g. e-m, willing to follow one.

gjarna, adv. willingly.

gjarn-liga, adv. willingly.

gjarn-samliga, adv. willingly.

gjá (gen. gjár; pl. gjár, gen. gjá, dat. gjám), f. rift, cleft, chasm.

gjálfr, n. din of the sea; gjálfr-dyr, n. ship (poet.); -samr, a. roaring (of the sea).

gjár-bakki, m. brink of a rift; -barmr, m. edge of a rift; -munni, m. mouth of a rift.

gjó, f. sensuality; -lífi, n. sensual life; -maðr, m. a sensual person.

gjósa (gýs; gaus, gusum; gosinn), v. to gush, burst out (þar gaus upp stundum, eldr; blóðit gaus ór sárinu).

gjós-æðr, f. ‘gush-vein’, artery.

gjóta (gýt; gaut, gutum; gotinn), v. (1) g. hrognum, to spawn; (2) g. augum, sjonum, to cast a look.

gjöf (gen. gjafar, pl. gjafar and gjafir), f. gift; skipta gjöfum við e-n, to exchange gifts with one; leiða e-n út (í brott) með gjöfum, leysa e-n á brott með gjöfum, to dismiss one with gifts (at the end of a visit).

gjöfull (acc. gjöflan), a. munificent, liberal (g. at gulli).

gjögr, f. cleft, rift (gljúfr ok gjögrar).

gjögra (), v. to reel, stagger.

gjölnar, f. pl. the whskers of the Fenris-wolf.

gjölta (-lti), v. to bark (rare).

gjör-, see gör-, gør-.

gjörð (gen. gjarðar; pl. gjarðar and gjarðir), f. girdle; saddle-girth (söðulgjörð).

gjörvallr, a. see ‘görvallr’.

glaða (), v. to gladden (= gleðja).

glaðan, adv. = glaðliga.

glað-látr, a. cheerful; -liga, adv. gladly, willingly; -ligr, a. glad, cheerful; -mæltr, a. cheerful in speech.

glaðning, f. gladdening, gladness.

glaðr (glöð, glatt), a. (1) glad, gladsome, cheerful (Flosi var allra ruarma, glaðastr); (2) bright, beautiful, of the sky, weather, fire (veðr glatt, tunglit skein glatt).

glað-væri, f. gladness; -værr, a. gladsome, cheerful.

glam, or glamm, n. noise, din, clash.

glama, v. to twaddle, talk idly.

glamra (), v. to tinkle, jingle.

glap, n. beguilement, seduction; venja kvámur sínar til glapa (or glaps) við konu, to aim at seducing.

glapna (), v. to grow dim (glapnaði honum heyrn ok sýn).

glappa-verk, n. mishap.

glap-ræði, n. mistake, blunder; -stigr, m. a wrong path; -víg, n. accidental manslaughter.

glata (), v. (1) to destroy (g. e-u); (2) to lose; refl., glatast, to be lost.

glatan, f. perdition.

glatuns-hundr, m. glutton (?).

glaumr, m. noisy merriment; glaums andvana, cheerless.

glam-sýni, f. illusion.

gleða, f. glede, kite (bird).

gleði, f. gladness, merriment, joy (var þar þá g. mikil).

gleði-bragð, n. joyful mien; -dagar, m. pl. days of happiness; -fullr, a. joyful; -ligr, a. glad; -maðr, m. cheery man; -mót, n. = -bragð; -orð, n. pl. words of joy; -stundir, f. pl. merry, happy time; -vist, f. merry sojourn.

gleðja (gleð, gladda, gladdr), v. to gladden, make glad; refl., gleðjast, to be glad, rejoice.

glefja, f. spear, lance (for. word).

glefsa (-ta), v. to snap at (g. í e-t).

glens, n. gibing, gibe, jest, banter.

glensa (), v. to jest, make fun.

glensan, f. gibing, jesting.

glens-ligr, a. bantering; -mikill, a. full of jesting or gibes; -yrði, n. pl. jesting or gibing speech.

glepja (glep, glapta, glaptr), v. (1) to confuse one (in reading, speaking); (2) to confound (g. sókn, vörn); (3) to beguile (g. konu).

gler, n. (1) glass; háll sem g., slippery as glass; bresta í gleri, to break into shivers; (2) looking-glass.

gler-gluggr, m. glass-window; -steinar, m. pl. glass stones, agates; -tölur, f. pl. glass beads.

glett, n., gletta, f. banter, raillery, taunting; fara (ganga, ríða) í glett við e-n, to provoke one.

glettast (tt), v. refl. to banter, rail against one, taunt, provoke an enemy (g. við e-n).

gletti-liga, adv. tauntingly.

glettingr, m. = glett, gletta.

glettings-bára, f. splashing wave.

glettinn, a. bantering.

glettni, f. = glett (eiga g. við e-n).

glettu-atsókn, f. a feint to provoke the enemy to attack.

glettunar-maðr, m.; engi glettunar-maðr, a man not to be trifled with.

gleyma (-da, -dr), v. (1) to make a merry noise (glaumr); (2) with dat. to forget (gleymt hefi ek þessu).

gleym-samligr, a. forgetful.

gleymska, f. forgetfulness.

gleypa (-ta, -tr), v. to swallow.

glissa (-sta), v. to grin, gabble.

glit, n. ‘glitter’; ofit í g., brocaded.

glita, glitra (), v. to glitter.

glíkindi, glíking, glíkja, glíkligr, glíkr = líkindi, líking, etc.

glíma (-da, -t), v. to wrestle.

glíma, f. wrestling.

glíminn, a. expert as a wrestler.

glímu-brögð, n. pl. wrestling-tricks; -félagi, m. wrestling-mate; -fœrr, a. able-bodied as a wrestler; -mannliga, adv. like a good wrestler.

gljá (-ða, ), v. to glisten, shine.

gljúfr, n. pl. rocky (sides of a) ravine.

gljúfróttr, a. rocky.

glott, n. grin, sneer, scornful smile; draga g. at e-u, to sneer at.

glotta (-tta, -tt), v. to grin (g. at or við e-u); g. við tönn, to smile scornfully and show the teeth.

glóa (, or -óða, -ót), v. (1) to shine, glitter (glóar nökkut í götunni); (2) to glow with heat; glóanda járn, red-hot iron.

glóð (pl. glœðr), f. red-hot embers.

glóðar-ker, n. fire-pan.

glóð-rauðr, a. red as embers.

glófaðr, a. gloved; glófi, m. glove.

gló-föxóttr, a. light-maned.

glópaldi, m. fool.

glópr, m. fool.

glósa (), v. to explain by a gloss.

gluggaðr, pp. with windows.

glugga-þykkn, f. dense clouds with openings in them.

gluggr (-s, pl. -ar), m. opening (in a wall, roof, etc.), esp. window.

glumr, n. noise, rattle, clatter.

glumra (), v. to rattle, clatter.

glutr, n. squandering, lavishment.

glutra (), v. to squander.

glutrs-maðr, m. spendthrift.

glutrunar-maðr, m. = glutrsmaðr; -samr, a. lavish, extravagant.

glúpna (), v. to becorne downcast.

glymja (glym, glumda, glumiðr), v. to dash noisily, splash (unnirglymja), clatter (glumdu jöklar), rattle.

glymr, m. clatter, clash, ringing.

glyrnur, f. pl. cat’s eyes.

glys, n. finery (kaupa glys).

glys-gjarn, a. fond of finery; -ligr, a. showy, specious; -mál, n. pl. specious words.

glý, n. joy; glýja (gen. pl.) né gáðir, thou hadst no mind for joy.

glýjaðr, pp. gleeful (vel g.).

glý-stamr, a. joyless.

glæa (-dda), v. to glow, glisten.

glær (gen. glæs), m. sea; kasta á glæ, to throw into the sea, squander; hlaupa á glæ, to run in vain.

glæ-ræði, n. = glapræði.

glæsa (-ta, -tr), v. to embellish; gulli ok silfri glæstr, adorned with gold and silver.

glæsi-ligr, a. splendid, showy; specious (-lig orð).

glœpa-fullr, a. full of wickedness, ungodly; -maðr, m. miscreant, malefactor; -mannligr, a. ruffianly; -verk, n. crime.

glœpi-liga, adv. wickedly; -ligr, a. wicked; glæp-ligr, a. = glœpiligr.

glœpr (-s, -ir), m. misdeed, crime.

glœpska, f. misdeed, offence.

glœp-varr, a. righteous; -yrði, n. pl. foul language.

gløgg-dœmr, a. sagacious in one’s judgement; -leikr, m. sagacity; -liga, adv. clearly, distinctly.

gløggr (acc. -van), a. (1) clear-sighted (gløggt er gests auga); (2) clear, distinct; vera gløggrar greinar, to distinguish sharply; eigi er mér þat gløggt, it is not clear to me; neut., gløggt, as adv. clearly (muna, kenna gløggt); (3) stingy, close (gløggr við gesti).

gløgg-rýnn, a. clever in interpreting runes; -skygn, a. sharp-sighted; -sýnn, a. sharp-witted; -sær (-sæ, -sætt), a. (1) clear-sighted; (2) manifest, clear; -þekkinn, a. quick to discern, clear-sighted; -þekkni, f. clear-sightedness.

gnadd, n. grumbling, muttering.

gnadda (), v. to murmur, grumble.

gnaga (), v. to gnaw (hestar gnöguðu beizlin).

gnapa (-ta), v. (1) to jut or stand out; (2) to stoop or bend forward; (3) to droop the head.

gnata (), v. to clash.

gnauð, n. noise, din, rattle.

gnauða (), v. to rattle, ring.

gnegg, n. neighing.

gneggja (), v. to neigh.

gneista (), v. to emit sparks.

gneista-flaug, f. shower of sparks.

gneisti, m. spark.

gnesta (griest; gnast, gnustum; gnostinn), v. to crack, clash (gnustu þá saman vápnin).

gneypa (-ta, -tr), v. to pinch.

gneypr, a. (1) bent forward, drooping; (2) savage, fierce.

gniða (), v. to rub, scrape.

gnípa, f. peak, jutting pinnacle (on a beetling mountain).

gnísta (-sta, -st), v. (1) g. tönnum, to gnash the teeth; (2) to snarl (of dogs); (3) gnístanda frost, biting frost.

gnístan, f. gnashing.

gnísting, f. gnashing.

gnóga, adv. poet. = gnógliga.

gnóg-leikr, m. abundance; -liga, adv. abundantly; -ligr, a. abundant.

gnógr, a. (1) abundant, plentiful, enough (selveiðar gnógar ok fiskifang mikit); at gnógu, sufficiently; ok vinnst oss þat at gnógu, it is enough for us; í gnóg, enough (var þar vatn í gnóg); gnógu (neut. dat.) lengi, long, enough; (2) g. um e-t, at e-u, richly furnished with (nú var hann g. orðinn um kvikfé).

gnótt, f. abundance, plenty (g. fjár) gera g. spurning (dat.) e-s, to give sufficient answer to one’s question.

gnúa (gný, gnera, or gnøra, gnúinn), v. to rub (hann tók til orða ok gneri nefit).

gnúfa (-ða), v. to droop (g. með höfðinu).

gnúp-leitr, a. stern-looking.

gnúpr (-s, -ar), m. peak (= gnípa).

gnyðja (gnyð, gnudda), v. to mutter, grumble (herrinn gnuddi illa); to grunt (g. mundu nú grísir).

gnyðr (pl. -ir), m. murmur.

gnýja (gný, gnúða, gnúit), v. to roar (vindar gnýja); g. á, to set in (þá gnúði í hallæri mikit ok veðrátta köld).

gný-mikill, a. roaring, stormy.

gnýr (-s, -ir), m. clash, din.

gný-reið, f. roaring thunder.

gnæfa (-ða, -t), v. to stand up, rise high, tower (g. við himin).

gnœgr, a. = gnógr.

gnöltra (), v. to howl, bark.

gnötra (), v. to clatter, rattle.

goð, n. (heathen) god.

goða-blót, n. sacrifice to the gods; -gremi, f. wrath of the gods; -heill, n. favour of the gods; -hús, n. house of gods, heathen temple; -reiði, f. = góða-gremi.

goð-borinn, pp. god-born; -dómr, m. godhead; -gá, f. blasphemy.

goði, m. heathen priest; chief (in Iceland during the republic).

goð-kunnigr, a. of the kith of gods; -málugr, a. skilled in the lore of the gods; -mögn, n. pl. divine powers, deities (g. þau er þeir blótuðu).

goð-orð, n. dignity and authority of a goði (goðorð ok manna forráð).

goðorðs-lauss, a. without a goðorð; -maðr, m. owner of a goðorð; -mál, n. an action concerning a goðorð.

goð-vefr, m. = guðvefr.

goð-vegr, m. the way of the gods.

goll, n. gold = gull.

gollurr, m. pericardium.

gor, n. the cud in animals.

gor-mánaðr, m. the first winter-month (Oct.-Nov.).

gotnar, m. pl. poet. men.

gotneskr, a. Gothic.

góð-brjóstaðr, a. kind-hearted; -fengr, a. good-natured; -fúsliga, adv. willingly; -fúss, a. benevolent; -fýsi, f. goodness, good-will; -fýst, f. goodness, good-will; -gipt, f. benefit, charitable deed; -girnd, f. = góð-fýsi; -girni, f. = góð-fýsi; -gjarn, a. benevolent, kind; -gjarnliga, adv. kindly; -gjarnligr, a. kind, kindly; -gripr, m. costly thing; -gæfliga, adv. gently; -gæt, f. good entertainment; -gæti, n. dainty; -gørð, f. charity; -gørning, f. = góð-gørð; -gørningr, m. good deed, charity; -háttaðr, a. well-mannered; -hjartaðr, a. kind-hearted.

góði, m. (1) good-will; (2) profit.

góð-látr, a. good-natured; -leikr, m. goodness; -lifnaðr, m., -lífi, n. good life; -lyndi, n. good nature; -lyndr, a. good-natured; -mannliga, adv. like a good man; -mannligr, a. gentle; -menni, n. a good, gentle man; -mennsks, f. goodness, gentleness; -mennt, a. n. good people; -mótliga, adv. kindly, gently; -orðr, a. gentle in one’s words.

góðr (góð, gott), a. (1) good, morally commendable (g. ok réttlátr konungr, góð kona); (2) good, honest (drengr g.); g. vili, good, honest intention; (3) kind, friendly; g. e-m, kind towards one; gott gengr þér til, thou meanest well; gott var í frændsemi þeira, they were on good terms; vilja e-m gott, to wish one well; (4) good, fine, goodly; g. hestr, fine horse; gott veðr, fine weather; með góðu föruneyti, with goodly suite; góðr beini, good cheer, verða gott til e-s, to get plenty of; var þá gott til fjár ok mannvirðingar, there was ample wealth and fame to earn; g. af e-u or e-s, good, liberal with a thing; g. af tíðendum, good at news, communicative; g. af hestinum, willing to lend the horse; g. af fé, open-handed; g. matar, free with his food.

góð-ráðr, a. giving good counsel; -ræði, n. goodness; -semi, f. = góð-fýsi; -verk, n. charitable deed; -vild, f. kindness, good-will; -vili, m. kindness, good-will; -viljaðr, a. benevolent.

góðvilja-fullr, a. benevolent, kind; -maðr, m. benevolent man; -mikill, a. full of good-will.

góð-viljugr, a. kind; -virki, n. = -verk; -virkr, a. making good work; -vænliga, adv. = -vættliga; -vænligr, a. promising good; -vættliga, adv. amicably; -yrki, n. = -verk; -ættaðr, a. of good family.

gói, f. the month Goi (from the middle of February to the middle of March); -beytill, m. a species of horse-tail (equisetum hyemale).

gólf, n. (1) floor; (2) apartment.

golf-stokkar, m. pl. floor beams; -þili, n. deal floor.

gó-ligr, a. fine, pretty (-lig orð).

gómr (-s, -ar), m. (1) the roof or floor of the mouth (efri or neðri g.); e-m berr mart á góma, one talks freely of many things; gæta tungu í báða góma, to keep guard on the tongue, speak warily; (2) finger-tip (á hendi heitir fingr, nagl, gómr).

góm-sparri, m. gag.

góz, n. goods, property.

grað-fé, n. entire cattle.

graðr, a. entire, not castrated.

graðungr (-s, -ar), m. bull.

grafa (gref; gróf, grófum; grafinn), v. (1) to dig (g. gröf); g. torf, to dig peat; fig. to seek out the sense of (g. vísu); (2) to earth, bury (g. lík); (3) to carve, engrave (døkkr steinn í ok grafit á innsigli); (4) to inlay; fagr á liti, sem þá er fílsbein er grafit í eik, as when ivory is set in oak; (5) impers. to suppurate (lærit tók at g. bæði uppi ok niðri); (6) with preps., g. at e-u, eptir e-u, to inquire into, try to flnd out; also refl., grafast eptir e-u; g. niðr, to dig down; svá kyrr sem hann væri grafinn niðr, as if he had been rooted in the ground; g. til e-s, to dig for (g. til vatns); g. um e-t = g. eptir e-u; gróf hann svá undir þeim, at, he sounded them so that; g. e-t upp, to find out.

graf-alr, m. burin, graver.

grafar-bakki, m. verge of a grave; -gørð, f. digging of a grave; -lœkr, m. a brook which has dug itself a deep bed.

graf-silfr, n. hidden treasure; -tól, n. pl. digging tools.

gramendr, m. pl. the angry gods.

gramr, a. wroth, angry (g. e-m); gramir, m. pl., gröm (viz. goð), n. pl. used as subst., fiends, demons; (gramir munu taka þik); deili gröm við þik, the fiends bandy words with thee.

gramr (-s, -ir), m. king, warrior.

grana-hár, n. whiskers (cf. ‘grön’).

grand, n. hurt, injury (gera, vinna, e-m grand).

granda (), v. to injure, do harm (engi grandaði öðrum).

grand-lauss, a. guileless; -ligr, a. dangerous, injurious; -varr, a. guileless; -veri, f. guilelessness.

granna, f. neighbour.

granni, m. neighbour.

grann-leikr, m. slenderness; -leitr, a. thin-faced; -ligr, a. slim, slender of build (ungr ok grannligr á vöxt).

grannr, a. thin, slender.

grann-vaxinn, pp. slender, slim of figure (hár á vöxt ok g.).

gran-rauðr, a. red-bearded; -selr, m. bearded seal; -síðr, a. long bearded; -stœði, n. the bearded part of the face, the upper lip.

graptar-dagr, m. burial-day; -kirkja, f. a church with a burying ground; -reitr, -staðr, m. burial-place.

gras, n. grass, herbage, herb.

grasaðr, pp. prepared with herbs.

gras-dalr, m. grassy dale; -garðr, m. garden; -geilar, f. pl. grassy lanes; -gott, a. n. with good crop of grass; -grœnn, a. grass-green; -lauss, a. grassless; -leysa, f. failure of grass; -leysi, n. failure of grass; -loðinn, a. thick with grass; -loðna, f. grassy spot; -lægr, a. lying in the grass; -mikill, a. rich in grass; -rœtr, f. pl. roots of herbs or grass; -sótt, f. grass-fever; -tó, f. grassy spot among cliffs; -völlr, m. grassy field; -vöxtr, m. growth of grass.

grautar-díli, m. porridge-spot (on the body); -ketill, m. porridge-pot; -sótt, f. ‘porridge-fever’; -trog, n. porridge-trough; -trygill, m. porridge-trough; -þvara, f. porridge-stick.

grautr (gen. -ar), m. porridge.

grá-bildóttr, a. with grey-spotted cheeks, of a sheep; -björn, m. grey bear, opp. to ‘hvítabjörn’; -blár, a. grey-blue.

gráða, f. step; fig. degree.

gráði, m. gentle breeze.

gráði, m. step, degree = gráða.

gráðr, m. greed, hunger.

gráðugr, a. greedy (g. ormr).

grá-eygr, a. grey-eyed; -gás, f. wild goose; -klæddr, pp. grey-clad; -kollóttr, a. grey and without horns; -kufl, m. grey cowl; -leikr, m. malice; -leitr, a. pale-looking; -liga, adv. with malice; -ligr, a. malicious; -lyndr, a. spiteful, malicious; -munkr, m. grey friar.

grána (), v. to become grey, fig. to grow rough (tekr at g. gamanit).

grán-stóð, n. stud of grey horses; -variðr, pp. grey-coated (úlfar-varðir).

grár (grá, grátt), a. (1) grey (í grám kyrtli); g. fyrir hærum, grey-haired; grátt silfr, bad silver; (2) spiteful, malicious; þó at í brjósti grátt búi, although bearing malice in the heart.

grá-rendr, a. grey-striped; -silfr, n. grey (bad) silver; -skinn, n. grey fur; -skýjaðr, a. covered with grey clouds; -steinn, m. a grey stone (til grásteins hins mikla).

gráta (græt; grét, grétum; grátinn), v. (1) to weep; g. hástöfum, to weep aloud; (2) to bewail, weep for one (þú grætr góðan mann).

grátan-ligr, a. tearful.

grát-fagr, a. beautiful in tears; -feginn, a. weeping for Joy.

grátinn, pp. tearful.

grát-ligr, a. pitiable, deplorable.

grátr, m. weeping; setr grát at e-m, one bursts into tears.

grát-raust, f. tearful voice; -stokkinn, pp. bathed in tears.

grá-vara, f. grey fur (harm hafði fengit á fjallinu mikla grávöru).

grefta (-fta, -ft), greftra (), v. to bury (greftraðr at fornum sið).

greiða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to unravel, disentangle, arrange; g. hár, to comb or dress the hair; greiddi hón hárit frá augum sér, she stroked back the hair from her eyes; (2) to make or get ready (g. segl); g. til vað, to get ready a fishing line; g. til um vápn to get the weapons ready; (3) to speed, further (g. ferð e-s); refl., greiddist honum vel, it sped well with him, he got on well; (4) to pay (g. fé af hendi); g. fram, to pay out; (5) to discharge, perform; g. skírslu af höndum, to perform the ordeal; g. vörð, to keep watch; g. róðr, to pull at the oars; g. atróðr, g. til atlögu, to attack (in a sea-fight); g. mál, to settle a case.

greið-fara, a. indecl. walking with speed; -fœrr, a. passable, easy to pass (þar var eigi greiðfœrt); -gengr, a. = -fœrr (eigi er hér -gengt).

greiði, m. (1) disentanglement, arrangement; gera greiða á málinu, to put the case right; skipaðist lítt til greiða með þeim, nothing was settled between them; (2) entertainment, accomadation; gera e-m greiða, to give one entertainment.

greið-liga, adv. (1) readily, promptly; (2) quite; greiðliga berr, completely stripped; (3) downright, actually (þó at engir menn bæri vápn á mik greið-liga).

greið-ligr, a. (1) ready, prompt; var söngrinn eigi greiðligr, the song did not go smoothly; (2) clear, plain (greiðlig orð).

greið-mæltr, pp. of ready speech.

greiðr (greið greitt), a. (1) clear, free from obstacles (greið leið, gata); (2) ready to serve (góðr ok greiðr við alla sína nágranna).

greið-skapr, m. (1) readiness, promptness; (2) entertainment.

greiðsla, f. = greizla.

greið, m. earl, count.

grein (pl. -ir), f. (1) branch (of a tree), division; (2) point, head, part (í öllum greinum); í annarri g., in the second place; (3) cause, reason; fyrir þá g., therefore; (4) distinction; sjá grein handa, to discern one’s hands; gera grein á e-u, to explain; (5) understanding, discernment; gløggrar greinar, sharpwitted; (6) dissent, discord (varð mart til greina með þeim); vald fyrir utan alla g., undisputed (absolute) power.

greina (-da, -dr), v. (1) to divide into parts (veröldin var greind í þrjár hálfur); (2) to discern, distinguish (g. gang himintungla); (3) to expound, tell, record; sem áðr er greint, as is told above; sem síðarr greinir, as will be told hereafter; (4) impers., menn (acc.) greinir á, they disagree, quarrel; (5) refl., greinast, to branch out, be separated (svá sem tungurnar greindust); g. á e-u, at e-u, to disagree about; impers., tók at g. með þeim kumpánum, they began to quarrel.

greina-mikill, a. sensible, clever.

greinar-laust, a. n. (1) indiscriminately; (2) unconditionally; -mál, n. reasonable case.

greina-vænn, a. likely to cause a difference or dissension.

greini-liga, adv. distinctly; -ligr, a. distinct, clear.

greining, f. distinction.

greiningar-vit, n. discernment.

greip (pl. greipr), f. the space between the thumb and the other fingers (kom blóð á hönd þóri ok rann upp á greipina); fig., koma, ganga í greipr e-m, to fall into one’s clutches.

greizla, f. payment, discharge.

gremi, f. wrath, anger.

gremja (grem, gramda, gramit), v. to anger, provoke, exasperate (gremdu eigi goð at þér); refl., gremjast e-m, to be angry with.

gren (gen. pl. grenja), n. lair of a fox or wolf (sem melrakki í greni).

grenja (), v. to howl, bellow.

grenjan, f. howling, bellowing.

grennast (d), v. refl. to become thin.

grennd, f. vicinity.

grennslast (), v. refl. to inquire.

gren-skolli, m. a fox in its earth.

grepp-ligr, a. frowning, ugly.

greppr (-s, -ar), m. (1) poet, scald; (2) doughty man.

grepta, greptra, see grefta, greftra.

gres-járn, n. iron wire.

gretta (-tta, -tt), v., g. sik or grettast, to frown, make a wryface.

Grettis-haf, -tak, n. Grettir’s lift.

grey (gen. pl. greyja), n. (1) bitch; (2) paltry fellow, coward.

grey-baka, f. = grey (1) bitch.

greyfa (-ða, -ðr), v. to bend down with the face to the ground.

grey-hundr, m. bitch; -menneks, f. paltriness, meanness.

greypa (-ta, -tr), v. to groove.

greypi-liga, adv. fiercely; -ligr, a. fierce, fearful.

greyp-leikr, m. fierceness; -ligr, a. = greypiligr.

greypr, a. fierce, fearful.

grey-skapr, m. = -mennska; -stóð, n. pack of hounds.

grið, n. (1) domicile, home; (2) pl. truce, peace, pardon, quarter; selk g.: to make truce; segja í sundr griðum to dissolve the truce; lífs g. ok lima, safety for life and limbs; beiða (sér) griða, to sue for quarter; beiða griða Baldri fyrir alls konar háska, to seek protection for B. against all kinds of harm; gefa e-m g., to give one quarter; ganga til griða, to accept pardon.

griða-brek, n. pl. breach of truce; -gjöf, f. granting truce; -lauss, a. without truce, truceless; -mark, n. sign of truce; -mál, n. pl. truce formularies; -rof, n. pl. breach of truce; -setning, f. truce-making; -staðr, m. sanctuary, asylum.

grið-bítr, m. = -níðingr.

griði, m. servant.

griðka, f., grið-kona, f. housemaid, female servant.

grið-maðr, m. male servant.

grið-mál, n. pl. = griðamál; -níðingr, m. truce-breaker; -sala, f. a granting truce; -samr, a. peaceful.

griðungr (-s, -ar), m. = graðungr.

grið-vist, f. lodging, home.

Grikkir (gen. -ja), m. pl. Greeks.

Grikk-land, n. Greece; Grikklands-haf, n. the Grecian Archipelago.

grikkska, f. Greek (language).

grikkskr, a. Greek, = girskr.

grimmast (d and ), v. to chafe, be furious (g. móti guði).

grimmd, f. (1) grimness, fierceness; (2) = grimmdarfrost.

grimmdar-frost, n. biting frost; -hugr, m. hostile mind.

grimm-eygr, a. fierce-eyed; -hugaðr, a. in a grim humour; -leikr, m. savageness, cruelly; -ligs, adv. fiercely; hefna grimmliga, to take a fearful revenge; -ligr, a. fierce, fearful; -lundaðr, a. of grim temper.

grimmr, a. (1) grim, stern, dire; gráta grimmum tárum, to weep bitter tears; g. dómr, severe jugement; (2) wroth; svá var hón grimm orðin Brjáni konungri, at, she hated him so much, that.

grimm-úðigr, a. ferocious, fierce (-úðigr í skapi).

grind (pl. grindr and grindir), f. (1) a gate made of spars or bars, a fence; (2) pl. pen, fold (fé byrgt í grindum); fullar grindir, full-stocked folds; (3) haven, dock (liggja í grindum, of ships); (4) store-houses.

grind-hlið, n. barred gate.

gripa-auðigr, a. rich in precious things; -gjald, n. payment in precious things; -kists, f. jewel chest; -taka, f. seizure of property.

grip-deild, f. robbery, rapine.

gripr (-ar, -ir), m. (1) costly thing; valuable treasure, property; (2) value, money’s worth; enn þriðja hlut á hann, þann er mikill g. er í, that is of great value; epli þau, er henni munu gripir í þykkja, apples which she will think of great value.

gripr, m. vulture (rare).

gríðr (gen. -ar), f. giantess.

gríma, f. (1) a kind of covering for the face or the head, a mask or cowl (hafa grímu fyrir andliti, á höfði sér); (2) armour covering a horse’s head and breast; (3) beak (on a ship); (4) night (poet.).

grímu-maðr, m. a masked or disguised man.

grípa (gríp; greip, gripurn; gripinn), v. (1) to grasp, seize (hann greip sverð sitt á skjöld); (2) to seize upon (g. góz fyrir mönnum); (3) with preps., g. á e-u, to catch hold of (H. greip á stafni); g. á kýlinu, to touch upon a sore place; g. til e-s, to seize (g. til sverðsins); greip hundrinn til hans, the dog snapped at him; g. upp, to catch up (Loki greip upp mikla stöng); g. við orði, to commence speaking.

grísa-sýr, f. a sow with pigs.

gríss (gen. gríss, pl. grísir), m. (1) young pig; (2) hog.

grjár, a. grey (poet., rare).

grjót, n. stones; verða at grjóti, to be turned into stones; bera g. á e-n, berja e-n grjóti, to stone one.

grjót-berg, n. quarry; -björg, n. pl. rocks; -burðr, m. throwing of stones; -flaug, f. stone shower; -flutning, f. conveyance of stones; -hlað, n. stone wall; -hóll, m. stone mound, stone heap; -hríð, f. shower of stones; -hörgr, m. = -hóll; -kast, n. throwing stones; -klettr, m. boulder; -ligr, a. stony, flinty; -möl, f. gravel, pebbles; -páll, m. in the phrase, vera grjótpáll fyirir e-u, to be the chief supporter (mainstay) of; -skriða, f. stone-slip; -smiðr, m. stone-mason; -varti, m. cairn of stones; -veggr, m. stone wall.

gróa (grœr, greri, gróinn), v. (1) to grow (of vegetation); jörð grœr, earth grows; þá var grund gróin grœnum lauki, the ground was covered with green herbs; (2) to grow together, become joined to (höfuð konungs var gróit við bolinn); (3) of wounds, to be healed (sár hans greru seint); Ingólfr lá í sárum vetr þenna, ok greri yfir at kalla, his wounds were healed in a way; of the person, gróinn sára sinna, healed of one’s wounds; g. um heilt, to be quite healed; fig. to be reconciled (grœr um heilt með þeim).

gróði, m. growth, increase.

gróðr (gen. -rar, pl. -rar), m. growth, crop (blóta til gróðrar).

gróðrar-ligr, a. fertile; healing.

gróðr-samr, a. fertile; -setja (see setja), v. to plant; -vænligr, a. healing (-vænlig smyrsl).

gróf, f. pit.

gróm-lauss, a. free from shot.

grómr, m. blot, dirty spot.

grufla (), v. to grovel an all-fours.

gruggóttr, a. muddy, turbid.

gruna (), v. (1) to suspect, mistrust (Grettir grunaði hann); vera grunaðr um e-t, to be suspected of; (2) to doubt (ekki grunum vér illvilja yðvarn); (3) to suppose, guess (gruna ek, at fjölmenni muni fyrir); (4) impers., mik grunar e-t or um e-t, I suspect, doubt.

grunan, f. suspecting, suspicious.

grun-brusligr, a. suspicious-looking (þú ert g. maðr).

grund (pl. -ir), f. green field, grassy plain (í grundinni hjá þverá).

grunda (), v. to meditate on.

grundan, f. meditation.

grundr, m. inquiry; gefa (grafa) grund at e-u, to inquire into.

grund-valla (), v. to found; -völlr, m. ground for a building (marka -völl til húss, kirkju); foundation; reisa hús af -velli, to make a building from the ground.

grun-lauss, a. unsuspecting; trúa guði -laust, to put absolute faith in God; vera -lauss af e-u, to be unsuspected, above suspicion; -maurar, m. pl., only in the phrase, e-n bíta -maurar, one suspects.

grunn, n. shallow, shoal; róa á g., to run a ground.

grunn-eygðr, a. goggle-eyed; -fall, n. a breaker on a shoal; -fastr, a. fast aground; -fœri, n. pl. anchor-tackle. cable; draga upp -fœri, to weigh anchor; -hygginn, a. shallow-minded, silly; -hygni, f. silliness; -lettr, a. thin-faced.

grunnr (-s, -ar), m. bottom (of sea or water); til grunns, til grunna, down to the bottom; ganga á grunn, to come to an end (fig.).

grunnr (grynnri, grynnstr), a. shallow; standa grunnt, to be shallow (vinitta okkur stendr grunnt).

grunn-stiglaðr, pp. hard frozen; -sæi, f. simplicity, credulity; -sæliga, adv. foolishly; -sæligr, a. foolish; -sær, a. shallow-witted, foolish; -sævi, n. shallow water; -úðigr, a. shallow-minded; -ýðigr, f. shallowness of mind, credulity.

grunr (-ar, -ir), m. suspicion, doubt, uncertainty (e-m er grunr á e-u); grafa grun á (um e-t), to suspect; hafa grun á e-m um e-t, to suspect one of a thing; e-m leikr grunr á um e-t, one feels suspicious about a thing; draga gruni á um e-t, to conceive a suspicion of; renna grunum á. e-t, to doubt, to guess at; búa um grun, to be suspected; um grun, by guile (sem þetta væri eigi um grun gört).

grun-samligr, a. suspicous-looking; -samr, a. suspected (hafa e-n -saman); -semd, f. suspicion.

grunsemdar-lauss, a. free from suspicion.

grúfa (-ða, -t), v. to grovel, to cower or crouch down (hann grúfði at eldinum; þeir grúfa í skjöldu sina).

grúfa, f., in the phrase, liggja á grúfu, to lie face down, on one’s belly.

gryfja, f. hole, pit.

grynna (-ti, -t), v. impers. to become shallower; grynnir dalinn, the dale became less deep; refl., grynnast = grynna (þá er grynntist yfir at landinu).

grýfi-liga, adv. hideously.

grýjandi, f. dawn (rare).

grýla, f. (1) giantess; (2) bug-bear (ekki hirði ek um grýlur yðrar).

grýta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to stone one to death (g. e-n í hel, til bana); (2) g. á e-n, at e-m, to pelt one with stones.

grýta, f. pot.

grýting, f. stoning (to death).

grýttr, a. stony.

grýtu-ker, n. earthen pot.

græð, f. malice, hostility (= gráleikr).

græðgi, f. greediness, gluttony.

græska, f. malice (= græð).

grœða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to make grow; (2) to heal (g. sar, g. sjóka); (3) to increase; g. fé, to make money; refl., vindrinn grœddist, the wind increased; grœðist e-m fé, peningar one makes money.

grœðari, m. healer, saviour.

grœði-ligr, a. healable.

grœðing, f. (1) growth, increase (byrr var í grœðingu); (2) healing, cure (g. sótta; andlig g.).

grœfr, a. fit to be buried.

grœnast (-d), v. to become green (grœnist jörð).

grœn-fainn, a. green-stained.

grœn-leikr, m. greenness, verdure.

Grœn-lendingr, m. Greenlander.

grœn-lenzkr, a. of or belonging to Greenland (Grœnland).

grœnn, a. (1) green (g. sem gras); (2) fresh (g. fiskr); (3) good fit; sá mun nú grœnstr (the most hopeful choice) at segja satt.

grœn-tó, f. tuft of grass; -tyrfa (-ða, -ðr), v. to cover with green turf.

grœta (-tta, -ttr), v. to make one weep, distress one; grœttr, grieved.

grœti, n. pl. tears, sorrow.

grœti-ligr, a. lamentable, sad.

grœtir, m. one who makes another weep (gýgjar g.).

gröf (gen. grafar; pl. grafir and grafar), f. (1) pit, ditch (grafa g.); (2) grave; þat mein leiddi hann til grafar, caused his death.

gröftr (gen. graftar and graftrar, dat. grefti and greftri), m. (1) digging (vera at grefti); (2) burial, interment; veita e-m gröft, to bury; (3) tomb; (4) carving.

grön (gen. granar, pl. granar), f. (1) the hair on the upper lip, moustache (svá ungr, at eigi mun g. sprottin); (2) lip; legðu munn við g., lay thy mouth to his lips; e-m bregðr vá fyrir g., one is startled, alarmed; bregða grönum, to draw back the lips, grin; in pl. the lips of a cow or bull.

grön (gen. granar), f. pine-tree.

gröptr (gen. graptar), m. = gröftr.

grösugr, a. grassy, grass-grown.

guð, m. (and n.), God.

guðdóm-ligr, a. god-like, divine.

guð-dómr, m. godhead, divinity; -dóttir, f. god-daughter; -faðir, m. godfather; -gefmn, pp. given by God, inspired; -hræddr, a. godfearing; -hræzla, f. fear of God; -lasta (), v. to blaspheme; -lastan, f. blasphemy; -latr, a. ungodly; -leysi, n. godlessness; -ligr, a. godlike, divine; -magn, n. = goðmagn; -níðingr, m. traitor to God, apostate, renegaade.

guðniðing-skapr, m. apostasy.

guð-réttligr, a. righteous; -rækiligr, a. ungodly; -rækr, a. ungodly; -rœkiliga, adv. piously; -rœkinn, a. pious; -sifi (gen. -sifja), m. ‘gossip’ godfather; -sifjar, f. pl. spiritual relationship, sponsorship; veita e-m -sifjar, to be a sponsor (godfather) to.

guðs-lög, n. pl. the canon law (halda -lög ok landsins).

guð-spjall, n. gospel; -spjalligr, a. evangelical.

guðvefjar-klæði, n. pl. a suit of clothes made of guðvefr; -kyrtill, m., -skikkja, f. kirtle of guðvefr.

guð-vefr, m. a costly fabic used for garments, etc.; ? velvet.

gufa, f. vapour, steam.

gugna (), v. to lose heart, quail.

gul, n. gentle breeze, = gol.

gula, f. (1) = gola; (2) = gulusótt.

gul-brúnaðr, a-yellow-brown; -grár, a. yellow-grey; -grœnn, a. yellow-green (í gulgrœnum kyrtli).

gull, n. (1) gold; (2) = fingrgull.

gull-aldr, m. golden age; -auðigr, a. rich in gold; -auðr, m. wealth in gold; -band, n. golden head-band; -baugr, m. gold ring; -bitlaðr, a. golden-bitted; -bitull, m. bit (bridle) of gold; -bjartr, a. bright as gold; -bóka (), v. to embroider in gold; -bóla, f. (1) gold boss; (2) golden bull (bulla aurea); -brynja, f. golden coat of mail; -búinn, pp. ornamented with gold; -bollr, m. golden ball; -dálkr, m. gold pin; -festr, f. gold chain; -fjallaðr, pp. embroidered in gold; -gódr, a. of pure gold; -górr, a. made of gold; -hagr, a. skilled in working gold; -hálsar, m. pl. gold-necks, lordlings; -hárr, a. golden-haired; -hella, f. bar of gold; -hjalt, n. gold hill; -hjálmr, m. golden helmet; -hlað, n. gold lace (esp. to tie up the hair with); -hlaðinn, pp. laced with gold; -hringr, m. gold ring; -hús, n. jewel-chest; -hyrndr, a. golden-horned.

gullin-bursti, m. gold-mane; -hjalti, m. golden-hilt (a sword with a hilt of gold); -kambi, m. gold comb.

gullinn, a. golden.

gull-knappr, m. gold button; gold knob; -knútr, m. gold knot; -kóróna, f. golden crown; -leggja (see leggja), v. to lace with gold; -ligr, a. golden, of gold; -mál, n. inlaid figure of gold; -men, n. gold necklace; -miðlandi, m. distributor ofvgold; -nisti, n. gold pin; -ofinn, pp. gold-woven; -rekinn, pp. inlaid with gold (-rekit spjót); -rendr, a. gold-striped; -ritinn, pp. written in gold; -roðinn, pp. gilt; -saumaðr, pp. embroidered with gold; -settr, pp. gold-mounted; -skillingr, m. gold shilling; -skotinn, pp. woven with gold; -skór, m. gold shoe; -smeittr, pp., -smeltr, pp. gold-enamelled (of a shield); -smiðr, m. goldsmith; -smíð, f. goldsmith’s work, working in gold; -spánn, m. (1) gold ornament (on ships); (2) gold spoon; -sproti, m. gold sceptre; -stafaðr, pp. gold-striped; -stafr, m. golden letter; -steindr, pp. gilt; -stöng, f. bar of gold; -stylgja, f. gold brooch; -tafla, f. golden piece (used in playing); -teinn, m. golden rod; -vafiðr, pp. wound with gold; -veggr, m. golden wall; -viðjar, f. pl. gold withies; -vöndr, m. golden wand.

gulr, a. yellow (gult silki).

gul-rendr, a. gold-striped.

gulu-sótt, f. jaundice.

gumi (pl. gumar), m. man (poet.).

gumnar, m. pl. men (poet.); gumna synir, the sons of men.

gumpr, m. bollom, fundament.

gumsa (), v. to scoff at, mock.

gunnar-fúss, -gjarn, a. eager for battle.

gunn-fáni, m. ‘gonfarron’, war-banner; processional banner.

gunn-heilagr, a. invulnerable; -hvatr, a. warlike.

gunnr (gen. -ar, dat. and acc. -i), f. war, battle (poet.).

gunn-tamiðr, pp. used to war.

guss, n. fuss; gussa (), v. to make fuss and noise.

gusta (), v. to blow in gusts.

gust-illir, a. having foul breath; -kaldr, a. gusty, chilly (veðrit var gustkalt); -mikill, a. gusty.

gustr, m. (1) gust; (2) smell.

Gyðinga-land, n. Palestine; -skirn, f. circumcision.

gyðing-ligr, a. Jewish.

Gyðingr (-s, -ar), m. Jew.

gyðja, f. (1) goddess; (2) priestess.

gylfi, m. prince, king (poet.).

gylfra, f. (1) ogress witch; (2) er þat helzt við orði, at gylfrum gangi vinittan, it is rumoured that your friendship is all gone to the dogs.

gylla (-da, -dr and -ta, -tr), v. to gild; g. hóli, to flatter.

gylling, f. (1) gilding; (2) pl. vain praise (fara með glyllingar).

gylta, f. young sow.

gyltr, f. young sow.

gymbill, m. he-lamb.

gymbr (gen. -rar), f. ewe-lamb.

gyrða (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to gird (with a belt); g. sik, to gird oneself, fasten one’s belt (cf. gyrðr í brœkr); g. sik með sverði, to gird on a sword; (2) to girth (g. hest, g. söðul).

gyrðill, m. (1) girdle; (2) purse (hon lét féit í gyrðilinn).

gyrja, v. to stain with blood.

gys, n., gyss, m. mocking; gera gys at e-u, to mock at a thing.

gyzki, m. wonder (rare).

gýgr (gen. -jar, pl. -jar), f. giantess, hag (þar bjó ein gýgr).

gæfa, f. goodluck; bera gæfu til e-s, to have luck in a thing.

gæfr, a. quiet, meek; þat er mér ok gæfast, that is most pleasant to me.

gæfu-drjúgr, a. lucky; -fátt, a. n., e-m er -fátt, one has little luck; -hlutr, m. share of good luck; -lauss, a. luckless; -leysi, n. lucklessness; -maðr, m. lucky man; -mannligr, a. as a lucky man; -mikill, a. having great luck; -munr, m. difference in luck; -raun, f. trial of luck; -samliga, adv. luckily; -samligr, a. lucky; -skipti, n. turn or change of luck; -skortr, m. want of luck; -vant, a. n. wanting in luck.

gægjast (ð), v. refl. to bend eagerly forward and peep.

gær, adv. only with the prep. í; (1) yesterday (vara þat nú né í gær); (2) poet. tomorrow (þótt nú eðr gær deyjum).

gæra, f. sheepskin with the wool on.

gær-dagr, m. yesterday; -kveld, n. yesterday evening.

gæta (-tta, -tt), v. (1) to watch, take care of, guard, with gen.; g. skóklæða e-s, to take care of one’s shoes; g. dura í höllinni, to guard the door of the hall; g. kúa, hesta, to tend cows, horses; g. dóma, to observe justice; g. ráðsins, to take heed to the advice; g. til e-s, to mind, take care of, attend to (svá gættu þeir til, at ekki varð at); (2) refl., ok um þat gættust, and took counsel together.

gæti-liga, adv. heedfully.

gætinn, a. heedful, wary.

gætir, m. keeper, warder.

gætti, n. door-frame, doorpost; hurð var á g., the door was ajar.

gætur, f. pl., hafa g. á e-u, gefa g. at e-u, to take care of, mind.

gæzla, f. watch, keeping.

gæzlu-engill, m. guardian angel; -lauss, a. unguarded; -maðr, m. keeper; -sótt, f. an illness which involves watching over the patient.

gœða (-dds, -ddr), v. (1) to endow, enrich (g. e-n fé ok virðingu); (2) to increase; g. rás, ferð, to quicken the pace; g. róðrinn, to quicken the stroke, pull quicker; adding the prep. á; svá mikit gœddi þetta á, it increased so much, went to such a pitch; var þá nökkuru heimskari en áðr, ef á mátti g., sillier, if possible, than before.

gœða-lauss, a. void of good things, barren (gœðalaust land).

gœði, n. pl. good or profitable things, boons, emoluments.

gœðingr (-s, -ar), m. nobleman, chief (konungr ok hans gœðingar).

gœl, n. = gœlingar-orð.

gœla (-da, -dr), v. to comfort, soothe (verð á mik gœla).

gœling, f. soothing; gœlingar-orð, n. pl. soothing words.

gœzka, f. (1) goodness, kindness; (2) good things (= gœði).

gœzku-fullr, a. full of goodness, merciful; -lauss, a. merciless; -samligr, a. good, kind; -verk, n. charitable deed.

göfga (), v. (1) to worship (g. goð); (2) to honour (g. dróttins-dag).

göfgan, f. worshipping; göfgari, m. worshipper.

göfug-kvendi, n. noble woman, lady; -látr, a. worshipful, generous; -leikr, m. worshipfullness, highness; -ligr, a. (1) worshipful, noble-looking; (2) magnificent (-ligr staðr); -menni, n. noble, worshipful man; -mennr, a. with many worshipful men.

göfugr (göfgari, göfgastr), a. noble, worshipful (g. at kyni).

gøgn, gøgnum, see ‘gegn, gegnum’.

göltr (gen. galtar, dat. gelti; pl. geltir), m. boar, hog.

göng, n. pl. passage (ór kastala vóru göng upp í kirkju).

göngu-drykkja, f. drinking-bout; -fœri, n. = gang-fœri; -fœrr, a. able to walk; -kona, f. vagrant woman; -líð, n. (1) footmen, infantry; (2) help, assistance.

göngull, a. running much about.

göngu-maðr, a. beggar, vagrant; -mannliga, adv. beggar-like, beggarly; -sveinn, m. vagrant, tramp; gør, n. poet. flock.

gøra, gørva (-ða, -ðr, and görr), v. (1) to make, construct, build (g. hús skip, haug); g. bók, to write a book; (2) to set in order, prepare, perform, &c.; g. veizlu, to make a banquet; g. seið, blót, to perform a sacrifice; g. ferð, to make a journey; g. ráð sitt, to make up one’s mind; g. ráð með e-m, to take counsel with, advise one; (3) to contract (g. vináttu, félagskap); (4) to grant, render; g. kost, to give a choice; (5) with acc. of an adj.; g. sik líkan e-m, to make oneself like to, imitate one; g. sik reiðan, to take offence; g. skjót-kørit, to make a quick choice; (6) to do, act; g. gott (illt), to do good (evil); hefir hann marga hluti gört stór-vel til min, I have received many great benefits at his hands; g. e-m gagn, to give help to one; (7) to do, avail; þat mun ekki g., that won’t do; ekki gørir at dylja, it is no use denying it; (8) to send, dispatch (hann gørði þegar menn frá sér); (9) to beget (af henni gørði hann hinn fyrsta soninn); (10) to judge or arbitrate in a case (= g. um mál); to fix the amount of a fine (gørði Njáll hundrað silfrs); g. sér e-t, to adjudge to oneself; (11) with infin. as an auxiliary verb; ef hón gørði koma, if she did come; gørðit hón hjúfra, she did not wail; (12) impers. one becomes; hann gørði fölvan, he turned pale; veðr gørði hvast, a gale arose; brið mikla gørði at þeim, they were overtaken by a storm; mér gørir svefnhöfugt I grow sleepy; (13) with preps., g. mikit af sér, to distinguish oneself; g. e-t af e-m, to extort (take) from one; g. e-t af við e-n, to wrong a person, transgress against one (ek hefi engan hlut af gørt við þik); g. góðan (mikinn) róm at máli e-s, to cheer (praise) another’s speech; g. at e-u, to mend, put right (tekr bann kníf ok gørir at skónum); to heal (kannt þú nókkut g. at slíkum meinum); hann gørði þat eina at, er hann átti, he did only what he ought; slíkt gørir at, er sölin etr, so it happens when one eats seaweed; g. at skapi e-s, to conform to one’s wishes; g. at álitum, to take into consideration; g. sér úgetit at e-u, to be displeased with; g. á hluta e-s, to wrong one, do harm to; g. fáleika á sik, to make oneself look sad; g. eptir e-m, to send for one; g. e-t eptir, to imitate; g. ráð fyrir e-u, to suppose; g. sér mikit (lítit) fyrir, to make great (small) efforts; g. sér e-t hug, to resolve, plan; g. sér gott hug, to be easy in mind; g. milli (á m.) e-m, to decide between; g. til e-rra, to make preparations for; g. e-t til, to prepare, make ready, dress meat; g. til e-s, to de serve a thing; hvat hafðir þú til gört, what hadst thou done to deserve it?; g. sœmdir til e-s, to confer honour upon one; g. til saka við e-n, to transgress against one; g. um mál, to arbitrate in a case (þær urðu málalyktir, at Þórdr skyldi g. um); g. mikit um sik, to make a great noise; g. sér mikit um e-t, to make much of, admire; g. upp, to rebuild, restore (g. upp hús, skála); g. e-n upp, to upset one; g. e-n útan, to banish, exile (Flosi var görr útan); g. e-t við e-n, to do with one (þá var um rœtt, hvat við þá skyldi g.); g. við e-u, to prevent; (14) refl., gørast, to become, arise (þá gørðist hlátr); sá atburðr gørðist, it came to pass; gørðist með þeim félagskapr, they entered into fellowship; gørast konungr, to become king; svá gørðist, at, it so happened, that; impers., næsta gørist mér kynligt, I feel rather uneasy; gørast ferðar sinnar, to set out for a journey; with infin., ár var þat er Guðrún gørðist at deyja, was nigh to death; g. í, to occur, happen (sögdu þeir konungi, hvat í hafði görzt); g. til e-s, to set about doing (þessir menn hafa görzt til svá mikils stórrœðis).

gör-bœnn, a. begging hard, impotunate (gørast g. við e-n).

gørð, f. (1) making, building; (2) doing, act, deed; orð ok gørðir, words and deeds; (3) arbitration, award; leggja mál í g., to submit a case to arbitration; taka menn til gørðar, to choose umpires; segja or lúka upp g., to deliver the arbitration.

gørðar-maðr, m. umpire.

gør-farinn, pp. quite gone, quite lost; -hugall, a. very heedful, mindful.

görla, adv. quite, fully (vita g.).

görn (pl. garnar and garnir), f. gut.

görning, f. doing, deed.

gørninga-hrið, f. a storm raised by witchcraft; -maðr, m. sorcerer.

gørningar, f. pl. witchcraft, sorcery.

gørninga-sótt, f. sickness caused by sorcery; -stakkr, m. enchanted jacket; -veðr, n. = -hrið; -vættr, f. witch.

gørningr, m. = gørning.

gøróttr, a. poisonous (g. er drykkrinn, ái!).

görr, gørr, gerr (acc. görvan), a. and pp. (1) skilled, accomplished (vel at sér g.); leggja görva hönd á e-t, to to be an adept, a master in a thing; (2) ready, willing (g. gull at bjóða). with gen., g. ills hugar, prone to evil skulut þess görvir, be ready for that! (3) svá gört, so done, so; verða menn þat svá gört at hafa, it must be so at svá görvu, this being the case.

gørr, adv. compar., gørst, adv. superl. more, most fully.

gør-ræði, n. arbitrary act; -samliga, adv. altogether, quite.

gør-semi, -simi (pl. -semar), f. costly thing, jewel, treasure; -simligr, a. costly.

gør-tœki, n. unlawful seizure of another man’s property.

gørva, v. = gera, gøra.

görva (gørva, gerva), adv. quite, clearly; muna g., to remember clearly; ef þú g. kannar, if thou search closely cf. gørr, gørst.

görv-allr, a. entire, whole.

gørvi (pl. gørvar), f. gear, apparel; -búr, n. store-house.

gørvi-leikr, m. accomplishments; -ligr, a. accomplished, doughty.

götu-breidd, f. breadth of a road; -leysi, n. pathless tract; -nisti, n. provisions for a journey; -skarð, n. a defile with a path through it.

götva (), v. to bury.

götvaðr, m. slayer (?).

H

hadda, f. pot-hook, pot-handle.

hadd-bjartr, a. light-haired, = bjart-haddaðr; -blik, n. bleaching the hair.

haddr (-s, -ar), m. a lady’s hair.

haðna, f. a young she-goat.

haf, n. the sea, esp. the high sea, ocean; sigla (láta) í h., sigla á h. út, to put to sea; hann dó í hafi, he died at sea.

haf, n. lifting (úlíkligr til hafs).

hafa (hefi; hafða, höfðum; hafðr), v. (1) to have (þeir höfðu sjau skip ok flest stór); h. elda, to keep up a five; (2) to hold, celebrate (h. vinaboð, blót, þing); (3) to keep, retain (rifu þær vefinn í sundr, ok hafði hverr þat er hélt á); (4) to use (tvau net eru rý, ok hafa eigi höfð verit); orð þau sem hann hafði um haft, which he had made use of; h. fagrmæli við e-n, to flatter one; h. hljóðmæli við e-n, to speak secretly to one; h. tvimæli á e-u, to speak doubtfully of a thing; h. viðrmæli um e-t, to use mocking words; hann var mjök hafðr við mál manna, much used to, versed in, lawsuits; (5) to have, hold, maintain; h. vináttu við e-n, to maintain friendship with one; h. hættumikit, to run a great risk; h. heilindi, to have good health; (6) to bring, carry; h. e-n heim með sér, to bring one home; hann hafði lög, út hingat ór Noregi, he brought laws hither from Norway; h. sik (to betake oneself) til annara landa; (7) to take, carry off; troll hafi þik, the trolls take thee; (8) to get, gain, win; hann hafði eigi svefn, he got no sleep; hefir sá jafnan, er hættir, he wins that ventures; h. gagn, sigr, to gain victor; h. meira hlut, to get the upper hand, gain the day; h. betr (verr), to get the better (worse) of it; h. sitt mál, to win one’s suit; h. tafl, to win the game; h. erendi, to do one’s errand, succeed; h. bana, to suffer death, to die; h. sigr, to be worsted; h. góðar viðtökur, to be well received; h. tíðindi af e-m, to get tidings of, or from, one; h. sœmd, óvirðing af e-m, to get honour, disgrace from one; with gen., h. e-s ekki, to fail to catch one (hann kemst á skóg undan, ok höfðu þeir hans ekki); ekki munu vér hans h. at sinni, we shall not catch him at present; (9) to wear carry (clothes, weapons); hann hafði blán kyrtil, he wore a blue kirtle; h. kylfu í hendi sér, to have a club in one’s hand; (10) to behave, do, or fare, so an so esp. with an adv.; h. vel, illa, vetr, to behave (do) well, badly, be worse; hafa sik vel, to behave; hafa vel, to be well off or happy; h. hart, to be in a wretched plight; (11) with infin., h. at varðveita, to have in keeping at selja, to have on sale; lög hafið þér at mæla, you are right; (12) h. e-n nær e-u, to expose one to (þú hafðir svá nær haft oss úfœru); h. nær e-u, to come near to, esp. impers.; nær hafði okkr nú, it was a narrow escape; svá nær hafði hausinum, at, the shot so nearly touched the head, that; ok er nær hafði, skipit mundi fljóta, when the ship was on the point of flloating; (13) as an auxiliary verb, in the earliest time with the pp. of transitive verbs in acc.; hefir þú hamar um fólginn, hast thou hidden the hammer?; ek hefi sendan mann, I have sent a man; later with indecl. neut. pp.; hefir þú eigi sét mik, hast thou not seen me?; (14) with preps.; h. e-t at, to do, act; hann tók af þér konuna, en þú hafðir ekki at, but thou didst not stir, didst take it tamely; absol., viltu þess freista, ok vita hvat at hafi, wilt thou try and see what happens?; h. e-t at hlífiskildi (skotspœni), to use as a shield (as a target); h. e-n háði, hlátri, to mock, laugh at; h. e-t at engu, vettugi, to hold for naught, take no notice of; h. sakir á e-n have charges against one; h. á rás, to take to one’s heels, run off; h. e-t eptir, to do or repeat a thing after one; h. e-t fram, to produce (vápn þorgils vóru fram höfð); to carry out, hold forth; h. mál fram, to proceed with a suit; var um búit, ekki fram haft, all was made ready but nothing done; h. e-t frammi, í frammi, to use, make use of (h. í frammi kúgan); ok öll lögmæt skil frammi hafa, and discharge all on official duties; h. e-t fyrir satt, to hold for true; eigi em ek þar fyrir sönnu hafðr, I am not truly aimed for that, it is a false charge; h. e-n fyrir sökum um e-t, to charge one with; h. í hótum við e-n, to threaten one; h. e-t með höndum, to have in hand; höfum eiai sigrinn ór hendi, let not victory slip out of our hands; h. ór við e-n, to behave so and so towards one (hefir þú illa ór haft við mik); h. e-t til e-s to use for (höfðu þeir til varnar skot ok spjót); to be a reason or ground for; vér hyggjum þat til þess haft vera, at þar hafi menn sézt, we believe the foundation of the story is that men have been seen there; h. mikit (lítit) til síns máls, to have much (little) in support of one’s case; h. e-t til, to have at hand, possess; orð þau, sem hann hafði um haft, the words which he had used; keisari hafði fátt um, did not say much; h. e-n undir, to get one under, subdue one; h. e-t uppi, to take (heave) up (h. uppi fœri, net); Skarpheðinn hafði uppi øxina, S. heaved up the axe; h. flokk uppi, to raise a party, to rebel; h. uppi tafl, to play at a game; h. e-n uppi, to bring one to light; h. uppi rœður, to begin a discussion; h. e-t úti, to have done, finished (h. úti sitt dagsverk); h. við e-m, to be a match for one; h. sik við, to exert oneself; h. mikit (lítit) við, to make a great (little) display; hann söng messu ok bafði mikit við, and made much of it; hann bad jarl leita, bann hafði lítit við þat, he did it lightly; haf ekki slíkt við, do not say so; haf þú lítit við at eggja sonu þina, refrain from egging on thy sons; (15) refl., hafast, to dwell, abide; þeir höfðust mjök í ferðum, they spent much of their life in travelling; hafast vel, to do well, thrive (vaxa ok vel h.); h. at, to do; Lambi sá hvat Steinarr hafðist at, what he was doing; h. við, to dwell, stay (hér mun ek við hafast); h. vel við, to bear oneself well up; h. orð við, to speak to one another.

hafandi, pr. p. being with child.

haf-bára, f. wave; -fugl, m. sea-bird; -fœrandi, pr. p. sea-going, sea-worthy; -gerðingr, f. pl. tremendous waves; -gjálfr, n. roar of the sea; -gola, f. sea-breeze; -gufa, f. mermaid; -hallt, adv. standing seawards; -hrútr, m. sea-ram; -íss, m. drift ice; -kaldr, a. cold as the sea; -leið, f. standing seawards; stefna -leið, to stand seawards; -leiðis, adv. seawards; -ligr, a. marine.

hafna (), v. to forsake, abandon, with dat. (h. fornum sið, blótum ok heiðnum góðum); kýr hafnaði átinu, the cow left off eating.

hafnan, f. abandonment, forsaking (h. heimsins, veraldar).

hafnar-dyrr, f. pl. entrance of a haven (höfn).

hafnar-feldr, m. a shaggy cloak for everyday use.

hafnar-mark, n. harbour mark; -merki, n. harbour mark; -tollr, m. harbour toll.

hafnar-vaðmál, -váð, n. plain stuff.

hafn-borg, f. sea borough, sea-port.

haf-nest, n. provisions for a voyage.

hafn-leysa, f. harbourless coast; -leysi, n. harbourless coast; -ligr, a. harbour-like.

hafr (-rs, -rar), m. he-goat, buck.

hafr-belgr, m. = -staka.

haf-rek, m. wreck, jetsam; -reka, a., -rekinn, pp. tossed or driven about on the sea.

hafr-staka, f. goat’s skin.

haf-rœðr, a. sea-worthy (hafrœðr sexæringr).

hafs-botn, m. gulf (firðir ok hafsbotnar); -geil, f. sea-lane.

haf-skip, n. a sea-going ship; -skrimsl, n. sea-monster.

hafs-megin, n. the main, high sea.

haf-stormr, m. storm at sea; -strambr, m. fabulous sea-monster.

haft, n. (1) bond, chain; esp. pl., höft, fetters; sitja í höftum, to be in fetters; halda e-n í höftum, to keep one in bonds; (2) pl., höft, gods.

hafta, f. female prisoner, bondwoman (h. ok hernuma).

haftr, m. male prisoner, bondman.

haf-tyrðill, m. little auk; -velktr, pp. sea-tossed; -viðri, sea-breeze; -villa, f. loss of one’s course at sea; -villr, a. having lost one’s course at sea.

haga (), v. (1) to manage, arrange, with dat. (svá skulu vér h. inngöngu vorri); fénu var hagat til gæzlu, the money was taken into keeping; with adv., hvernig skulum vér þá til h., how shall we arrange it; h. svá til, at, to arrange or contrive it so that; h. e-m til e-s, to turn out so and so for one (þat hagaði Ólafi til mikils harms); (2) to suit, be suitable (skip með þeim farmi, sem ek veit vel hagar til Íslands).

haga-beit, f. grazing; -garðr, m. fence round a pasture-field.

hag-fastr, a. grazing constantly on the same pasture; -fátt, a. n. short of grazing (málnytu verðr hag-fátt).

hag-feldr, a. meet, fit, suitable (ek mun þér h.; hagfelt erindi).

hagi, m. pasture, field for grazing; var hestum h. fenginn, the horses were put out to grass.

hag-jörð, f. pasture land.

hag-keypi, n. good bargain.

hagl, n. hail; -hrið, f. hail-storm.

hag-leikr, m. skill in handicraft.

hagleiks-gørð, f. fine workmanship; -maðr, m. handicraftsman, artist.

hag-liga, adv. skilfully, handily, neatly; -ligr, a. (1) skilful, handy, neat; (2) fit, proper, convenient.

hagl-korn, n. hailstone; -steinn, m. hailstone; -vindr, m. hail-storm.

hag-mýrr, f. pasture, marsh.

hag-mæltr, a. well-spoken.

hagna (), v. to be meet for one; hvárum ykkrum hefir betr hagnat, which of you has had the best luck?

hagnaðr (gen. -ar), m. advantage.

hag-nýta (-tta, -ttr), v. to make use of, have profit of.

hagr, a. handy, skilful (h. maðr á tré ok járn).

hagr (-s, -ir), m. (1) state, condition, affairs (hvat er nú um hagi þína?); (2) means (ef hann hefir eigi hag til at fœra þau fram); (3) favour, advantage; í hag e-m, to one’s advantage at högum, suitably.

hag-ráð, n. opportunity; -ráðr, a. giving wise counsel; -ræða (-rædda, -rætt), v. to put right (fyrir sér); -ræði, n. service (gera e-m hagræði); -skeytr, a. a good shot; -skipti, n. fair bargain.

hags-munir, m. pl. profit, advantage.

hag-spakligr, a. practical, wise; -speki, f. forethought, good sense; -stœðr, a. fair, favourable (-stœðr byrr); -tœkr, a. practical; -þorn, -þyrnir, m. hawthorn.

haka (gen. höku), f. chin.

hala-broddr, m. point of a tail; -ferð, f. the rear; -langr, a. long-tailed; -tafl, n. a kind of game.

hald, n. (1) hold, fastening; (2) keeping in repair (fyrir h. kirkju); (3) support, backing (hann hefir nú h. mikit af konungi); h. ok traust, help and support in need; koma e-m at haldi, í hald, to be of use or help to one; hér kemr illa í h., it does little good; (4) custody (Ólafr konungr tók þá við haldi Hræreks konungs); (5) esteem (vera með e-m í góðu haldi); (6) keeping, observance (cf. jóla-hald, drottinsdaga hald).

halda (held; hélt, héldum; haldinn), v. I. with dat. (1) to hold fast (Gunnarr var kyrr svá at honum hélt einn maðr); to keep back, restrain (Hrafn fekk eigi haldit henni heima); (2) to withhold (héldu bœndrgjaldinu); (3) to keep, retain (þú skalt jafhan þessu sæti h.); to preserve (h. virðingu sinni, lífi ok limum); h. vöku sinni, to keep oneself awake; (4) to hold, keep one’s stock; also ellipt. (vetr var illr ok héldu menn illa); (5) phrases, h. njósnum, to keep watch, to spy (= h. njósnum til um e-t); h. (hendi) fyrir auga, to hold (the hand) before the eyes, shade the eyes; h. hendi yfir e-m, to protect one; (6) to hold, stand, steer, ellipt., þeir héldu aptr (held back again) um haustit; þeir héldu út eptir fírði, they stood out the firth; h. heim, to steer homewards; (7) to graze, put in the field (h. fé til haga); (8) impers. to continue, last (hélt því lengi um vetrinn); II. with acc. (1) to hold in possession, a fief, land, estate (þeir héldu alla hina beztu staði með sjónum); (2) to hold, keep, observe, a feast, holiday (í hvers minning heldr þú þenna. dag?); (3) to keep (h. orð sín, eið, sættir, frið); to observe (h. guðs lög ok landsins); (4) to uphold, maintain, support (h. vini sína, h. e-n til ríkis); (5) h. sik, to comport oneself (kunna h. sik með hófi); h. sik ríkmannliga, to fare sumptuously; h. sik aptr af e-u, to abstain from; (6) to hold, consider, deem (hón hélt engan hans jafningja); (7) to hold, keep up; h. varnir, to keep up a defence; h. vörð, to keep watch; (8) to hold, compel, bind (heldr mik þá ekki til útanferðar); þó heldr þik várkunn til at leita á, thou hast some excuse for trying; III. with preps., h. á e-u, to hold, wield in the hand (h. á sverði); to hold to a thing, go on with it, be busy about (h. á drykkju, á ferð sinni, á sýslu); h. e-t af e-m, to hold (land, office) from or of one (þeir er höfðu haldið land af Danakonungi); h. mikit af e-m, to make much of one; h. eptir e-m, to pursue one; h. e-u eptir, to keep back; h. sik frá e-u, to keep oneself back from, refrain from; h. e-u fram, to uphold, support; h. e-u fyrir e-u, to withhold from one; to protect against (héldu engar grindr fénu fyrir birninum); h. e-n fyrir e-t, to hold, consider one to be so and so (síðan hélt konungr Erling fyrir tryggvan vin); h. í e-t, to hold fast, grasp (þú skalt h. í hurðarhringinn); h. til e-s, to be the cause of, be conducive to; heldr þar margt til þess, there are many reasons for this; hélt til þess (conduced to it) góðgirni hans; h. til e-s, to be bent on, fond of (h. mjök til skarts, til gleði); h. til jafns við e-n, to bear up against one, to be a match for one; h. um e-t, to grasp with the hand (= h. hendi um e-t); h. barni undir skírn, to hold at baptism; h. e-u upp, to hold aloft, lift (h. upp höndum); h. upp árum, to hold up the oars, cease pulling; to uphold, maintain, support (h. upp hofum, kristninni); to keep going (h. upp bardaga); to discharge (h. upp kostnaði, bótum); h. upp bœnum fyrir e-m, to pray for one; h. e-u við, to maintain a thing; h. við e-m, to stand against (hvar sem harm kom fram, hélt ekki við honum); impers. to be on the point of; hélt þá við atgöngu (acc.), they were near coming to fight; heldr nú við hót, it is little short of threats; IV. refl., haldast, to hold oneself, stay (mátti hann eigi þar h.); to hold out, continue, last (hélzt vinátta með þeim); to be kept safe and sound; menn allir héldust (all hands were saved) ok svá fé; to be valid, stand (engi má h. dómr hans); h. á, to pull one against another, wrestle, fight; impers., e-m helzt vel (illa) á e-u, one has good (bad) luck with a thing (mér helzt lítt á sauðamönnum); h. við, to stay, remain; h. við e-m, to resist, make a stand against one (hélzt þá ekki við honum).

hald-góðr, a. lasting, durable.

haldinn, pp. (1) in such and such a state; vel h., in good condition, well to do, doing well; þungliga h., very ill; (2) satisfied with (Hrani sagðist ekki af því h. vera); (3) heilu ok höldnu, safely, safe and sound.

haldin-orðr, a. discreet, close; -yrði, n. discreetness.

hald-kvæmast (d), v. refl. to avail, be of use to (-kvæmast e-m).

hald-kvæmd, f. convenience, comfort; -kvæmiligr, a. convenient; -kvæmr, a. convenient, useful; -samr, a. holding close; vera -samr á e-u, to keep it close; -semi, f. (1) fast holding; (2) closeness, stinginess.

hali, m. tail; leika (veifast um) lausum hala, to play with a loose tail, to be unrestrained; bera brattan halann, to cock up the tail, to be proud; draga eptir sér halann, to drag the tail, to play the coward.

halla (), v. (1) to incline or turn sideways, with dat. (h. keri, skipi); (2) to sway to the wrong side (= h. til um. e-t); h. sögu, to give an unfair report; h. nökkurum orðum til, to let fall a few words; h. eptir e-m, to be biassed in one’s favour; h. sér, to lean with one’s body; impers. to lie over, with dat. (hallaði honum svá, at sjór féll inn á annat borð); sólu hallar, the sun sinks; vetri hallar, the winter is declining; tafli hallar á e-n, the game turns against one; (3) to slope (hann skildi eigi fyrr við þá en hallaði af norðr); (4) refl., hallast, to lean with the body; to lie over (þá tók mjök at h. Ormrinn); á þá hallaðist bardaginn, the battle turned against them; h. eptir e-u, to sway towards a thing.

hallar-búnaðr, -búningr, m. hangings of a hall; -dyrr, f. pl. door of a hall; -gólf, n. floor of a hall; -veggr, m. wall of a hall.

hall-lendi, n. slope, declivity; -lendr, a. sloping; -mæla (-ta, -t), v. to speak ill of one (-mæla e-m); -mæli, n. pl. blame, reproof; -oki, a., fara, verða halloki fyrir e-m, to be overcome, defeated.

hallr, a. (1) leaning to one side, lying over, sloping (vóru jakarnir hallir mjök út af skerinu); bera hallt höfuðit, to carry the head on one side; standa höllum fœti, to stand unevenly; verðr hallt á e-n, one is worsted; (2) biassed, partial; inclined or attached to one (h. til e-s or undir e-n); h. til illsku, prone, inclined, to evil.

hallr, m. (1) slope, hill; (2) big stone (enn harði hallr).

hall-æri, n. bad season, famine.

halr (-s, -ir), m. poet. man.

haltr, a. limping, lame, halting; h. eptra fœti, lame of the hind leg.

haltra (), v. to halt, limp.

halzi, a. indecl. holding (with gen.).

hamalt, a. n., only in the phrase, fylkja h., to draw up in a wedge shaped column (= svínfylkja).

hamar-gnipa, f. peak of a crag; -klettr, m. crag, rock.

hamarr (gen. -s, dat. hamri, pl. hamrar), m. (1) hammer; hann gerði hamar yfir, he made the sign of the hammer over it; (2) back of an axe; (3) crag, precipice (þar stendr h. mikill fyrir þeim); þrítugur h., a crag thirty fathoms high.

hamar-rifa, f. rift in a crag; -skalli, m. head of a hammer; -skaft, n. shaft of a hammer; -skúti, m. jutting or overhanging crag.

hamars-mark, n. sign of the hammer; -muðr, m. the thin end of a hammer.

hamar-spor, n. a hammers print.

hamast (), v. refl. (1) to assume the shape of an animal (h. í arnarlíki); (2) to rage (like a berserk).

ham-far, n., -farir, f. pl. travelling in the shape of an animal (fara -fari, í -förum); -föng, n. pl. fury, frenzy; -hleypa, f. a human being who travels in the shape of an animal; a witch that goes in ham-farir.

hamingja, f. (1) guardian spirit; (2) luck, good fortune.

hamingju-drjúgr, a. lucky; -hjól, n. wheel of fortune; -hlutr, m. lucky chance; -lauss, a. luckless; -leysi, n. want of luck; -maðr, m. lucky man; -mikill, a. very lucky; -mót, n. lucky appearance (-mót er á þér); -raun, f. trial of fortune; -samligr, a. lucky-looking; -skipti, n. turn (vicissitude) of fortune; -skortr, m. lack of good luck; -tjón, n. bad luck.

hamla, f. oar-thong, grummet; láta síga á hömlu, to pull backwards (stern foremost); ganga e-m í hömlu (um e-t), to take one’s place, be a substitute for one (in a thing).

hamla (), v. (1) to pull backwards; (2) to stop, hinder (h. e-m); (3) to maim, mutilate (sumir vóru hamlaðir at höndum eða fótum).

hampr, m. hemp.

hamr (-s, -ir), m. (1) skin, slough; hleypa hömum, to cast the slough (of snakes); (2) shape, form; skipta hömum, to change one’s shape.

hamra-fjall, n. craggy mountain; -klif, n. cleft between two crags.

ham-ramr, a. (1) able to change one’s shape; (2) seized with warlike fury (berserks-gangr).

hamra-skarð, n. = -klif.

ham-remi, f. the state of being ham-ramr (2).

hams, m. (1) snake’s slough (ormar skriða or hamsi á vár); (2) husk.

ham-stoli, -stolinn, a. deprived of one’s wits, frantic, furious.

hana-galan, f. cock-crew.

handa (= til h.), prep. with dat. to, for (h. Oddi).

handa-band, n. shaking of hands; -festi, -festr, f. a hold for the hands.

hand-afl, n. strength of hand; lesa sik upp (to haul oneself up) með -afli.

handa-gangr, m. grasping after a thing; -gørvi, f. ‘hand-gear’, gloves; -kast, n. = -læti; -klapp, n. clapping of hands; -læti, n. pl. gestures with the arms.

handan, adv. from beyond; heðan ok h., hither and thither; fyrir h., with acc. beyond, on the other side of.

handar-bak, n. back of the hand; -gagn, n. use of the hand; leggja e-t til -gagns to lay it so as to be ready at hand; -grip, n. span; -hald, n. handle; -högg, n. a blow on one’s hand; -jaðarr, m. hand’s edge; vera undir -jaðri e-s, to be in one’s hands, in one’s power; -kriki, m. arm-pit; -mein, n. sore in the hand; -sár, n. wound in the hand; -stubbr, m. stump (of an arm); -stúfr, m. stump (of an arm); -vanr, a. handless.

handa-skömm, f. shame for one’s hands; -staðr, m. print of the hands; -verk, n. pl. one’s handwork, doings.

hand-bani, m. actual slayer, opp. to ‘ráð-bani’; -bjalla, f. hand-bell; -björg, f. ‘hand-supply’; lifa við -björg sina, to earn one’s own living; fœra e-n fram með -björg sinni, to support a person by one’s labour; -bogi, m. hand-bow, opp. to ‘lásbogi’; -byndi, n. encumbrance (e-m verðr -byndi at e-u); -bærr, a. ready at hand; -fang, n. span; -fátt, a. n. lack of hands (-fátt varð upp at bera); -festa (-sta, -str), v. to strike a bargain by shaking hands, to pledge (-festa heit sitt); biskup -festi (betrothed) jungfrú Ingiborg; -festa, f. striking a bargain by joining hands; -festr, f. striking a bargain by joining hands; -fyllr, f. handful; -ganga, f. surrender, submission; -genginn, pp. that has become a retainer to the king (gørast -genginn e-m); -góðr, a. handy, adroit; -hafl, m. having in hand (vera -hafl at e-u); -haltr, a. having a lame hand; -hæfi, n., -höfn, f. hand-instrument; -högg, n. hacking off one’s hand; -höggva (see höggva), v. to hack one’s hand off; -iðjan, f. hand-work; -klukka, f. hand-bell; -klæði, n. hand-towel; -krœkjast (t), v. to make trial of strength by pulling with bent hands; -kvern, f. quern, hand-mill.

handla (), v. = höndla.

hand-lag, n. joining hands; -lami, a. with a lame hand; -latr, a. lazy to use one’s hands; -laug, f. water for washing the hands (bera inn -laugar); -lauss, a. handless; -leggr, m. arm, fore-arm; -lektari, m. hand-lectern; -léttir, m. lending a hand; -lín, n. sleeves; -megin, n. strength of hand, working power; -meiddr, pp. with maimed hands; -numinn, pp. seized, caught; -rammr, a. strong-handed; -rið, n. hand-rail; -rif, n. ‘reefing cord’, in the phrase, svipta af -rifi, to reef a sail; -sal, n. (1) = handaband; (2) pledge, bargain; taka við -sölum á e-u, to undertake the trust or charge of a thing; eiga -sól við e-n, to make a bargain with one; bjóða -sól fyrir e-n, to offer bail for one; -sala (), v. to make over (confirm) by shaking hands.

handsala-maðr, m. bail, surety.

handsals-maðr, m. bail, surety.

hand-sax, n. short sword, dagger; leika at -söxum, to play with daggers (by throwing them in the air and catching them by the hilt); -seinn, a. slow with the hand; -selja (see selja), v. to make over; -seld sök, a suit conducted by proxy; -síðr, a. long-armed; -skot, n. throwing by hand, opp. to ‘bogaskot’; -sleggja, f. hand-sledge; -sløngva, f. hand sling; -sterkr, a. strong-handed; -stinnr, a. with brawny hands; róa -stinnan, to pull strongly; -styrkja (t), v. -styrkja sik upp, to haul oneself up; -styrkr, a. = -sterkr; -tak, n. = handaband; -taka, v. (1) to seize, lay hold of; (2) to stipulate; -tygill, m. an arm-strap; -vega (see vega), v. to weigh in the hand; -vegr, m. shoulder-seam; -víss, a. quite certain; -vætta (-tta, -ttr), v. = -vega; -vömm, f. maladroitness, blundering; -øx, f. hand-axe.

hang, n. coil (of a serpent); köttrinn beygði hangit (v. r. kenginn), the cat bent its back.

hanga (hangi; hékk, héngum; hanginn), v. (1) to hang, be suspended (hvers manns alvæpni hékk yfir rúmi hans); (2) to cling to, hang fast to; weak pret. (hangdi naðran á lifrinni); (3) to be hanged (gengr þú at h.).

hanga-guð, -týr, m. god (lord) of the hanged (viz. Odin).

hangi, m. a body hanging on a gallows (hann settist undir hanga).

hani, m. cock.

hanki, m. hasp or clasp (of a chest).

hann, pers. pron. he.

hann-yrð, -ørð, f. skill, fine work.

hanzki, m. glove.

happ, n. good luck.

happa-drjúgr, a. lucky; -mikill, a. having great luck; -ráð, n. happy counsel; -verk, n. happy deed.

happ-auðigr, a. lucky; -fróðr, a. wise in season; -samr, a. lucky; -skeytr, a. a good shot.

hapt, n. bond; see ‘haft’.

hara, v. to stare, grin (?).

harða, adv. very (= harðla).

harð-angr, m. hard times, distress; -brjóstaðr, a. hard-hearted; -býll, a. a hard householder; -drœgi, f. the being -drœgr; -drœgr, a. hard to manage; -eygr, a. hard-eyed; -fari, m. ‘fast-goer’; -farliga, adv. harshly, vehemently; -fengi, f. hardihood, valour; -fengiliga, adv. = -fengliga; -fenginn, a. = -fengr; -fengliga, adv. hardily, valiantly; -fengr, a. hardy, valiant; -fenni, n. hard snow; -fœri, f. stubbornness; -fœrr, a. hard to overcome; -görr, a. (1) hardy, stout; (2) strong built (-gört skip); -hendi, f. hard-handedness; -hendiliga, adv. with hard hand; -hendr, a. hard handed; -hugaðr, a. hard-hearted.

harðindi, n. pl. (1) hardness; (2) hardship, severity.

harð-kvæli, n. = harmkvæli.

harðla, adv. very (h. mikill, lítill).

harð-leikinn, a. playing a hard, rough game; verða e-m -leikinn, to play roughly with one; fá -leikit, to be roughly treated; -leikni, f. rough game; -leikr, m. hardness, harshness; -leitr, a. hard-looking; -lífi, n. hard life, chastisement; -liga, adv. (1) forcibly, sternly; (2) fast (riða -liga); -ligr, a. hard, severe; -lundaðr, a. hard-tempered; -lyndi, n. hard temper; -lyndr, a. = -lundaðr; -mannligr, a. hardy, manly; -menni, n. hardy man; -móðigr, a. hard of mood; -mæli, n. hard language; -mæltr, a. = -orðr.

harðna (), v. (1) to harden; (2) to become severe (of weather); to grow worse; harðnaði matlífi þeirra, they ran short of provisions.

harð-orðr, a. hard-spoken.

harðr, a. (1) hard (h. steinn, skafl); (2) hard, stern, severe (h. í skapi, í hjarta); (3) hardy; fólk hart ok illit at sœkja, hardy and difficult to assail; h. í horn at taka, hard to take by the horns, stubborn; h. bardagi, hard-fought battle; leika e-n bart, to treat one harshly; ríða hart, to ride fast.

harð-ráðr, a. (1) firm, determined (maðr vitr ok -ráðr); (2) severe, tyrannical; -reiðr, a. hard to ride on; -rétti, n. hardship; -ræði, n. (1) hardiness, hardihood, firmness; (2) hardness, harshness; -skeyti, f. hard shooting; -skeytr, a. (1) shooting hard; (2) hard, severe; -skipaðr, pp. manned with hardy men; -sleginn, pp. hard-hammered; -slœgr, a. hard to mow (-slœgr teigr); -snúinn, pp. ‘hard-twisted’, staunch, stubborn; -sóttr, pp. hard to get, difficult; -steinn, m. whetstone; -tœkr, a. hard, exacting; -úðigr, a. hard-minded; -vaxinn, pp. strong-built, brawny; -yrði, n. pl. hard words; -yrki, m. hard worker; -ýðgi, f. hardness of heart, severity.

hark, n. noise, tumult.

harka, f. hardness, hardiness.

harka (), v. (1) to scrape together (h. e-u saman); (2) e-m harkar, harkar fyrir e-m, things go ill with one; harkar um e-t, it goes badly; harkast um, to be in a bad way; (3) refl., harkast, to make a tumult.

harka-geta, f. coarse, scanty food; -lið, n. rabble; -menn, m. pl. tramps, scamps; -samliga, adv. coarsely.

harki, m. rubbish, trash.

harma (), v. to bewail; h. sik, to wail; impers., e-m or e-n harmar, it vexes one, one is vexed.

harman-liga, adv. sorrowfully; -ligr, a. sorrowful.

harm-blandinn, pp. mixed with sorrow; -brögð, n. pl. mournful deeds; -dauði, m. sorrowful death; -dauði, -dauðr, a. lamented (vera -dauði e-m); -dögg, f. sorrow-dew, tears (poet.); -fenginn, pp. affected by grief; -flaug, f. baneful shaft; -fullr, a. = harmsfullr; -kvæli, n. pl., -kvöl, f. torments.

harmr (-s, -ar), m. sorrow, grief.

harm-saga, f. tidings of grief; -samligr, a. sad, mournful.

harms-auki, m. addition to one’s grief; -fullr, a. sorrowful, distressed; -léttir, m. relief.

harm-sök, f. cause of grief, sad case; -söngr, m. dirge; -tíðindi, n. pl. = -saga; -tölur, f. pl. lamentations; -þrunginn, pp. filled with grief; -þrútinn, a. swollen with sorrow.

harneskja, f. harness, armour.

harpa, f. (1) harp (leika, slá hörpu); (2) harp-seal (era hlums vant, kvað refr, dró hörpu at ísi).

hasla (pl. höslur), f. pole of hazel wood; hasla (), v. to mark out by hazel-poles; h. e-m völl, to challenge one to a pitched battle or duel.

hastar-liga, adv. suddenly.

hast-orðr, a. harsh-spoken.

hata (), v. (1) to hate (h. e-n); (2) to damage, destroy (poet.); (3) refl., hatast við e-n, to be full of hatred against one.

hatr, n. hatred, enmity.

hatr-liga, adv. hatefully; -ligr, a. hateful; -samligr, -samr, a. hateful hostile (-samr e-m).

hatrs-fullr, a. hateful hostile.

hattr, m. hat, = höttr.

hauðr, n. poet. earth.

hauga-eldr, m. cairn fire; -öld, f. the age of cairn-burial, opp. to ‘brunaöld’, the age of burning the dead.

haug-brot, n. breaking of a cairn; -búi, m. ‘cairn-dweller’, ghost; -fœra (-ða, -ðr), v. to bury in a cairn; -ganga, f. the breaking into a cairn.

haugr (-s, -ar), m. (1) mound; (2) sepulchral mound, cairn.

haug-setja (see setja), v. = haug-fœra.

haugs-gólf, n. floor of a cairn; -gørð, f. cairn-making.

haug-staðr, m. heathen burial-place; -tekinn, pp. taken from a cairn.

haugs-öld, f. = hauga-öld.

hauka-veiðr, f. hunting with hawks.

hauk-ligr, a. hawk-like (of the eyes).

haukr (-s, -ar), m. hawk; fleygja hauki, to fly a hawk.

haukstaldr, m., poet. man, hero.

hauld-, hauldr, see höld-, höldr.

haull, m. rupture, hernia.

hausa-kljúfr, m. skull-cleaver (nickname); -mót, n. pl. sutures of the skull.

haus-brot, n. skull-fracture; -fastr, a. seated in the skull; -filla, f. the skin of the skull.

hauss (pl. hausar), m. skull.

haust, n. harvest season, autumn.

hausta (), v. to draw near autumn.

haust-blót, n. sacrificial feast in autumn; -boð, n. autumn feast; -dagr, m. day in autumn; at or í -degi, in autumn; -gríma, f. autumn night; -heimtur, f. pl. getting in sheep in autumn; -langr, a. lasting all the autumn; -mánaðr, m. autumn month, September; -víking, f. free-booting expedition in autumn; -þing, n. autumn assembly; -öl, n. autumn (drinking) festival.

, interj. eh! what do you say?

, f. after-grass, after-math.

, f. hide (hangir með hám).

há-altari, m. high altar; -beinn, a. high-legged, long-legged; -bjarg, n. high rock; -bogaðr, a. high-curved (of a saddle).

há-bora (), v. to fit with rowlocks.

há-borur, f. pl. rowlocks.

há-brók, f. a kind of hawk; -brókast (), v. refl. to puff oneself up.

háð, n. scoffing, mocking.

há-degi, n. midday, noon.

hádegis-skeið, n. noon-tide.

háð-samr, a. scoffing; -semi, f. mockery (með hrópyrðum ok h.).

háðugr, a. shameful, disgraceful.

háðu-ligr, a. (1) scornful, abusive (-lig orð); (2) disgraceful (-ligt verk).

háðung, f. shame, disgrace.

háðungar-orð, n. pl. scornful words.

háð-yrði, n. pl. = hæði-yrði.

há-fjall, n. high mountain; -fleygr, a. high-flying; -flœðr, f. full flood, high flood-tide; -fœttr, a. high-legged; -leikr, m. highness; -leitligr, a. sublime; -leitr, a. looking upwards; fig. lofty, sublime.

hála, f. giantess; hálu skær, wolf (poet.).

hálfa, f. (1) region, part (veröldin var greind í þrjár hálfuir); (2) lineage, kin (frjálsborinn í allar hálfur); (3) af e-s hálfu, on one’s behalf; on one’s part; af guðs hálfu ok lands-laga, on behalf of God and the law of the land.

hálf-bergrisi, m. half a giant; -dauðr, a. half dead; -ermaðr, pp. half-sleeved; -fífl, n. half an idiot; -fullr, a. half full; -görr, a. only half, done, left half undone; -kirkja, f. annex-church, chapel of ease; -launat, pp. n. half rewarded; -litr, a. of two colours, with a different colour on each side; -ljóst, a. n., þá er -ljóst var, in the twilight; -mörk, f. half a mark; -nauðigr, a. half reluctant; -nið, n. half a lampoon.

hálf-neytr, a. ‘half-good’; þótti Birni eigi verr en -neytt, þó at, B. was out half-loath, though.

hálfr, a. (1) half; h. mánaðr, half a month, fortnight; til hálfs by a half; h. annar, þriði, fjórði, &c., one, two, three and a half; hálft annat hundrað, one hundred and a half; h. þriði tøgr manna, twenty-five men; (2) neut. ‘hálfu’, by half, with a comparative in an intensive sense, much, far; hálfu verri, far worse; hálfu meira, far more; hálfu siðr, far less.

hálf-risi, m. half a giant; -róinn, pp. having rowed half the way; -rými, n. half a ‘rúm’ in a ship.

hálfrýmis-félagar, m. pl. messmates in the same hálfrými; -kista, f. a chest belonging to a hálfrými.

hálf-røkvit, a. n. half twilight; -skiptr, pp. = -litr; -troll, n. half a giant; -tunna, f. half a tun; -unninn, pp. half done; -virði, n. half worth; -þrítugr, a. aged twenty-five; -þynna, f. a kind of small axe; -œrinn, a. half sufficient; -œrr, a. half mad (hann var hálf-œrr af drykkju).

háll, a. slippery (var hált á ísinum).

hál-leikr, m. slipperiness.

hálmr (gen. -s), m. straw, haulm (þeir lögðust þar niðr í hálm).

hálm-strá, n. haulm-straw; -visk, n. wisp of straw; -þúst, n. flail.

háls (gen. háls, pl. hálsar), m. (1) neck; taka höndum um h. e-m, to embrace one; beygja h. fyrir e-m, to bend the neck to one; liggja e-m á hálsi fyrir e-t, to reprove, blame one for; standa á hálsi e-m to put the foot on one’s neck; (2) bow of a ship or boat (Hýmir reri í hálsinum fram); (3) the front-sheet (tack) of a sail; (4) the end of a rope; (5) the tip of a bow (hann dregr svá bogann, at saman þótti bera hálsana); (6) ridge, hill; (7) pl., góðir hálsar, good men! fine fellows!

hálsa (), v. (1) to embrace; (2) h. segl, to clew up the sail.

háls-bein, n. neck-bone; -beina, n. neck-bone; -björg, f. gorget; -bók, f. a book to be hung from the neck; -brotna (), v. to break one’s neck; -brún, f. edge of a hill; -digr, a. thick-necked; -fang, n. embrace; -gjörð, f. necklace; -högg, n. stroke on the neck; -höggva (see höggva), v. to behead; -járn, n. neck-iron, iron collar; -langr, a. long-necked; -liðr, m. neck-joint; -ljósta (see ljósta), v. to strike one on the neck; -men, n. necklace; -sár, n. neck wound; -slag, n. = háls-högg; -stefni, n. (1) throat; (2) part of a ship.

há-læti, n. shouting, noise; -messa, f. high-mass; -mælgi, f. loud talking.

há-mót, n. ankle-joint; only in the phrase, fara í há-mót (or -mótit) eptir e-m, to follow one closely, sneak along behind one.

há-mæli, n., fœra (bera) e-t í -mæli, to speak loud of; -mæltr, pp. loud-voiced; -nefjaðr, a. high-nosed; -pallr, m. dais (in a hall).

hár (, hátt), a. (1) high; á háfum fjöllum, in high mountains; hæri en, higher than; (2) tall (h. maðr vexti); (3) superl. at the highest pitch; meðan hæst væri vetrar, sumars, in the depth of winter, in the height of summer; (4) high, glorious; hæstu hátíðir, the highest feasts; (5) loud (h. brestr); mæla hátt, to speak loud; hón verðr há við, she becomes clamorous or excited.

hár (gen. hás, pl. háir), m. thole.

hár, n. hair (jarpr á h.).

hár, m. dog-fish.

hár-amr (= hár-hamr), m. the hairy side of a skin; -bjartr, a. fair-haired.

há-reiðar, f. pl. rowlocks.

há-reysti, n. and f. noise, clamour; -reystr, a. noisy, loud-voiced.

hár-fagr, a. fair-haired; -ferð, f. fashion of the hair; -hvass, a. hair-edged; -klæði, n. hair cloth; -knifr, m. razor; -laug, f. washing the hair; -leppr, m. lock of hair.

hárr, a. hoary, grey-haired.

hár-rœtr, f. pl. roots of the hair; -skurðr, m. cut of the hair.

hárs-litr, m. color of the hair.

hár-taug, f. string of horse-hair; -vara, f. fur; -vöxtr, m. hair-growth.

há-segl, n. top-sail.

há-seti, m. oarsman, opp. to ‘stýrimaðr’ (helmsman).

há-seymdr, pp. studded with large nails (beizl háseymt).

há-sin, f. Achilles’ tendon.

háska-ferð, -för, f. dangerous journey (exploit); -lauss, a. free from danger; -ligr, a. dangerous; -samliga, adv. dangerously; -samligr, a. perilous; -samr, a. perilous; -tími, m. time of danger; -vað, n. dangerous ford; -ván, f. danger to come.

há-skeptr, a. long-handled, long-shafted (háskept øx, spjót).

háski, m. danger, peril.

hás-mæltr, a. hoarse-speaking.

háss, a. hoarse.

há-staðr, m. high (important) place; -stafir, m. pl., in the phrase, gráta (œpa) -stöfum, to weep (shout) loudly; -steint, a. n. full of high boulders (var hásteint í ánni).

há-stokkr, m. gunwale.

há-stóll, m. high-seat; -sumar, n. midsummer; -sæti, n. high-seat, seat of honour (= öndvegi).

hásætis-borð, n. high-seat table; -kista, f. a chest near the high-seat; -maðr, m. the man in the high-seat.

há-talaðr, a. loud-voiced; -timbra (), v. to build high; -tíð, f. festival, feast (halda hátíð).

hátíðar-aptann, m. eve of a feast; -dagr, m. festal day, holiday; -hald, n. holding a feast.

hátíðis-dagr, m. = hátíðardagr.

hátíð-liga, adv. with festivity; -ligr, a. festive, festal.

hátta (), v. (1) to arrange, dispose, with dat.; h. sér, to conduct oneself; impers., háttar svá, at hann kom, he happened to come; (2) to go to bed.

hátta-brigði, n. change of manners.

háttaðr, pp. fashioned, conditioned (hvernig var jörðin háttuð?); e-u er svá háttat, it is so made or conditioned of that nature or kind; yðr frændum er svá háttat, you kinsmen are of that stamp.

hátta-góðr, a. well-mannered, well. behaved; -lykill, m. key to metres; -skipti, n. (1) change of manners; (2) shifting of metre; -tal, n. enumeration of metres.

hátt-prúðr, a. well-mannered, polite; -prýði, f. good manners.

háttr (gen. háttar, dat. hætti; pl. hættir, acc. háttu), m. (1) mode of life, habit, custom (rikra manna háttr); halda teknum hætti, to go on in one’s usual way; (2) pl. conduct, behaviour (vanda um háttu manna); fara vel með sínum háttum, to conduct oneself well; ráða sjálfr sínum háttum; one’s own master; halda háttum við aðra menn, to conduct oneself properly; (3) mode, way of doing a thing; kunna hátt á e-u, to know how to do a thing; (4) mikils háttar, of importance; lítils háttar, insignificant; þess háttar, of that kind; alls háttar, of every kind; á allan hátt, in every respect; (5) moderation, measure; eptir hætti, duly, properly; (6) metre.

hátt-samr, a. well-mannered.

háttung, f. danger, risk.

há-tún, n. high place.

hávaða-maðr, m. a noisy, self-assertive man; -mikill, a. boastful, self-assertive; -samr, a. boisterous.

há-vaði, m. (1) noise, tumult; kveða e-t upp, segja e-t, í -vaða, to proclaim loudly; (2) loud self-assertion; (3) = hávaða-maðr.

há-vetr, m., -vetri, n. midwinter (þegar hávetri var liðit).

heðan, adv. (1) hence, from this place; (2) fyrir h. hafit, on the hither side of the sea; (3) henceforth; h. í frá, hereafter.

heðinn (dat. heðni), m. jacket of fur or skin; vefja (or veifa) heðni at höfði e-m, to wrap a skin round one’s head, to hoodwink one.

heðra, adv. here, hither.

hefð, f. prescriptive right (með réttri ok löglegri hefð).

hefða (), v. to acquire a prescriptive right to (h. sér e-t).

hefðar-maðr, m. possessor, holder.

hefill (pl. heflar), m. a noose fastened to the edge of a sail to help in furling it; láta siga (or hleypa segli) ór heflum, to unfurl the sail.

hefil-skapt, n. a boat-hook to pull the sail down.

hefja (hef; hóf, hófum; hafiðr and hafinn), v. (1) to heave, raise, lift (h. stein); hann hóf upp augu sin, he lifted up his eyes; h. sik á lopt, to make a leap; h. handa, to lift the hands (for defense); h. höfuðs, to lift the head, be undaunted; h. graut, to lift the porridge, eat it with a spoon; (2) to exalt, raise in rank; h. e-n til ríkis, to raise one to the throne; (3) to begin; h. mál sitt, to begin one’s speech; h. ferð, to set out on a journey, to start; h. flokk, to raise a party; h. ákall, to raise a claim; impers., hefr e-t = hefr upp e-t, it begins (hér hefr Kristnisögu); refl., hefjast, to begin, originate (hvaðan af hefir hafizt skáldrskarpr?); (4) impers. to be carried, drifted (by storm or tide); höf skipin öll saman (all the ships were drifted) inn at landinu; þeir létu h. skipin ofan forstreymis, they let the ships drift down the stream; (5) with preps., h. e-t af e-u, to take it off; impers., en er af henni hóf öngvit (acc.), when she recovered from her swoon; þá hóf af mér vámur allar, all ailments left me; refl., hefjast af höndum e-m, to leave one; h. á rás, to take to one’s feet (= hafa á rás); refl., láta hefjast fyrir, to retreat, withdraw; h. munn sinn í sundr, to open one’s mouth; impers., Birkibeina (acc.) hefr undan, the B. drew back; h. e-t upp, to lift up (hann hóf orminn upp á hendi sér); impers., hóf honum upp brýn (acc.), his face brightened; h. e-t upp, to begin (= hefja 3); Egill hóf upp kvæðit, E. began his poem; impers., hér hefr upp Konunga-bók, here begins the K.; refl., hefjast upp, to begin (hér hefjast upp landnám); hefjast upp til ófriðar (með ófriði), to begin warfare; láta hefjast við, to lay to (naut.).

hefla (), v. to furl the sail.

hefna (-da, -dr), v. to avenge, take vengeance, with the thing and the person in gen., h. sára, to avenge the wounds, h. bróður síns, to avenge one’s brother, h. sín, to avenge oneself; with dat. of the person, h. e-m, to take vengeance on (skulu við h. honum); with the thing in gen. and the person in dat.; áttu honum at h. frændaláts, thou hast to avenge on him the death of a kinsman; impers., e-m hefnir e-t, one pays (suffers) for a thing (svá hefndi honum þat mikla mikillæti); with preps., h. e-m fyrir e-t, h. e-s a e-m, to avenge a thing on one; refl., hefnast, to avenge oneself (= hefna sín); h. e-s, to avenge a thing; h. á e-m, to avenge oneself on a person; e-m hefnist e-t, one has to pay (suffer) for; hefnast mun honum vist, the day of retribution will assuredly come to him.

hefnd, f. revenge, vengeance.

hefnda-laust, adv. without retribution or revenge.

hefndar-dagr, m. day of vengeance; -maðr, m. avenger.

hefni-leið, f. ‘way to vengeance’; róa á -leið, to set about taking vengeance; -leit, f. seeking for vengeance; róa á -leit e-s, to seek vengeance for; -samr, a. revengeful.

hegat, adv. = hingat, higat.

hegða (), v. to arrange (h. e-u).

hegðan, f. conduct, behaviour.

hégeitill, m. flint.

heggr (pl. -ir), m. bird cherry.

hegla (-di, -t), v. to hail.

hegna (-da, -dr), v. (1) to hedge, protect; (2) to punish, chastise (hegna ránsmenn, úsiðu).

hegnari, m. chastiser.

hegnd, f. punishment, chastisement.

hegning, f. punishment, chastisement.

hé-góma (), v. to speak falsely; -góma á e-n, to slander one.

hégóma-dýrð, f. vain-glory; -fullr, a. vain, vain-glorious; -maðr, m. charlatan, quack; -mál, n. vain speech; gøra orð e-s at -máli, to disregard one’s words; -nafn, n. empty name, sham name.

hé-gómi, m. falsehood, jolly nonsense; segja -góm á e-n, to slander one.

hágóm-ligr, a. vain, false.

hegri, m. heron.

heið, n. bright (clear) sky (veðr var bjart ok skein sól í heiði).

heiðar-brúin, f. edge of a heath.

heiðar-lauss, a. ignominious dishonourable; -liga, adv. honourably; -ligr, a. honourable.

heiðar-vegr, m. road across a heath.

heið-bjartr, a. serene (veðr -bjart).

heið-fé, n. fee, stipend.

heiðin-dómr, m. heathendom.

heiðingi (pl. -jar), m. (1) heathen, gentile; (2) wolf (poet.).

heiðingligr, a. heathen.

heiðinn, a. heathen, pagan; heiðnir menn, heathens.

heið-maðr, m. = málamaðr.

heiðnast (), v. to become heathen.

heiðni, f. (1) heathenism; (2) heathen. country (= heiðit land); (3) the heathen age, the time of heathendom.

heiðr, a. bright, clear, cloudless; h. himinn, clear sky; heiðar stjörnur, bright stars.

heiðr (gen. heiðar, dat. and acc. heiðir; pl. heiðar), f. heath, moor.

heiðr (gen. heiðrs), m. honour.

heiðr (gen. -ar), m. honour, worth.

heiðra (), v. to honour.

heið-ríkr, a. cloudless, serene.

heiðrs-maðr, m. man of honour.

heið-skírr, a. bright, cloudless (-skírt veðr); -vanr, a. accustomed to the clear sky; -viðri, n. bright weather.

heið-virðr, a. honest, honourable.

heila-bust, f. crown of the head.

heilag-leikr, m. holiness; -liga, adv. holy; -ligr, a. holy.

heilagr (acc. helgan (heilagan), pl. helgir (heilagir), &c.), a. (1) holy; (2) inviolable, sacred.

heilan, f. healing.

heil-brigði, f. health; -brigðr, a. hale, healthy.

heilendi, n. good health.

heilindi, n. good health.

heil-eygr, a. ‘hale-eyed’, having sound eyes; -fœttr, a. ‘hale-legged’; -hugaðliga, adv. sincerely, = af heilum huga; -hugaðr, a. ‘whole-minded’, sincere.

heilhuga-friðr, m. sincere peace; -ráð, n. sincere purpose.

heil-hugi, m. sincere person; -hugliga, adv. sincerely.

heili, m. brain, = hjarni.

heili-vátgr, m. healing liquor, balm.

heill, a. (1) hale, sound; illa h., in ill health; hann sagði at þar var vel heilt, he said they were all well there; kona eigi heil, enceinte; grœða e-n at heilu, to heal one fully; (2) whole, healed, in respect of wounds or illness, with gen. (verða h. sára sinna); er um heilt bezt at binda, it is better to bind a hale than a hurt limb; (3) blessed, happy; njótið heilir handa, ‘bless your hands’, well done; kom heill! welcome, hail! far h., farewell! (4) whole, entire; h. hleifr, a whole loaf; sjau hundruð heil, full seven hundred; (5) true, upright; ráða e-m heilt, to give one a wholesome (good) advice; af heilum hug, af heilu, sincerely; heilt ráð, wholesome advice; heil kenning, a useful, profitable lesson.

heill, n. and f. luck, omen, foreboding; góðu (illu) heilli, in a good (evil) hour; mörg eru giptusamlig heill, there are many good auspices; fall er farar h., a fall is a good omen; hann bað þeim h. duga, he wished them good speed; heillum horfinn, forsaken by luck; ok var brugðit heillum sverðsins, the spell of the sword was broken.

heilla (), v. to enchant, spell-bind, bewitch; heilluð ertu (thou art infatuated), ef þú ætlar, etc.

heilla-brigð, n. pl. turn of luck; -drjúkgr, a. fortunate, happy; -leysi, n. ill-luck; -maðr, m. lucky man; -ráð, n. good advice, wholesome counsel; -vænligr, a. hopeful, promising; -vænn, a. boding good luck, promising well.

heil-leikr, m. (1) health; (2) sincerity, uprightness; -liga, adv. fairly, candidly; -ligr, a. fair; -næmligr, a. wholesome; -ráðr, a. giving wholesome counsel; taking wholesome counsel; -ræði, n. wise (wholesome) counsel.

heilsa (), v. to say hail to one, greet one (= biðja e-n heilan vera), with dat.; h. á e-n = h. e-m.

heilsa, f. (1) health; (2) restoration to health (hann var feginn heilsu sinni); (3) salvation.

heil-samligr, a., -samr, a. wholesome, salutary.

heilsan, f. salutation, greeting.

heil-smíðliga, adv. uprightly, fairly, properly.

heilsu-bót, f. improvement of health, recovery; -bragð, n. cure; -drykkr, m. healing draught; -far, n. state of health; -gjöf, f. cure, restoration to health; -lauss, a. in bad health; -litíll, a. in weak health; -ráð, n. means to recover one’s health; -samligr, a., -samr, a. wholesome, salutary; -tapan, f. perdition.

heil-und, f. brain wound.

heilundar-sár, n. = heilund.

heil-vita, a. indecl. ‘hale-witted’, of sound mind, sane.

heim, adv. home, homewards; sœkja e-n h., to visit one; to attack one.

heima, n. home (ganga til sins h.); at h. mínu, at my house; eiga h., to have one’s home, to live (Hallfreðr átti h. at Haukagili).

heima, adv. at home, at, or in, one’s own house (halr er heima hverr); sitja h., to remain at home.

heima-ból, n. homestead, manor; -bóndi, m. franklin or yeoman in a -ból; -brunnr, m. home-well; -dyrr, f. pl. entrance to a dwelling-house; -elskr, a. fond of staying at home; -fólk, n. home folk, household; -griðungr, m. a bull kept at home; -hús, n. dwelling-houses; -kona, f. house-maid; -land, n. home estate; -líð, n. = -fólk; -maðr, m. one of the household, a servant (= griðmaðr).

heiman, adv. from home; in some phrases the reference is to the marriage and dowry of women.

heiman-búnaðr, m. preparation for a journey from home; -ferð, f. journey (voyage) from home; -fylgja, f. the dowry which the bride takes with her from home; -för, f. = heiman-ferð; -förull, a. strolling from home; -gengt, a. n., in the phrase, eiga lítt -gengt, to have no time or opportunity to leave home.

heima-prestr, m. resident priest, parson; -seta, f. sitting at home; -sveit, f. = -fólk; -taða, f. the hay from the home-field; -vist, f. staying at home.

heim-boð, n. invitation, feast; -dragi, m. a stay-at-home; hleypa -draganum, to see the world.

heimfarar-lefi, n. = heimleyfi.

heim-ferð, f. (1) going home, return home; (2) inroad into one’s home, atför, heimsókn.

heimferðar-leyfi, n. = heimleyfi.

heim-fúss, a. longing for home; -för, f. = heim-ferð; -ganga, f. going home; -gás, f. tame goose; -hamr, m. one’s own skin.

heimila (), v. to give a title or right to a thing (heimilaði jarl þeim þat er þurfti at hafa).

heimild, f. title, right.

heimildar-maðr, m. a man from whom a title is derived; -tak, n. taking proper possession or title (-tak á skóginum).

heimilda-vandr, a. fastidious in regard to title.

heimili, n. house, home, homestead (eiga h. e-s staðar).

heimilis-fang, n. domicile; -fastr, a. having a fixed homestead; -hús, n. (1) closet; (2) privy; -kviðr, m. home-verdict; -prestr, m. chaplain; -sök, f. a charge that can be brought home to one; -vist, f. permanent habitation; vera -vistum með e-m, to reside with one.

heimill, a., e-m er e-t heimilt, one has a right to, is free to have a thing; heimill er maðr þeim, er hafa þurfu, the food is free to those who need it; kvað honum heimilan sinn styrk, his help should be at his disposal; segir, at þat var skylt ok heimilt, due and just; eiga heimilt (at gera e-t), eiga e-t heimilt, to have a right (to do a thing), to have at one’s disposal; láta e-m e-t heimilt, to give one a right to, to place at one’s disposal (lét Þ. honum heimilan hest sinn).

heimis-garðr, m. homestead; -haugr, m. ‘homestead-cairn’; -kviðr, m. = heimiliskviðr.

heim-kváma, f. return home; -kynni, n. home, household; -leiðis, adv. homewards (fara -leiðis); -leyfi, n. leave to go home; -ligr, a. worldly.

heimoll, a. = heimill.

heimol-leikr, m. intimacy; -liga, adv. (1) with full right to possession; (2) privately (fá e-m e-t -liga); -ligr, adv. (1) intimate; (2) private (heimolligr klerkr).

heimr (-s, -ar), m. (1) a place of abode, a region or world (níu man ek heima); spyrja e-n í hvern heim, to ask one freely; (2) this world (segðu mér ór heimi, ek man ór helju); koma í heiminn, to be born; fara af heiminum, to depart this life; liggja milli heims ok heljar, to lie between life and death; (3) the earth; kringla heimsins, the globe.

heim-reið, f. (1) ride home; (2) inroad, attack.

heims-aldr, m. age of the world; -álfa, f. quarter (part) of the world; -brestr, m. crash of the world; -bygð, f. the peopled world.

heimska, f. folly, nonsense.

heimsk-liga, adv. foolishly; láta -liga, to play the fool; -ligr, a. foolish, silly (heimsklig orð).

heimskr, a. foolish, silly; verðr opt heitum h. maðr feginn, fair words often make a fool s heart rejoice.

heimsku-verk, n. foolish deed.

heims-liga, adv. = heimskliga.

heim-sókn, f. (1) visit; (2) inroad, attack on one’s home (veita e-m -sókn).

heims-slit, n. pl. the end of the world; -sól, f. the sun; undir heims-sólu, on earth.

heim-stöð, f. homestead.

heims-vist, f. living, dwelling; -þriðjungr, m. = -álfa.

heim-sœkja (see sœkja), v. to visit.

heimta (-mta, -mtr), v. (1) to draw, pull; h. upp akkeri, to weigh anchor; fig., h. sik fram með fégjöfum, to make one’s way by giving presents; h. sik í vináttu við e-n, to get on friendly terms with one; h. nyt af fé, to milk cattle; (2) to get back, recover, regain (þóttust þeir hafa hann ór helju heimtan); esp., to get home the sheep from the summer pastures; (3) to claim (h. e-t at e-m); h. arf, skuld, toll, to claim an inheritance, debt, toll; h. vilmæli, to claim the fulfilment of a promise; h. e-n á tal við sik, to ask for an interview with one; (4) impers., e-n heimtir, one longs (slíks var ván, at þik mundi þangat h.); (5) refl., heimtast fram at aldri, to advance in years; h. saman, to gather together, join (heimtust brátt skip hans saman).

heimta, f. (1) claim, demand (of payment due to one); (2) esp. in pl. (heimtur) bringing home sheep from the summer pastures (verða h. góðar).

heimting, f. claim, demand.

heimull, a. = heimoll, heimill.

heim-ván, f. (1) prospect of coming home; (2) prospect of salvation.

hein, f. hone, whetstone.

heinar-smjör, -sufl, n. the grease or liquor which mowers put on the whetstone.

hein-berg, n. hone-quarry; -brýni, n. hone, whetstone.

heipt, f. (1) feud, deadly war; vinna e-m h., to wage war against one; deila heiptir, to wage deadly feud; (2) deadly hatred, spite (meirr af h. en ást); h. ok harðindi, ill-will and tyranny; hafa h. á e-m, to hate.

heiptar-blóð, n. bloodshed; -fenginn, a. breathing hatred against one; -hugr, m. wrath, hatred (hafa -hug á e-m); -mál, n., -orð, n. pl. words breathing hatred.

heipt-fenginn, a. = heiptarfenginn; -gjarn, a. spiteful; -móðr, a. wrathful; -mögr, m. foeman, adversary; -rækr, a. vindictive, revengeful; -úð, f. deadly hatred, revengefulness; -yrði, n. pl. words of hatred.

heit, n. (1) solemn promise, vow; efla (stofna, festa) heit, to make a vow; strengja e-s h., to make a solemn vow; (2) pl. threats (hann stóð undir heitum ok illyrðum).

heita (heit; hét, hétum; heitinn), v. (1) to call give a name to; Grímni mik hétu, they called me G.; heitinn eptir e-m, called (named) after one; (2) to call on one; h. e-n á brott, to call on one to be gone, bid one go (heitit mik héðan); h. á e-n, to exhort one (in battle); to invoke (h. á hinn heilaga Ólaf); h. á e-n til e-s, to invoke (appeal to) one for a thing (hann hét á Þór til fulltings); (3) intrans., the pres. ‘heiti’ (not ‘heit’), to be hight, be called; Óðinn ek, nú heiti, now I am called Odin; Ólafr heiti ek, my name is O.; Úlfr hét maðr, there was a man, whose name was U.; bœr heitir á Bakka (at búrfelli), there is a farm called B.; h. (to be reckoned) frjáls maðr, hvers manns níðingr; (4) with dat. to promise (h. e-m e-u); mantu, hverju þú hézt mér, do you remember what you promised me? h. e-m hörðu, to threaten one; Bárði var heitit meyjunni, the maid was promised to B.; (5) refl., heitast, to vow, plight one’s faith (þeir hétust reka Hákon ór landi); h. e-m, to vow one’s person to one (h. hinum heilaga Ólafi konungi); to be betrothed to one.

heita (heitta, heittr), v. (1) to heat (h. spjót í eldi); (2) to brew (h. mungát, h. öl).

heita, f. brewing (cf. ölheita).

heitan, f. threatening.

heitanar-orð, n. pl. menaces.

heitast (), v. refl. to make threats, to speak threateningly (aldrei heitaðist hann við úvini sina); h. til e-s, to use threats to obtain a thing; h. at gera e-t, to threaten to do a thing.

heit-bundinn, pp. bound by a vow (í e-u við e-n); -fastr, a. true to one’s word; -fengi, f. the being -fengr; -fengr, a. able to eat one’s food burning hot; -fé, n. votive money; -guð, m. a god to whoin one inakrs a vow.

heiti, n. name, denomination.

heitingar, f. pl. threats, imprecations (h. ok hrakning).

heit-kona, f. one’s promised spouse; -orð, n. promise (of marriage).

heitr, a. (1) hot, burning; eldi heitari, hotter than fire; e-m verðr heitt, one gets warm; (2) hot, ardent, zealous (verða h. við e-t).

heit-ramr, a. boasting, braggart.

heit-rof, n. breach of faith; -rofi, m. promise-breaker.

heitsi, a., verða e-s h., to engage, oneself to a thing.

heit-strenging, f. making a solemn vow; -strengja (-da, -dr), v. to vow solemnly (= strengja e-s heit); -söngr, m. votive song.

heitu-hús, n. brew-house; -ketill, m. boiler; -maðr, m. brewer.

hekla, f. cowled or hooded frock.

hel (gen. heljar, dat. helju), f. (1) Hel (the goddess of death); blár sem h., black as Hel; (2) abode of the dead (gráta Baldr ór helju); leysa höfuð sitt ór helju, to save oneself from death; rasa í helina opna, to rush into open death; liggja á heljar þremi, to be on the verge of death; (3) death (þykkir ekki betra líf en hel); berja e-n grjóti í hel, to stone one to death.

héla, f. hoar frost, rime.

héla (héldi, héldr), v. to cover with rime; to fall as rime.

hel-blár, a. black as death.

heldr, adv. compar. (1) more, rather; h. en, rather than, more than (vápn þeirra bitu eigi h. en vendir); (2) at h., any the more; also, all the more (at h. tveimr, at ek mynda gjarna veita yðr öllum); at heldr þótt, even although; (3) rather (nú vartu h. til skjótr, en ek h. til seinn); var brúðrin döpur h., the bride was rather sad; (4) after a negative, but, on the contrary.

heldri, a. compar. better; helztr, a. superl. best; í heldra lagi, in a high degree; þykkir mönnum sá helztr kostr, the best choice.

hel-fúss, a. murderous (-fúss hönd); -för, f. death.

helga (), v. (1) h. sér land to appropriate land by performing sacred rites; (2) to hallow to one (hét hann at helga Þór allt landnám sitt); (3) h. þing, to proclaim the sanctity of a meeting; h. e-n, to proclaim a person inviolable; (4) refl., helgast to he sanctifled.

hel-galdr, m. death-dirge.

helgan, f. (1) sanctification, sanctity; (2) sacrament.

helgar-fríðr, m. holiday-truce.

helgi, f. (1) holiness, sanctity (h. Ólafs konungs); (2) inviolability, security.

helgi-brigði, n. Sabbath-breaking; -hald, n. holiday-keeping; -staðr, m. holy place.

helgr (gen. helgar, dat. and acc. helgt; pl. helgar), f. holiday, festival; hringja til helgar, to ring for a festival.

hel-gráðr, m. voracity betokening death; -grindr, f. pl. Hel’s gate.

heljar-karl, m. (1) accursed fellow; (2) one doomed to die; -maðr, m. (1) accursed fellow; (2) one doomed to die; -skinn, n. a dark-skinned person.

heljast, v. refl. to work hard (hann heljast á skálasmíð).

hella, f. flat stone, slab of rock.

hella (-ta, -t), v. to pour out (h. e-u); var hellt í þik mjólk, milk was poured into thy mouth; h. út blóði, tárum, to shed blood, tears.

hellir (gen. hellis, dat. and acc. helli; pl. hellar), m. cave, cavern.

hellis-berg, n. cavernous rock; -dyrr, f. pl. door (entrance) of a cave; -maðr, m. cave-dweller, outlaw; -munni, m. mouth of a cave; -skúti, m. jutting cave.

hellna-grjót, n. flat stones, slabs.

hellu-steinn, m. flat stone, slab.

helma, f. haulm, straw.

helming, f. = helmingr.

helminga (), v. to halve.

helminga-skipti, n. division in two equal portions.

helmingr (-s, -ar), m. half; at helmingi, by half; skipta í helminga, to share in two equal portions.

helmings-félag, n. joint company (with equal shares).

helsi, n. collar, esp. for a dog.

hel-skór, m. pl. shoes for the dead; -stafir, m. pl. baneful characters; -strið, n. agony.

heltast (t), v. refl. to become lame.

helti, f. lameness.

hélu-fall, n. fall of rime; -kaldr, a. rime-cold; -þoka, f. rime-fog, mist.

hel-vegr, m. the way to Hel; -víti, n. hell, the abode of the damned.

helvítis-kvalir, f. pl. torments of hell; -maðr, m. a man doomed to hell.

helvízkr, a. hellish, infernal.

helzt, adv. superl. (cf. ‘heldr’), most of all, especially (hefi ek þat helzt í hug mér).

helzti, adv. far too (= helzt til); h. lengi, far too long.

helztr, a. superl., see ‘heldri’.

hemingr, m. the skin of the shanks.

henda (henda, hendr), v. (1) to catch with the hand (hann kastaði heininni í lopt upp, en allir vildu h.); to pick out or up (hann safnar mönnum til at h. svínin); h. e-t augum, to catch with the eyes; h. til smátt ok stórt, to pick up small and great alike, look closely after; h. gaman (skemtan) at e-u, to take a delight in (hann hendi skemtan at sögum ok kvæðum); h. sakir á e-m, to pick up charges against one; (2) to touch, concern one (tíðendi þau, er bæði okkr henda); (3) to befall, happen to one; þá hafði hent glœpska mikil, they had committed a great folly; hann kvað þat dugandi menn h. (it happened to brave men) at falla í bardögum.

hendi-langr, a. helpful, ready to help (vera e-m -langr um e-t).

hending (pl. -ar), f. (1) catching; var í hendingum með þeim, they were near coming to close quarters; (2) rhyme or assonance; rhyming or assonating syllable.

hendingar-orð, n. rhyming syllable.

hendi-samr, a. picking, thievish.

hengi-skafl, m. jutting heap of snow.

hengja (-da, -dr), v. to hang up, suspend; to hang on a gallows; h. sik, to hang oneself.

henta (-nti, -nt, or ), v. to fit, be suitable for (sárum mönnum hentir betr mjólk en mungát); eigi hentir svá, it will not do that way.

henti-ligr, a. befitting, = hentr.

hent-leikr, m. opportunity.

hentr, a. fit, suited for one; er slíkum mönnum bezt hent þar, there is the right place for such men.

hentug-leikr, m. = hentleikr.

hentugr, a. befitting, convenient.

heppi-fengr, a. making a good catch.

heppinn, a. lucky, fortunate.

hepta (-pta, -ptr), v. (1) to bind, fetter; h. hross, hest, to hobble a horse; (2) to impede, hinder (illt er flýjanda at h.); h. sik, to restrain oneself, forbear; refl. to be thwarted (heptist ferð þeirra).

hepti, n. haft (of a dirk).

hepting, f. tether; impediment.

hepti-sax, n. a kind of digger.

hér, adv. (1) here; á landi h., in this country; h. ok hvar, here and there; (2) here, hither (margir þeir er h. koma); (3) with preps., h. af, here from, from this; h. eptir, hereafter, according to this; h. fyrir, for this, therefore; h. til, hereto; h. um, in this, as regards this.

herað, n. (1) district; (2) country, opp. to ‘bœr’ (town).

heraðs-bóndi, m. franklin; -bót, f. bettering the affairs of a district; -brestr, m. a crash that can be heard all over the district; -bygð, f. a district and its people; -deild, f. district quarrel; -fteygr, a. quickly known over a district; -flótti, m. flight or exile from a district; -fundr, m. district meeting; -íseta, f. = heraðs-vist; -kirkja, f. parish church; -konungr, n. kinglet; -ríkr, a. of influence in one’s district; -sekr, a. outlawed within a district; -sekt, f. outlawry within a district; -stjórn, f. district government; -vist, f. abiding within a certain district; -vært, a. n., eiga -vært, to be at liberty to reside within a district; -þing, n. district assembly (in contrast to the ‘alþingi’).

herað-vært, a. n. = heraðs-vært.

her-baldr, m. poet., warrior.

her-bergi, n. (1) room; (2) lodgings, quarters (var þeim vísat fyrst í gestahús til herbergis).

herbergis-maðr, m., -sveinn, m. groom of the chamber.

herbergja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to harbour (a person); (2) to lodge, take up one’s quarters (= h. sik).

her-blástr, m. blast of trumpets; -boð, n. war summons; -brestr, m. explosion; -búðir, f. pl. camp; -búinn, pp. armed; -búnaðr, m. armament.

herða (-rða, -rðr), v. (1) to make hard, temper (h. járn, sverð); (2) to press, clench; h. hendr (knúa) at e-u, to clench with the hands (fists); fig., h. atgöngu, to make the attack harder; (3) to make firm, exhort; h. huginn, h. sik, to take heart, exert oneself; (4) absol. to follow closely, pursue vigorously (Birkibeinar herðu eptir þeim); h. áfram, to push on; h. at (e-m) to press hard (upon one); (5) impers. to become hard; veðr (acc.) herði, it blew up a gale; herði seglit, the sail was strained hard (by the gale); (6) refl. to take heart (bað konungr menn vel við herðast).

herða, f. (1) tempering (of steel), steeling; (2) hardness, severity.

herða-drengr, m. hump on the back (cf. ‘herðar’); -lítill, a. narrow shouldered; -munr, m. superiority, superior force.

herðar, f. pl. shoulders, the upper part of the back.

herðar-blað, n. shoulder blade.

herða-sár, n. a wound over the shoulders; -toppr, m. shoulder tuft (of a horse’s mane).

herði, f. hardness, hardihood.

herði-breiðr, a. broad-shouldered; -lítill, a. = herðalítill; -lútr, a. with stooping shoulders.

herði-maðr, m. hardy man.

herði-mikill, a. = herði-breiðr; -þykkr, a. thick-shouldered.

herðu-góðr, a. well tempered (øx herðugóð ok snarpegg).

her-draga (see draga), v. to drag violently (at grípa, slá, eða h.).

her-fang, n. booty (taka fé e-s at -fangi); -fenginn, pp. captured, taken by force; -ferð, f. (1) warfare, military expedition; (2) host.

herfi, n. harrow.

herfi-liga, adv. wretchedly; -ligr, a. wretched.

her-fjöturr, m. ‘war-fetter’; -flokkr, m. body of warriors; -fólk, n. men of war; -fórur, f. pl. harness; -fœrr, a. able for war service; -för, f. = -ferð (1); -ganga, f. march; -gjarn, a. warlike; -glötuðr, m. destroyer of hosts; -hlaup, n. rushing to arms; -horn, n. war trumpet.

heri, m. hare; hafa hera hjarta, to be hare-hearted.

herja (), v. (1) to go harrying or freebooting; (2) with acc. to despoil, waste (h. land); refl., herjast á, to harry (wage war on) one another.

herja-föðr, m. father of hosts, Odin.

Herjan, m. Lord of hosts (a name of Odin).

herjans-kerling, f. hag; -sonr, m. ‘devil’s limb’, wretch.

her-kastali, m. castle, stronghold.

her-kerling, f., only in ‘hver -kerling’, every old woman.

herkja, v. to drag oneself along.

her-klukka, f. alarm-bell; -klæða (-dda, -ddr), v. to clothe in armour; refl., -klæðast, to put on armour; -klasti, n. pl. armour; -konungr, m. warrior-king; -kumbl, -kuml, n. war token, arms (on shields).

hér-kváma, f. arrival.

her-land, n. harried land; -leiða (-dda, -ddr), v. to lead off into captivity; -leiðing, f. captivity; -leiðsla, f. = her-leiðing.

hér-lendr, -lenzkr, a. domestic, native, opp. to ‘útlenzkr’ (foreign).

her-lið, n. war-people, troops; -ligr, a. marlial-looking; -lúðr, m. war trumpet (þeyta h.).

herma (-da, -dr), v. (1) to relate, repeat, report (h. orð e-s); (2) h. eptir e-m, to imitate or mimic one.

her-maðr, m. man of war, warrior (hann var mikill h.).

hermann-liga, adv. gallantly; -ligr, a. gallant, martial.

hermast (d), v. refl. to wax wroth (e-m hermist við e-n).

hermd, f. vexation, aimer.

hermdar-fullr, a. wrathful; -litr, m. colour of wrath; -orð, n. pl. angry words; -verk, n. deed of renown (?); -yrði, n. pl. = -orð.

her-megir, m. pl. warriors.

hermi-kráka, f. mimic, ape.

hermi-liga, adv. right angrily.

herming, f. indignation, wrath.

hermt, pp. n., e-m verðr h. við e-t, to wax angry with a thing.

hérna, adv. here (= hér).

hernaðar-fólk, n., -menn, m. pl. plunderers, forayers; -ráð, n. pl. a planning for plunder; -sök, f. a case of raid.

hernaðr (gen. -ar), m. (1) harryng, plundering; (2) warfare, raid, foray (hefja hernað, fara í hernað).

her-nema (see nema), v. to capture, take by force.

herneskja, f. armour.

her-numi, a., -numinn, pp. captive; -óp, n. war-cry, war-whoop.

herr (gen. hers, older herjar), m. (1) crowd, great number (fylgdi oss h. manna); með her manns, with a host of men; úvígar h., overwhelming host; (2) army, troops (on land and sea). Cf. ‘allsherjar-’.

herra (indecl. in sing.; pl. herrar), m. master, lord.

herra (), v. to confer the title ‘herra’ upon a person.

herra-dómr, m., -dœmi, n. lordship; dominion; -ligr, a. lordly; -maðr, m. lordly man, lord, knight.

herramann-liga, adv. in a lordly manner; -ligr, a. lordly.

herra-samligr, a. = herraligr.

her-saga, f. war-news.

hers-borinn, pp. born of a hersir.

hers-höfðingi, m. commander of an army; general.

hersir (-is, -ar), m. a local chief lord (in Norway).

herskapar-búningr, m. warlike equipment; -fœri, n. implement of war.

her-skapr, m. harrying, warfare; -skár, a. (1) warlike, martial; (2) exposed to raid or warfare, in a state of war (landit var þá herskátt; í þann tíma var mjók -skátt); -skip, n. warship; -skjöldr, m. war shield; fara land -skildi, to harry a land (= herja land); -skrúð, n., -skrúði, m. harness; -skrýddr, pp. clad in armour; -spori, m. caltrop.

herstast (st), v. refl. to speak harshly to one (h. á e-n).

hersti-ligr, a. harsh.

her-stjóri, m. commander; -stjórn, f. command of troops.

herstr, a. harsh; mæla herst við e-n, to speak harshly to one.

her-taka (see taka), v. to capture; -taka konu, to abduct a woman; -taka, f. captivity; -taki, m. captive; -tekja, -tekning, f. = -taka.

hertoga-dómr, m. leadership; dukedom; -dœmi, n. duchy; -nafn, n. title of a duke.

her-togi, m. (1) commander of troops; (2) duke; -váðir, f. pl. armour; -vápn, n. pl. weapons; -vegr, m. highway; -virki, n. ravaging, plundering, damage.

hér-vist, f. dwelling here.

her-vígi, n. ravage, man-slaughter; -víkingr, m. plunderer, pirate; -væða (-dda, -ddr), v. = -klæða.

herzla, f. tempering (of steel).

her-þurft, f. want of troops; -ör, f. ‘war-arrow’ (sent round as a to of war); skera upp -ör, to summon a district to arms.

hesli, n. hazel-wood; -kylfa, f. hazel club; -skógr, m. hazel-wood; -stöng, f. hazel-pole; -vöndr, m. hazel wand.

hespa, f. (1) hasp, fastening; (2) skein (of wool).

hesta-at, n. horse-fight; -birgr, a. Well provided with horses; -geldir, m. horse gelder; -geymsla, f. horse keeping; -gneggjan, f. neighing of horses; -gnýr, m. noise (din) of horsemen; -járn, n. pl. horse-shoes; -keyrsla, f. driving the horses on, in horse-fight; -kostr, m. supply of horses (hafa lítinn -kost); -líð, n. horsemen; -maðr, m. = -svein; -skipti, n. change of horses; -stafr, m. horse staff (used in a horse-fight); -stallr, m. = hest-hús; -sveinn, m. horse boy, groom; -vað, n. horse ford; -víg, n. horse-fight; -þing, n. a meeting for a public horse-fight.

hest-bak, a. horse-back; -bein, n. horse bone; -birgr, a. = hestabirgr; -brynja, f. armour for a war-horse; -búnaðr, m. horse-gear; -fœrr, a. able to ride; -gangr, m. set of horse shoes; -gjöf, f. gift of a horse; -hús, n. horse-stall, stable; -klárr, m. hack; -lán, n. loan of a horse; -lauss, a. without a horse.

hestr (-s, -ar), m. (1) stallion (hestar þrír ok merhross eitt); (2) horse.

hest-skeið, n. race-course; -skór, m. horse-shoe; -tönn, f. horse’s tooth; -verð, n. horse’s worth; -víg, n. = hesta-víg; -vörðr, m. mounted guard (halda hestvörð).

hetja, f. hero, dauntless man.

hetju-skapr, m. courage, valour.

hetta, f. (1) hood; (2) a kind of cape.

hey (dat. heyi or heyvi), n. hay; hirða h., to get in hay; pl. stores of hay (hann hefir rænt mik öllum heyjum).

hey-annir, f. pl. hay-making time, haying season; -björg, f. stores of hay (varð all-lítil -björg manna); -des, f. hay-rick; -fang, n. produce of hay; -fátt, a. n., var -fátt, there was little hay; -garðr, m. stack-yard.

heygja (-ta, -tr), v. to bury in a how (haugr), = haugfœra.

hey-gjöf, f. giving hay (to horses or cows); -hjálmr, m. hay-rick; -hlass, n. load of hay.

heyja (hey; háða, háiðr), v. (1) to hold, conduct (h. þing, dóm); h. gleði to indulge in mirth; h. sér orðfjölda to acquire a store of words; (2) h. orrostu, bardaga, hólmgöngu to fight a battle or duel (hann hafði margar orrostur háðar); refl., heyjast við (viz. bardaga), to fight, bandy words (þeir háðust þar við um stund).

heykjast (t), v. refl. to bend, cower down (h. niðr).

hey-kleggi, m. = hey-des; -kostr, m. stores of hay; -lauss, a. short of hay; -leiga, f. rent paid in hay; -leysi, n. failure in hay; -lítill, a. short hay; var hey-litit, there was little hay.

heyra (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to hear; h. heyrir þat, er gras grœr á jörðu, hears the grass grow; h. illa, hard of hearing; h. e-t til e-s, to hear (a sound) from one; hefir hvárki heyrt til hans styn né hosta, neither groan nor cough has been heard from him; heyrir blástr (acc.) hans í alla heima, when he blows, it can he heard in all the worlds; (2) to listen to, give ear to; h. bœn e-s, to listen to (to grant) one’s prayer; h. á e-t, to listen (= hlýða á e-t); (3) h. til e-s or e-m til, to belong to, concern (þetta mál, er heyrir til dóttur þinnar); þat er til mín heyrir, as far as I am concerned; (4) with dat. to behave (mér heyrir eigi at þegja við yðr); (5) refl. e-m heyrist e-t, one thinks he hears; þá heyrðist þeim öllum sem sveinninn kvæði þetta, they all thought they heard the boy say this (verse).

heyrandi (pl. -endr), m. hearer; í heyranda (gen. pl.) hljóði, in the hearing of all, in public.

heyrðr, pp. (1) able to hear (h. vel); (2) listened to, paid heed to, esteemed (biskup vel heyrðr).

heyri-ligr, a. becoming; mér er -ligt at, it is incumbent on me to.

heyrin-kunnigr, -kunnr, a. well known, known to all.

heyrn, f. hearing; í h. e-m, in one’s hearing; sumt ritaði hann eptir sjálfs síns h., from what he heard himself.

heyrum-kunnr, a. = heyrin-kunnr.

hey-sala, f. sale of hay; -stái, n. the middle of a hay-stack; -taka, f. plunder of hay; -teigr, m. strip of a hayfield; -tjúga, f. pitchfork; -verð, n. payment for hay; -verk, n. hay making; -vöndull, m. wisp of hay; -þrot, n. want of hay; -þrota, a. indecl. short of hay; -önn, f. = -annir.

hifna-, = himna-.

higat, adv. = hingat.

hildi-leikr, m. game of war, battle (poet.); -meiðr, m. warrior (poet.).

hildingr (-s, -ar), m. chief, hero.

hildr (gen. hildar, dat. and acc. hildi), f. battle (poet.); vekja bildi, to wage war, to fight.

hilmir (gen. -is), m. chief, prince.

himbrin, n. great northern diver.

himin-bora, f. = -rauf; -fastr, a. fixed in heaven (of stars); -geisli, m. heavenly beam; -jöðurr, m. the rim of heaven; -lopt, n. the vault of heaven.

himinn (gen. himins, dat. himni; pl. himnar), m. heaven; undir berum himini, in the open air.

himin-raufar, f. pl. the windows of heaven; -ríki, n. kingdom of heaven; -skaut, n. quarter of heaven; -tungl, n. heavenly body; -vangr, m. field of heaven (á -vanga).

himna-brauð, n. bread of heaven, manna; -dróttinn, m. king of heaven; -fagnaðr, m. heavenly joy; -mjöl, n. flour of heaven, manna; -ríki, n. kingdom of heaven; -vald, n. heavenly power; -vist, f. abode in heaven.

himneskr, a. heavenly.

hind, f. hind (female of ‘hjörtr’).

hindra (), v. (1) to keep behind, hinder; (2) to loiter, linger; h. eptir e-u, to loiter about a thing; (3) impers., e-n hindrar e-t, one wants or lacks a thing.

hindri, a. compar. (rare), hindra dags, the next day.

hindr-vitni, f. idolatry, superstition.

hingat, adv. hither; -burðr, m. the birth of Christ; -ferð, f. journey hither; -för, f. journey hither; -kvæma, f. coming hither, arrival.

hinka (), v. to limp, hobble.

hinkr, n. loitering, delay.

hinn (hin, hitt), dem. pron. (1) the other; á hinn fótinn, on the other leg; pl. the others, the rest (Kimbi bar sár sín engan mun betr en hinir); (2) emphatically, that; hitt ek hugða, that was what I thought; hitt vil ek vita, that I want to know.

hinn (hin, hit), def. art., before an adjective standing alone or followed by a substantive, the, = inn, enn (eptir hinni eystri kvísl).

hinna, f. film, membrane.

hinnig (= hinneg, hinnog), adv. (1) there, in the other place, opp. to ‘hér’; (2) the other way (= hinn veg); (3) thus, so; (4) the other day formerly; (5) hither.

hinztr (hinnstr), a. superl. hindmost, last; hinzta sinni, for the last time; h. fundr, the last meeting.

hirð, f. a king’s or earl’s bodyguard; the king’s men (hann hefir á h. um sik sem konungr).

hirða (-rða, -rðr), v. (1) to keep in a box or chest (Ásgerðr hirði slœðurnar, þar sem áðr vóru); (2) h. hey, to gather in hay; (3) to hide, conceal; (4) to mind, care for (aldregi hirði ek þat); h. eigi um e-t, not to care about (þeir hirðu ekki um líf sitt); hirð eigi, hirðit eigi, do not seek (hirð eigi þú at hopa á hæl!).

hirð-biskup, m. king’s bishop; -bróðir, m. comrade of the king’s men; -búnaðr, m. apparel for king’s man.

hirðir (-is, -ar), m. herdsman, shepherd; pastor.

hirð-lið, n. the king’s troops; -ligr, a. belonging to the king’s men, courtly (-lig málsnild); -lög, n. pl. laws and statutes of the king’s men, their community or fellowship (taka e-n í -lög); -maðr, m. king’s men.

hirðmanna-lúðr, m. a trumpet belonging to the king’s men; -stefna, f. a hustings of the king’s men.

hirð-mær, f. court lady; -prestr, m. king’s chaplain; -prúðr, a. cour teous; -prýði, f. royal pomp; -siðir, m. pl. the customs of the king’s men; -stefna, f. meeting of the king’s men; -stjóri, m. the captain of the king’s men; -stjórn, f. the dignity of a stjóri; -stofa, f. king’s hall; -sveit, f. the host of king’s men; -vist, f. the position of a king’s man.

hirðu-leysa, f. carelessness, neglect.

hirsi, n. millet.

hirta (-rta, -rtr), v. to chastise.

hirting, f. chastisement.

hirtingar-lauss, a. unchastised; -leysi, n. want of chastisement; -orð, n. pl. severe words; -samr, a. severe.

hirzla, f. (1) keeping; (2) box, chest.

hita, f. heating, heat.

hiti, m. heat, warmth.

hitna (), v. to become hot; impers., e-m hitnar, one gets hot (warm).

hitta (-tta, -ttr), v. (1) to hit upon, meet with one; h. ráð, to hit upon a device; h. leiðina, to find one’s way; absol., h. inn í váginn, to find the way into the bay; sjaldan hittir leiðr í lið, an unwelcome guest always misses the feast; h. í vandræði, to get into scrapes; h. á e-t, to hit upon (hitti hann þar á þórolf); (2) to hit, strike (spjótit hitti í brjóst hestsins); (3) to visit, call on, see (fóru þá margir menn at h. Hákon konung); (4) refl., hittast, to meet one another; hann bað þá vel fara ok heila h. (meet again safe and sound).

hitu-eldr, m. a fire for heating (brewing); -hús, n. brew-house; -ketill, m. boiler.

hixta (-xta, -xt), v. to hiccough; to sob; meðan í önd hixti, while the breath rattled in his throat.

hixti, m. hiccough; sobbing.

hí-býli, n. see ‘hý-býli’.

híð, n. lair, den, esp. of a bear.

híð-björn, m. common bear.

hít, f. skin-bag.

hjal, n. chatter, talk.

hjala (), v. to chatter, talk (h. e-n); hjalast við, to talk together.

hjaldr (-rs), m. fight, battle (poet.).

hjal-drjúgt, a. n. talkative, chatting; þeim verðr -drjúgt, they have much to say.

hjalli, m. ledge in a mountain side.

hjallr, m. (1) scaffold, frame of timber; (2) shed (for drying fish).

hjals-kona, f. female friend.

hjalt, n. (1) the boss or knob at the end of a sword hilt (eptra, efra hjaltit); (2) the guard between the hilt and blade (fremra hjaltit).

Hjalt-land, n. Shetland; -lendingr (-s, -ar), m. Shetlander; -lenzkr, -neskr, a. from Shetland.

hjara, f. hinge, = hjarri.

hjarðar-sveinn, m. = hjarð-sveinn.

hjarð-hundr, m. shepherd’s hound; -reki, m. = -sveinn; -rækr, a. able to drive a drove; -sveinn, m. shepherd boy; -tík, f. shepherd’s dog.

hjarn, n. hard frozen snow.

hjarna (), v. to revive, recover strength (h. við).

hjarni, m. brain, = heili.

hjarn-skál, m. brain pan, skull.

hjarri, m. hinge.

hjarsi, m. the crown of the head.

hjarta (pl. hjörtu, gen. hjartna) n. (1) heart; (2) mind, feeling.

hjarta-blauðr, a. cowardly; -blóð, n. heart’s blood; -góðr, a. kind-hearted; -ligr, a. hearty; -prúðr, a. stout-hearted, generous; -prýði, f. stoutness of heart, courage; -ragr, a. = -blauðr; -rœtr, f. pl. heart strings; -sár, n. heart wound; -tregi, m. heart-ache.

hjart-blóð, n. = hjarta-blóð; -fólginn, pp. heart-felt, cherished in heart; -mörr, m. the fat about the heart; -næmr, a. heart-touching; -sári, a. heart-sore, broken-hearted.

hjart-skinn, n. deer-skin (hjartskinns glófar).

hjassi, m. see ‘hjarsi’.

hjassi, m. a fabulous beast.

hjá, prep. with dat. (1) by, near; liggja (sitja) h. e-m, to lie (sit) by one; sofa (hvíla) hjá e-m, to sleep with one; h. durunum, near (close to) the door; (2) by, with; vera h. e-m, to stay with one; vera í gistingu h. e-m, to lodge with one; maðr einn var eptir h. honum, was left with him; (3) present; svá at Flosi var h., in the presence of F.; (4) past, by; fara, ganga h. e-m, to go by, pass one (mánaði síðarr fóru þeir h. mér kátir); farast h., to pass by one another; fara h. sér, to go beside oneself; fram h. Knafahólum, past K.; þeir riðu h. fram, they rode by; (5) in comparison with (to); höfðu þeir fátt kvikfjár h. því sem þurfti, they had few live stock in comparison with what was needed.

hjá-bú, n. out-lying estate; -hvíla, f. concubinage; -kona, f. concubine; -leikr, m. trick.

hjálmaðr, pp. helmed.

hjálm-barð, n. helmet-rim; -bönd, n. pl. helmet strings; -drótt, f. helmed host, war host; -gjörð, f. rim of a helmet; -höttr, m. helmet-hood (a kind of cowl put over the helmet); -laukr, m. a kind of leek, garlic.

hjálmr (-s, -ar), m. (1) helm, helmet; (2) rick (of hay or barley).

hjálm-stafr, m. warrior (poet.); -stofn, m. the head; -vítr, f. ‘helm-wight’, Valkyrie.

hjálmun-völr, hjálm-völr, m. tiller of a helm.

hjálp (-ar, -ir), f. help.

hjálpa (help; halp or hjalp, hulpum; hólpinn), v. (1) to help (h. e-m); h. e-m við = h. e-m; (2) to save (h. lífi sínu); refl. to be saved (þá munu vér hjálpast allir saman).

hjálpa (), v. = prec.

hjálpar-gata, f. a way to help.

hjálpari, m. helper, saviour.

hjálpar-lauss, a. helpless; -maðr, m. (1) helper; (2) one saved; ek mun vera -maðr, ef, I shall be saved, if; -ráð, n. helping advice.

hjálp-lauss, a. helpless; -leysi, n. helplessness; -ráð, -ræði, n. helping advice; help, means of saving; -samligr, a. helpful, salutary; -semd, f. help, salvation; -vænligr, a. promising help, likely to help, salutary; -vænn, a. = -vænligr.

hjá-máll, a. refractory, obstinate; -staða, f. assistance; -stigr, m. by-path; -tœkr, a. missing one’s hold; -vera, -vist, f. presence.

hjól, n. wheel (vagnar á hjólum); brjóta á hjóli, to break (a person) on the wheel.

hjól-vagn, m. cart on wheels.

hjón or hjún, n. (1) one of the household (griðkona var hit þriðja h.); (2) pl. married couple, man and wife (Höskuldr bað hana vinna þeim hjónum); (3) domestic, servant (ef þú sýnir skilríki, at hann sé þitt h. = þinn vinnumaðr); rézt hann þar at hjóni, he took service there.

hjóna, n. = hjón (rare).

hjóna-band, n. matrimony; -lið, n. domestic servants; -ligr, a. connubial; -skilnaðr, m. divorce; -tak, n. hiring of servants; -val, n. choice of servants (eigi hefik dyggt h.).

hjón-margr, a., hafa -margt, to have many servants.

hjú (pl. hjú, dat. hjúm), n. = hjón, hjún; (1) þeir ráku hann í stofu ok hjú hans öll, and all his household-people; (2) hjú gørðu hvílu, man and wife went to rest; (3) hann reið heim á Laugaland ok réð sér hjú, and engaged servants.

hjúfra (), v. to weep.

hjúka (), v. to nurse a sick person (h. e-m, h. at or við e-m); refl., to recover strength (hón hjúkast lítt við þessa fœðu).

hjúkan, f. nursing (of a sick person).

hjú-kólfr, m. convivial meeting.

hjún, n. = hjón.

hjúpa (), v. to shroud (a corpse).

hjúpr, m. a kind of doublet.

hjúskapar-band, n. bond of matrimony; -far, n. cohabitation; -mál, n. a case referring to marriage; -ráð, n. pl. the contracting of matrimony; -samlag, n. wedlock.

hjú-skapr, m. matrimony.

hjölp (gen. hjalpar), f. = hjálp.

hjörð (gen. hjarðar, dat. hjörðu; pl. hjarðir), f. herd, flock.

hjör-drótt, f. sword-company; -leikr, m. ‘sword-play’, fight; -lögr, m. ‘sword-liquid’, blood (poet.).

hjörr (gen. hjarar and hjörs, dat hjörvi), m. sword.

hjör-stefna, f. ‘sword-meeting’, battle, fight (poet.).

hjörtr (gen. hjartar, dat. hirti; pl. hirtir, acc. hjörtu), m. hart, stag.

hjör-undaðr, pp. wounded by a sword; -þing, n. = -stefna.

hlað, n. (1) pile, stack; (2) pavement (in front of a homestead); (3) border, lace-work; feldr búinn hlöðum, a laced cloak.

hlaða (hleð; hlóð, hlóðum; hlaðinn), v. (1) to pile up (h. korni í hjálma); h. grjóti (hellum) at höfði oðrum, to be present at another’s burial, to survive; (2) to build, with acc. (h. vegg, vörðu); (3) to load, esp. lade a ship (h. skip e-u, af e-u, með e-u); kistur hlaðnar af gulli, chests laden with gold; (4) to fell, lay prostrate, with dat. (gátu þeir hlaðit honum um síðir ok bundu hann); h. seglum, to take in sail; (5) to slay (bera vápn á Finnana ok fá hlaðit þeim); (6) refl., hlaðast at, to throng, crowd; vér viljum eigi, at fjölmenni hlaðist at (throng to see), er vér erum afklæddir; hlaðast á mara bóga, to mount the horses.

hlaða, f. store-house, barn.

hlað-búð, f. a booth with walls of turf or stones.

hlað-búinn, pp. ornamented with lace, laced (= hlöðum búinn).

hlaði, m. pile, stack.

hlakka (), v. (1) to cry, scream (of the eagle); (2) to rejoice; h. yfir e-u, to exult over a thing.

hlamm, n. a dull, heavy sound.

hlamma (), v. (1) to give a dull, heavy sound; (2) to exult.

hland, n. urine; -ausa, -skjóla, f., -trog, n. urine trough.

hlass, n. cart-load.

hlaup, n. (1) leap, jump (Egill hljóp yfir díkit, en þat var ekki annara manna h.); (2) run, running; taka h., to take to running, to run (hann tók h. heim til herbergis); vera í hlaupum ok sendiförum, to run on errands; (3) a sudden rise (in a river), flood, freshet (hlaup kom í ána); (4) assault (= frumhlaup).

hlaupa (hleyp; hljóp, hljópum; hlaupinn), v. (1) to leap, jump (hann hljóp meirr en hæð sina); hljópu þeir á hesta sína, they sprang upon their horses; h. fyrir borð, útbyrðis, to leap overboard; h. á sund, to leap into the water; h. upp, to spring to one’s feet, start up (þá hljópu varðmerm upp); (2) = renna, to run (þeir hlaupa eptir, en hann kemst á skóg undan); refl., hlaupast á brott, to run away; (3) of a river, to flood; hljópu vötn fram ok leysti árnar, the waters rose in flood and the ice was broken; of ice, mikit svell var hlaupit upp (there was a great sloping sheet of ice) öðru megin fljótsins; (4) with preps., h. at e-m, h. á e-n, to attack one; h. á, to come suddenly on, spring up, of a gale (þá hljóp á útsynningr steinóði); h. saman, of a wound, to heal over; h. í sundr, to open up again (sárit var hlaupit í sundr).

hlaupa-far, n. assault; pl. -för, uproar; -piltr, m. errand boy.

hlaupari, m. (1) landlouper; (2) charger (horse).

hlaup-ár, n. leap-year.

hlaupingi (pl. -jar), m. landlouper, runaway.

hlaup-óðr, a. in a great flurry; -rífr, a. precipitate; -stigr, m. run-away-path (taka e-n á þeim -stigi).

hlaut, f. blood of sacrifice.

hlaut-bolli, m. sacrificial bowl; -teinn, m. sacrificial twig (for sprinkling the blood with).

hlaut-viðr, m. rod immersed in sacrificial blood, divination rod.

hláka, f. thaw.

hlána (), v. to thaw (veðr tók at þykkna ok hlána).

hlátr (gen. -rar and -rs), m. laughter; reka upp h., to burst out laughing; hafa e-t at hlátri, to ridicule, make a laughing-stock of.

hlátr-mildr, a. prone to laughing.

hlé, n. (1) shelter; (2) lee, lee side; sigla á h., to stand to leeward.

hlé-barðr, m. (1) leopard (also poet. bear, wolf); (2) shield (poet.).

hlé-borð, n. the lee side.

hleði, m. shutter (= hleri).

hléðr, a. famous, renowned (?).

hleifr (-s, -ar), m. loaf.

hleifs-efni, n. dough for a loaf.

hleina (-da), v. to guard oneself (?).

hlekkjast (t), v., in the phrase, e-m hlekkist á, one gets impeded, suffers miscarriage.

hlekkr (-s or -jar; pl. -ir), m. link; pl. a chain of links.

hlemmr (-s, -ar), m. trap-door.

hlenni, m. robber (poet.).

hlenni-maðr, m. robber, thief.

Hlér (gen. Hlés), m. the Sea.

hler, n. listening; standa á hleri, to stand eaves-dropping or listening.

hlera (), v. to listen.

hleypa (-ta, -t), v. (1) to make one run or go; to move or impel in some way; h. njósnarmönnum á land upp, to send spies ashore; hleypti hann annarri brúninni ofan á kinnina, he let one eye-brow sink upon the cheek; h. hurð í lás, to shut a door; h. ánni í veg sinn, to lead the river into its channel; h. e-u á e-n, to cause to fall upon one (hleypti Gróa skriðu á þá); hann hleypir út vatni miklu ór sullinum, he presses much water out of the sore; h. ór e-m auganu, to poke the eye out; (2) to throw off (h. heimdraganum); h. akkerum, to cast anchors; (3) h. berki af trjám, to cut the bark off the trees; h. upp dóminum, to break up the court (by violence); (4) to gallop, ride swiftly = h. hesti (Hrungnir varð reiðr ok hleypti eptir honum).

hleypi-fífl, n. a headlong fool; -flokkr, m. band of rovers; -för, f. ramble, roving; -hvel, n. a kind of war engine; -maðr, m. rover.

hleyping, f. galloping.

hleypi-piltr, m. errand-boy; -skip, n., -skúta, f. swift boat.

hleyta-menn, m. pl. kinsmen.

hleyti, n. (1) part = leyti; (2) pl. affinity; gøra h., bindast hleytum við e-n, to marry into another’s family.

hlið, n. (1) gate, gateway (h. heitir á garði); (2) wide gap; (3) space, interval (var hvergi h. í milli); (4) space of time; pause, halt (eptir þat varð h. á orrostunni).

hlið (pl. -ar), f. side; standa á aðra h. e-m, to stand on one side of one; á tvær hliðar e-m, on either side of one; á allar hliðar, on all sides.

hliða (), v. to give way, recede (h. undan, h. fyrir e-m); refl., hliðast, to become open.

hlið-farmr, m. ‘side-burthen’, load (-farmr Grana); -lauss, a. without a gate or opening (veggir -lausir); -mæltr, pp. said in oblique speech.

Hlið-skjálf, f. the seat of Odin.

hlið-skjár, m. side window; -veggr, m. side wall.

hlið-vörðr, m. porter.

hlíð (pl. -ir), f. mountain side, slope (fagrar hlíðir grasi vaxnar).

hlíf (pl. -ar), f. cover, shelter, protection, esp. shield.

hlífa (-ða, -t), v. (1) to shelter, protect, with dat. (h. sér með skildi, en vega með sverði); (2) to spare, deal gently with (mun ek ekki h. þér í gørðinni); refl., hlífast við e-n, to spare one (hann hlífðist þá við engan mann); h. við at gøra e-t, to refrain from doing a thing; h. við, to hold back (sumir hlífðust við mjök).

hlífar-lauss, a. uncovered.

hlífð, f. protection, defence.

hlífðar-lauss, a. = hlífarlauss; -staðr, m. safe place; -vápn, n. weapon of defence.

hlífi-skjöldr (hlíf-skjöldr), m. shield of defence (hafa e-n at -skildi).

hlít, f. sufficiency, satisfaction; til (nökkurrar) hlítar, tolerably, pretty well; at góðri h., very well indeed.

hlíta (-tta, -tt), v. (1) to rely on, trust, with dat. (hlítir Ástríðr ekki öðrum konum at því at þjóna honum í lauginni); (2) to rest satisfied with, be content with (var hann kvæntr, en hlítti þó eigi þeirri einni saman); eigi má því einu h., er bezt þykkir, one must put up with something short of the best; eigi mun minna við h., less than that will not do; eigi muntu því einu fyrir h., thou shalt not get off with that; (3) to submit to, abide by (h. sætt, h. órskurði, dómi, ráðum e-s).

hljóð, n. (1) silence, hearing; biðja (kveðja sér) hljóðs, to beg (ask for) a hearing (Njáll kvaddi sér hljóðs); fá h., to get a hearing; þegja þunnu hljóði, to keep a watchful silence; af hljóði, í hljóði, in all stillness, silently; (2) sound (Þorfinnr kom engu hljóði lúðrinn); koma á h. um e-t, to become aware of; drepr h. ór e-m, one is struck dumb; (3) musical sound, tune; (4) trumpet (h. Heimdallar = Gjallarhorn).

hljóða (), v. to sound (hverr stafr hljóðar með löngu hljóði eða skömmu).

hljóðaðr, a. sounding; sorgsamliga h., having a plaintive note.

hljóða-grein, f. distinction of sound, accentuation.

hljóðan, f. sound, tune.

hljóð-bjalla, f. tinkling bell; -fall, n. consonancy; -fegrð, f. euphony; -fyllandi, m., -fylling, f. = stuðill; -fœri, n. musical instrument; -góðr, a. well-tuned; -látr, a. reticent, taciturn; -leikr, m. silence, sadness; -liga, adv. in all stillness, silently; -ligr, a. silent; -lyndr, a. taciturn; -læti, n. stillness; -mikill, a. shrill-sounding; -mæli, n. secrecy; fœra e-t í -mæli, to hush up.

hljóðna (), v. to become silent; þar til hljóðnar um mál þessi, till the noise about it subsides.

hljóðr (hljóð, hljótt), a. silent, taciturn; tala hljótt, to speak in a low voice; láta hljótt um sik, to keep quiet: var hljótt, there was silence.

hljóð-samliga, adv. = hljóðliga; -samr, a. = hljóðr; -semd, -semi, f. stillness, calmness.

hljóðs-grein, f. (1) a kind of sound; (2) pronunciation; (3) accentuation.

hljóð-stafr, m. vowel.

hljómr (gen. -s), m. sound, tune.

hljóta (hlýt; hlaut, hlutum; hlotinn), v. (1) to get by lot, to have allotted to oneself (hón hlaut at sitja hjá Björgólfi); (2) to get (h. sigr); margir hlutu gott af hans ráðum, many benefited by his counsels; (3) to undergo, suffer (h. högg, úför, harm); (4) to be obliged to; svá mun nú h. at vera, it must needs be so; fara hlýtr þú með mér, thou must go with me; (5) refl., hljótast af e-u, to result or proceed from (mun hér h. af margs manns bani); hlauzt svá til, at þá tunn átti Ingimundr, it so happened that.

hlotnast (), v. refl. to fall to lot (e-m hlotnast e-t).

hlóa, v. to be boiling hot.

Hlóðyn (gen. -ynjar), f. the Earth.

hlummr (-s, -ar), m. handle of an oar.

hlumr (-s, -ir), m. (1) = hlummr; (2) roller = hlunnr.

hlunka (), v. to give a dull, hollow sound (brúin hlunkaði undir hófunum hestanna).

hlunn-goti, m. poet. ship.

hlunnindi, n. pl. emoluments.

hlunnr (-s, -ar), m. roller for launching or drawing up ships.

hlunn-vigg, n. poet. = -goti.

hlust (pl. -ir), f. ear (= eyra).

hlusta (), v. to listen (h. til e-s).

hluta (), v. (1) to draw (cast) lots for a thing (h. e-t or h. um e-t); (2) to select by lot (vóru menn hlutaðir til skipstjórnar); (3) refl., hlutaðist svá til, at, it so turned out that (= hlauzt svá til, at); hlutast til e-s, to meddle with a thing (ekki hefi ek hlutazt til málaferla, yðvarra); h. til með em, to assist one in a case.

hlut-deila (-da, -dr), v. to meddle with a thing (-deila e-t); -deilinn, a. meddlesome; -deilni, f. meddlesomeness; -drjúgr, a. lucky, getting the better share; -fall, n. casting of lots; leggja e-t til -falls, to settle a thing by drawing lots; bjóða til -falla, to bid one proceed to cast lots; -gengr, a. up to the mark; -gengr við e-n, equal to one, a match for one; -girni, f. = -deilni; -gjarn, a. = -deilinn.

hluti, m. (1) part (í þeim hluta veraldar); at mínum hluta, for my part, as far as I am concerned; (2) share, lot; gera á hluta e-s, to wrong one; eptir er enn yðarr h., your part (of the work) remains yet.

hlut-lauss, a. not partaking in, having taken no part in (-lauss eðr sýkn af manndrápi); -laust, adv., ríða -laust, to pass free, unmolested.

hlutr (-ar, -ir), m. (1) lot; bera (leggja) hluti í skaut, to throw the lots into a cloth (lap of a garment); skera (marka) hluti, to mark the lots; (2) amukt, talisman (h. er horfinn or pússi þínum); (3) share, allotment, portion (hann fœrði Ølvi skip sin ok kallar þat vera hans hlut); (4) part (of a whole); höggva í tvá hluti, to cut in two parts; mestr h. liðs, the most part of the company; meiri h. dómanda, the majority of the judges; tveim hlutum dýrra, twice as dear; (5) participation; eiga hlut í e-u or at e-u, to have part in, be concerned in (mér uggir, at hér muni eigi gæfumenn hlut í eiga); þar er þú ættir hlut at, wherein thou wast concerned; (6) condition, position, lot; eiga hlut e-s, to be in one’s place (position); ef þú ættir minn hlut, if thou wert in my place; láta hlut sinn, to be worsted; sitja yfir hlut e-s, to oppress, weigh a person down; leggja hlut sinn við e-t, to cast in one’s lot with, to espouse a cause; hafa (fá) hærra, meira (lægra) hlut, to get the best (worst) of it; (7) thing; allir hlutir, all things; kynligr h., a strange thing; um alla hluti, in all things, in all respects.

hlut-ræningr, m. one robbed of his share; verða -ræningr e-s or fyrir e-m, to be unfairly dealt with; -samr, a. meddlesome (um e-t); -seigr, a. tenacious, obstinate; -skipti, n. (1) sharing; (2) booty; (3) share, lot; -sæll, a. getting the best share; -takandi, -takari, m. partaker; -vandr, a. upright, honest; -verk, n. work allotted, task.

hlykkjóttr, a. crooked.

hlykkr (-s, -ir), m. bend, curve.

hlymja (hlym, hlumda, hlumit), v. to make a loud noise.

hlymr (-s, -ir), m. a resounding noise (hlymr var at heyra).

hlynna (-ta, -t), v. to prepare the way for one (h. fyrir e-m).

hlynr (-s, -ir), m. maple tree.

hlý, n. warmth (sumar-hlýit).

hlýða (-dda, -tt), v. (1) to listen (eyrum hlýðir hann, en augum skoðar); h. e-m, to listen (give ear) to one; h. messu, tíðum, to hear mass, attend service; h. á e-t or til e-s, to listen to (sitja menn þar umhverfis ok hlýða til sögunnar); (2) to yield to, obey (h. ráðum, orðum e-s); (3) to do, be permissible or proper; hlýðir það hvergi (it will not do) at hafa eigi lög í landi; engum öðrum skyldi þat h., nobody else should dare to do so; Einar lét engum h. móti at mæla, E. would not hear of any one’s gainsaying; (4) refl. to listen (hann hlýðist um, hvárt nökkurir vekti); to be allowable (konungr sagði, at þeim skyldi þat ekki hlýðast).

hlýðinn, a. (1) willing to give ear to one, compliant (hann var h. vinum sínum um öll góð ráð); (2) yielding homage to one.

hlýð-samt, a. n. suitable, proper; vera h., = hlýða (3).

hlýðnast (), v. refl. to obey (ef þér vilið mér hlýðnast).

hlýðni, f. obedience, homage; -brot, n. disobedience (við e-n); -mark, n. token of obedience.

hlýja (hlý, hlýða, hlúit), v. to cover, shelter (hlýrat henni börkr né barr).

hlýr, n. (1) cheek; h. roðnaði, her cheek reddened; (2) bow of a vessel, = kinnungr; (3) the flat of an axe.

hlýr-bjartr, a. having brightly painted bows (of a vessel).

hlýri, m. friend, brother (poet.).

hlæja (hlæ; hló, hlógum; hleginn), v. (1) to laugh; h. hátt, to laugh loud; h. at e-u, to laugh at; þau tíðendi, er þeim hló hugr við, that gladdened their hearts; (2) h. e-n, to laugh at, deride one.

hlær (hlæ, hlætt), a. warm, mild (veðr var þykkt ok hlætt).

hlœða (-dda, -ddr), v. (1) to lade (h. skip); h. hest, to load, saddle, a horse; (2) with dat. to load (þú munt gulli h. á Grana bógu).

hlœgi, n. ridicule; fá e-m, hlœgis, to make one a laughing-stock.

hlœgi-liga, adv. laughably; -ligr, a. laughable; -máll, -málugr, -orðr, a. humorous.

hlœgja (-ði), v. to make one laugh; þat hlœgir mik, at, it makes me glad, I am rejoiced, that.

hlœg-ligr, a. = hlœgiligr.

hlöðu-dyrr, f. pl. door of a barn; -vindauga, n. barn window.

hløra (), v. = hlera.

hnafa (hnóf), v. to cut off (rare).

hnakka-bein, n. neck-bone; -filla, f. the flesh and skin on the nape.

hnakk-band, n. anchor cable.

hnakki, m. the back of the head, nape of the neck.

hnakk-miði, m. anchor-buoy.

hnakkr, m. (1) nape = hnakki; (2) stool = knakkr.

hnefa (), v. to clasp with the fist.

hnefa-högg, n. a blow with the fist; -tafl, n. a kind of chess.

hnefi, m. (1) closed hand, fist; (2) the king in hnefa-tafl.

hnef-tafl, n. = hnefatafl.

hneigja (-ða, -ðr), v. (1) to bow, bow down, bend, incline; h. sik, to make a bow; h. sik til við e-n, to bow down, pay homage to one; h. e-m, to bow down to one; h. eptir e-m, to be biassed towards one; (2) refl., hneigjast, to lean; h. af villu, to forsake heresy; h. til e-s, to lean towards a person; h. fyrir fortölur e-s, to be swayed by another’s persuasions.

hneisa, f. disgrace, shame (gera, vinna, e-m hneisu). Cf. ‘neisa’.

hneisa (-ta, -tr), v. to disgrace (h. e-n). Cf. ‘neisa’.

hneisu-liga, adv. (1) disgracefully; (2) insultingly.

hneita (-tta, -ttr), v. to cut (rare).

hnekking, f., hnekkir, m. check, rebuff (hafa hnekking).

hnekki-stikill, m. bump on the head.

hnekkja (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to drive back, with dat. (síðan lét Egill h. nautunum út á mýrar); h. e-m frá, to repel, repulse; (2) to check, thwart, prevent; h. för sinni, to halt and go back again; h. vándu ráði, to prevent an evil deed; (3) to fall back, withdraw (hnekkja Írar nú frá).

hneppa (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to curtail; hneppt em ek at brœðrum, I am bereft of brothers; (2) to thrust, force (Hrólfr hneppti hann undir sik, ok setti kné fyrir brjóst honum); h. fólk í þrælkan, to keep a people bound in thraldom.

hneppi-liga, adv. scarcely, scantily.

hneppr, a. scant; ætla hneppt til jólanna, to make scant provision for Christmas.

hneri, m. sneeze, sneezing.

hneyking, f. shame, disgrace.

hneykja (-ta, -tr), v. to put to shame, confound, with acc. (h. grimmleik heiðinna þjóða).

hneyksli, n. disgrace, dishonour; -yrði, n. pl. foul language, calumny.

hnigna (), v. to begin to sink, decline (e-rr er, gerist, hnignandi).

hnipinn, a. drooping, downcast.

hnipna (), v. to become downcast, to droop (hnipnaði þá Grani).

hnippa (-ta, -t, or ), v. to poke; hnippadði kolli hverr at öðrum, they laid their heads together, nodded significantly; refl., hnippast, to quarrel (= h. við); h. orðum við e-n, to bandy words with one.

hnita (), v. to weld together.

hnit-bróðir, m. ‘near brother’.

hníga (hníg; hné and hneig, hnigum; hniginn), v. (1) to fall gently, sink down (hné Guðrún höll við bólstri); h. at armi e-m, to sink into one’s arms; (2) to flow (hnigu heilög vötn af himinfjöllum); (3) to sink down, fall dead (= h. at velli); h. at grasi, í gras, to bite the grass; (4) to incline, turn; eigi mátti sjá hvernig h. mundi, which way the scale would turn (in a battle); (5) h. til e-s, to turn towards (var jafnan þeirra hlutr betri, er til hans hnigu); h. til liðs, hjálpar við e-n, to side with one pp., hniginn, advanced (stricken) in years, = h. á aldr, h. at aldri; of a door, shut; var hurð hnigin, the door was down; hurð hnigin á hálfa gátt, á miðjan klofa, half shut, half down.

hnípa (-ta, -t), v. to be downcast, droop (hann hnípti í jörðma).

hnísa, f. porpoise.

hníta (hneit, hnitu), v. to strike, wound; hjörr hneit við hjarta, steel touched the heart.

hnjóða (hnýð; hnauð; hnoðinn), v. to rivet, clinch (Helgi hnauð hjalt á sverð).

hnjóð-hamarr, m. rivetting, hammer; also as a nickname.

hnjósa (hnýs, hnaus), v. to sneeze.

hnjóskr, m. touchwood, = fnjóskr.

hnoða, n. clew.

hnoð-saumr, m. clincher nails.

hnoss (pl. -ir), f. costly thing, ornament (hverr vildi mér hnossir velja).

hnot (gen. -ar, pl. hnetr), f. nut.

hnot-skógr, m. nutwood, hazelwood.

hnugginn, pp. bereft (miklu h.).

hnúka (-ta, -t), v. to sit cowering.

hnúta, f. = knúta.

hnyðja, f. club, rammer.

hnykill (gen. -s, dat. hnykli; pl. hnyklar), m. knot, tumor.

hnykka-stafr, m. a kind of peg (?).

hnykking, f. pulling.

hnykkja (-ta, -tr), v. to pull violenty, with dat. (h. e-m til sin); h. e-u upp, to pull up a thing; absol., þykkist sveinninn hafa vel hnykkt, he thought he had made a good pull.

hnýðingr (-s, -ar), m. dolphin.

hnýfil-drykkja, f. drinking-bout.

hnýffil, m. short horn (= knýfill).

hnœfi-ligr, a. taunting (-lig orð).

hnœfil-yrði, n. pl. taunts, gibes.

hnøggr (acc. -van), a. stingy (h. fjár).

hnøri, m. = hneri.

hodd, f. hoard, treasure (poet.).

hof, n. heathen temple.

hof-ferð, f. pride, pomp; -fólk, n. courtiers; -garðr, m. lordly mansion.

hof-goði, m. temple-priest; -gyðja, f. priestess; -helgr, f. temple-feast.

hof-lýðr, m. = hof-fólk; -maðr, m. courtier; gentleman in waiting.

hofs-dyrr, f. pl. temple-doors; -eiðr, m. temple-oath; -goði, m. = hofgoði; -helgi, f. sanctity of a temple; -mold, f. temple-earth, holy mould.

hof-stabr, m. sanctuary; -tollr, m. temple-toll, rate.

hoka, hokra (), v. to crouch (h. eða skríða); h. undan, to slink away.

hol, n. hollow, cavity, esp. cavity of the body; ganga (hlaupa) á h., to pierce to the inwards (of weapons); hit efra h., the cavity of the chest; neðra h., the stomach.

hola, f. hole, hollow.

hola (), v. to make hollow.

hol-blóð, n. blood from the inwards.

hold, n. (1) flesh; svörðr ok h., skin and flesh; bjarnar h., bear’s flesh; (2) pl. fleshiness; -borinn, pp., -borinn bróðir, one’s own brother; -fúi, m. mortification.

holdgan, f. incarnation.

holdgast (), v. refl. to take flesh.

hold-gróinn, pp. grown to the flesh; -ligr, a. carnal (-lig ást); -ligr bróðir, one’s own brother; -lítill, a. lean.

holdr, a. fleshy; vel h., well-fleshed.

hold-rosa, f. fieshy side of a hide; -tekja, f. = holdgan.

hol-fenni, n. hollow pile of snow; -gómr, a. having a hollow palate; -höggvinn, pp. cut into the cavity of the body.

hollendr, m. pl. suppporters.

hollosta, f. faith, loyalty (við e-n).

hollr, a. (1) faithful, loyal (h. e-m); of the gods, gracious (holl regin); (2) wholesome, salutary (holl ráð).

holl-ráðr, a. giving wholesome counsel; -ræði, n. wholesome counsel.

holr, a. hollow; h. innan, hollow within (þetta guð er holt innan).

hol-sár, n. wound in a vital part.

holt, n. (1) wood (opt er í holti heyrandi nær); (2) rough stony ridge.

holt-rið, n. wooded ridge.

hol-und, f. a wound entering the cavity of the body; mortal wound.

holundar-sár, n. = holsár, holund.

hopa (), v. (1) to move backwards; h. hestinum undan, to back the horse; (2) to draw back, retreat (= h. aptr, á hæl, undan).

hoppa (), v. to hop, skip.

hor-digull, m. a clot of mucus hanging from the nose.

horfa (-ða, -t), v. (1) to turn (be turned) in a certain direction; horfði upp eggin, the edge turned upwards; suðr horfðu dyrr, the door looked south; h. baki við e-m, to turn the back against one; h. við e-m, to face one; fig. to set oneself against one (þeir er heldr höfðu við honum horft í sínum huga); (2) to look in a certain way, to have a certain appearance; h. úvænt, to look unpromising (úvænt horfir um sættir); hvárum horfir vænna, who is more likely to get the betler; h. fastliga, erfiðliga, to look difficult; horfir mjök í móti oss, matters look bad for us; horfir til gamans mikils, there is a prospect of much entertainment; (3) refl., Hjalta þótti þá úvænt á horfast, H. thought that matters looked unpromising; horfðust þeir Gizurr höfðum at, he and Gizurr lay with their heads together.

horfa (), v. = hörfa.

horfin-alda, a. indecl. luckless; -heilla, a. indecl. luckless; horfinheilla er mér, luck has left me.

horfinn, pp.; see ‘hverfa (4)’.

horn, n. (1) horn (of cattle); vera harðr í h. at taka, to be hard to take by the horns, hard to deal with; (2) drinking-horn; (3) horn, trumpet (blása í h.); (4) corner, angle; skýtr í tvau h. um e-t, there is a great difference between; skýtr í tvau h. með okkr, we are at variance; (5) nook, corner (in a house).

horna-fláttr, m. flaying a hide with the horns; -skvol, n. noise of horns; -tog, n. a rope round the horns.

horn-blástr, m. sound of trumpets; -bogi, m. horn-bow; -fiskr, m. garfish or green bone; -göfugr, a. proud of his horns; -kerling, f. old woman in the corner; -kona, f. = -kerling; -reka, f. = -kerling; -sil, n. stickle-back; -skafa, f. a scraper made of horn; -spánn, m. horn spoon; -stafr, m. corner pillar in a building.

hornungr (-s, -ar), m. (1) bastard son; (2) scamp, outcast (vera h. e-s).

horr, m. (1) starvation; detta, niðr í hor, to starve to death; (2) mucus from the nose.

horsk-leikr, m. knowledge, wisdom; -ligr, a. wise, noble.

horskr, a. wise (h. ok þögull).

hortugr, a. pert, impertinent.

hosa, f. hose, legging.

hosaðr, pp. wearing hose.

hosna-reim, f., -sterta, f. garter.

hot-vetna, see ‘hvatvetna’.

, interj. hoh! ah! oh!

hóa (), v. to shout ‘hoh’ (h. á féit).

hóf, m. (1) moderation, measure; kunna h., to show (observe) moderation; þá er h. á (or at), then it is all right; at hófi, tolerably, moderately (jarl svarar þessu at hófi vel); e-t gegnir hófi, it is fair; vel er þessu til hófs mikils, this affair is well settled; ór hófi, beyond measure; (2) proportion, equal degree (hefði hann lið at því hófi, sem hann er sjálfr frœkn ok djarfr); (3) judgement (vil ek, at þú hafir þar engis manns h. nema þitt).

hóf, n. feast, banquet.

hóf-gullinn, a. with golden hoof; -hvarf, n. pastern of a horse.

hóf-lauss, a. immoderate; -leysa, f. immoderation, excess; -liga, adv. (1) with moderation; (2) fitly; (3) fairly (munu þeir nú vera -liga hræddir); -ligr, a. moderate.

hóft (-s, -ar), m. hoof (of a horse).

hóf-samligr, -samr, a. moderate temperate; -semd, -semi, f. moderation, temperance.

hóf-skegg, n. fetlock.

hófs-maðr, m. temperate, just man.

hóf-stilling, f. moderation.

hóg-bærr, a. easy to bear; -fœrr, a. lively, light (of a horse); -látr, a. of easy temper; -leiki, m. = -væri; -liga, adv. calmly, meekly; taka -liga á, to touch gently; -ligr, a. easy, gentle; -lífi, n. easy (quiet) life; -lyndi, n. easy temper; -lyndr, a. easy-tempered, peaceable; -læti, n. gentleness; -samr, a. gentle; -semd, f. gentleness; -seta, f. = -lífi; -stýrt pp., n. easy to steer (eigi verðr mér nú -stýrt fótunum); -væra (-ða, -ðr), v. to calm, appease; -værð, f. calmness of mind; -værr, f. calmness of mind; -værligr, -værr, a. gentle, meek of mind.

hól, n. praise, flattery.

hólfa (-di, -t), v. to capsize (þar hólfir skip á sjónum).

hólkr (-s, -ar), m. ring or tube (of metal) on a staff, knife-handle, etc.

hóll (-s, -ar), m. = hváll.

hólm-ganga, f. ‘holm-going’, a duel or wager of battle fought on an islet (hólmr).

hólmgöngu-boð, n. challenging to hólmganga; -lög, n. pl. the law, rules of h.; -maðr, m. duellist; -staðr, m. a place where a ‘hólmganga’ is fought; -sverð, n. a sword used in ‘hólmganga’.

hólmi, m. (1) islet, = hólmr; knoll.

hólm-lausn, f. releasing oneself by paying the ransom after a duel.

hólmr (-s, -ar), m. holm, islet; falla á hólmi, to fall in a duel; skora e-m á min, to challenge one; leysa sik af hólmi, to redeem oneself after a duel.

hólm-staðr, m. = hólmgöngu-staðr; -stefna, f. meeting (duel) on a holm (koma, riða til -stefnu).

hón, pers. pron. she.

hóp, n. a small land-locked bay or inlet (connected with the sea).

hópr (-s, -ar), m. troop, flock, crowd.

hór (gen. hós), m. pot-hook.

hóra (), v. to commit adultery (h. or hórast undir bónda sinn).

hóra, f. whore, harlot.

hóran, f. adultery.

hór-dómr, m. adultery; -karl, m. adulterer; -kerling, f. harlot; -kona, f. adulteress.

hórr (gen. hórs), m. adulterer.

hósta (), v. to cough.

hósti, m. cough, coughing.

hóstr, m.; see ‘óstr’.

hót, n. whit, bit; hóti heldr, a bit more, a good deal more; with superl., hóti líkast, most likely; þat er hóti úmakligast, that is least undeserved.

hót, n. pl. threats; hafa í hótum við e-n, to threaten one.

hóta (), v. to threaten, = hœta (h. e-m); hótan, f. threatening.

hót-samr, a. menacing.

hraða (), v. to hasten, with dat.

hrað-byri, n. a fresh fair wind; -byrja, a. indecl., sigla -byrja, to sail with a strong wind; -farta, a. indecl. = -fœrr; -feigr, a. doomed to instant death; -fœrr, a. fleet, swift (hestr-fœrr); -geði, n. hasty temper; -liga, adv. swiftly; -mæltr, a. quick of speech; -mælt tunga, a glib tongue.

hraðr (hröð, hratt), a. swift, fleet.

hrafn (-s, -ar), m. raven.

hrafh-hvalr, m., a kind of whale; -reyðr, f. a kind of whale; -tinna, f. obsidian or agate.

hrak-, in compds., denoting wretched, vile; -bú, n. wretched household; -dýr, n. hunted deer; -ferð, f. disgraceful journey; -för, f. disgraceful journey; -liga, adv. wretchedly; -ligr, a. wretched, disgraceful; -magr, a. wretchedly thin.

hrakning (pl, -ar), f. wretched treatment, injury, insult (ek hefi af þár heitingar ok hrakning).

hrakningr (-s, -ar), m. = prec.

hrak-yrði, n. foul language.

hramm-dýr, n. beast of prey.

hrammr (-s, -ar), m. bear’s paw.

hrapa (), v. (1) to hurl, with dat. (h. e-m til helvítis); (2) to hurry on, hasten (h. ferð sinni); (3) to rush on, hurry (h. á fund e-s); h. til dauðans: banans, to rush headlong to destruction; (4) to fall, tumble down (hrapaði hann niðr í fjöruna).

hrapaðr, m. hurry; af hrapaði, hurriedly.

hrapal-liga, adv. hurriedly, headlong (fara -liga); -ligr, a. hurried.

hrapan, f. downfall.

hrap-orðr, a. hasty in one’s language (Sæmundr varð við h.).

hrata (), v. (1) to reel, stagger (hann hrataði við, en féll eigi); (2) to tumble down, fall (hrataði hann ofan af þekjunni).

hrati, m. rubbish, trash.

hrauk-tjald, n. rick-formed tent.

hraun, n. (1) rugged ground, wilderness; (2) lava field, lava.

hraun-búi, m. dweller in a ‘hraun’, giant; -hvalr, m. monster of the wilderness.

hraunóttur, a. rugged, stony.

hraust-leikr, m. prowess, valour; -liga, adv. valiantly; -ligr, a. bold, valiant; -mannligr, a. = -ligr; -menni, n. a strong, stout man.

hraustr, a. (1) valiant, doughty; (2) strong, hearty (gamall, en þó h.).

hrá-blautr, a. moist, raw, of hides (nautshúð hráblaut).

hráki, m. spit, spittle.

hrár (hrá, hrátt), a. (1) raw, of meat or food (hrár fiskr, hrátt kjöt); (2) raw, fresh, sappy (h. viðr).

hrá-skinn, n. shelter, refuge; -viði, n. saplings, young plants; -æti, n. raw flesh used asfood.

hreða, f., see ‘hrœða’; hreðulauss, a., see ‘hrœðulauss’.

hreðar, f. pl. the scrotum.

hregg, n. storm, blast (var bæði h. ok regn).

hregg-viðri, n. tempest.

hreiðr, n. bird’s nest.

hrorast (), v. refl. to nestle.

hreiðr-böllr, m. ‘nest-ball’, egg.

hreifi, m. (1) wrist, = úlfliðr; (2) the hand and fingers; (3) seal’s fin, flipper.

hreimr, m. scream, cry.

hreina (-da, -dr), v. to make (swine) squeal (ef svín eru hreind).

hrein-bjálbi, m. reindeer’s skin; -dýri, n. reindeer.

hrein-ferði, n. purity; -ferðugr, a. pure, chaste.

hrein-gálkn, n. poet. wolf (?).

hrein-hjartaðr, a. pure of heart; -látr, a. clean, chaste; -leikr, m. (1) cleanliness; (2) chastity; -lifnaðr, m. = -lífi; -liga, adv. (1) cleanly; (2) with purity; -ligr, a. (1) clean, cleanly; (2) pure; -lífi, n. pure life, chastity; -lífr, a. pure of life; -lyndr, a. pure of heart, upright; -læti, n. cleanness, chastity; -mannligr, a. of noble or manly bearing.

hreinn, a. (1) clean (hrein klæði); (2) bright (hreinir kyndlar, hrein vápn); (3) clear (hrein rödd); (4) pure, sincere.

hreinn (-s, -ar), m. reindeer.

hreinsa (), v. (1) to make clean, cleanse; (2) to purge, clear (h. land af víkingum).

hreinsan, f. cleansing.

hreinsanar-eldr, m. purgatory.

hrein-staka, f. reindeer skin.

hreistr, n. scales (of fish).

hrekja (hrek; hrakta, hröktum; hrakiðr, hraktr), v. (1) to drive away, chase off (h. e-n af máli); (2) to annoy, vex, ill-treat (Sigmundr sagðist heldr vilja h. þá sem mest); h. e-n í orðum, to scold and abuse one; (3) to damage, spoil (h. mál fyrir e-m); absol., h. fyrir e-m, to do damage to one; (4) to abuse (= h. e-n í orðum).

hrekkr (pl. -ir), m. trick, piece of mischief (hrekkir ok slœgðir).

hrekk-vísi, f. trickiness; -víss, a. tricky, mischievous.

hrella (-da, -dr), v. to distress, annoy, trouble (h. e-n).

hrelling, f. anguish, affliction.

hremma (-da, -dr), v. to clutch.

hremsa (), v. = hremma.

hremsa, f. (1) clutch; (2) poet. shaft.

hreppa (-ta, -tr), v. to catch, obtain; en er hann hreppti áverkann, when he received the wound.

hreppa-skil, n. pl. poor-law matters.

hreppr (-s, -ar), m. poor-law district (in Iceland).

hrer, n. corpse, = hrør.

hress, a. hale, hearty, in good spirits.

hressa (-ta, -tr), v. (1) to refresh, cheer; hann bað hann h. sik, he bade him cheer up; refl., hressast, to recover strength, be refreshed; (2) to restore (h. staðinn).

hress-leikr, m. good health.

hret, n. storm, = hregg.

hreyfa (-ða, -ðr), v. to move, stir, with acc.; refl., hreyfast, to put oneself in motion, stir.

hreysar, f. pl. heap of stones.

hreysi, n. (1) = hreysar; (2) cave, den (skríða í hreysi).

hreysi-köttr, m. ermine, weasel.

hreysta (-sta, -str), v. to encourage make valiant; h. sik, to cheer up, take heart or courage.

hreysti, f. valour, prowess.

hreysti-bragð, n. feat of prowess; -liga, adv. stoutly, boldly; -ligr, a, stout, bold; -maðr, m. valiant man; -mannligr, a. gallant, bold; -orð, n. word of prowess; -raun, f. trial of valour; -verk, n. deed of prowess.

hreyta (-tta, -tt), v. to cast, scatter, throw about, with dat. (h. mold-inni, hringum).

hreyting, f. spreading, scattering.

hreyti-speldi, n. top (a child’s toy).

hriflinga-björg, f. hand-to-mouth life (er slíkt kallat -björg).

hrifs, n. robbery, pillaging.

hrifsa (), v. to rob, pillage.

hrifsan, f., hrifsing, f., = hrifs.

hriki m., huge fellow.

hrikja (-þa), v. to creak (rare).

hrinda (hrind; hratt, hrandum; hrundinn), v. (1) to push, thrust, with dat. (hann hratt hestinum í vök eina); var þá hrundit hátnum, the ship’s boat was put out; h. hurð (upp), to push the door open; h. e-m í myrkvastofu, to cast into prison; h. á braut, to drive away; h. skipi fram or út, to launch a ship; impers., hratt stundum fyrir, en stundum frá, the clouds were drifting on and off (the moon); (2) to cast (throw) off (h. harmi, ótta); h. máli, to make a case void, clear oneself of it; h. e-u af e-m, to free one from, rid one of a thing.

hringa (), v. to furnish with a ring.

hringa-brynja, f. coat of ring-mail.

hring-broti, m. ‘breaker of rings’, prince (poet.); -drifi, m. ‘distributor of rings’, prince, king (poet.).

hringing (pl. -ar), f. bell-ringing.

hringja (-da, -t), v. to ring bells.

hringja (-da, -dr), v. to encircle, surround; h. e-u um e-n, to encircle with (cf. kringja um, urnkringja).

hringja, f. buckle.

hring-leginn, pp. coiled up (of a serpent); -leikr, m. ring-dance; -ofmn, pp. woven with rings.

hringr (-s, ar), m. (1) ring, circle; slá hring um e-n, to make a ring around one; í hring, in a circle; hann fór í hring um skipit, he swam in a circle round the ship; með hringum, all around, altogether (brendu upp bœinn Með hringum); (2) ring (on the finger or arm, at the end of a chest, in a door, at the end of the hilt); link (in a chain).

hring-variðr, pp. ‘ring-mounted’; málmr -variðr, a sword with rings.

hrinr, m. howling, screaming.

hrip, m. box of laths, basket.

hripuðr, m. fire (poet.).

hrista (-Sta, -str), v. to shake (h. höfuðit); h. e-t af sér, to shake it off; marir hristust, the horses shook their manes; þeim hristust tennr í höfði, the teeth chattered in their head.

hríð (pl. -ir), f. (1) storm, esp. snowstorm; h. mikla gerði at þeim, laust á fyrir þeim h. mikilli, they were caught by a violent snow-storm; (2) attack, onset, in a battle (hörð, snörp h.); (3) a while; nökkura h., for a while; langa (litla) h., a long (little) while; þessar hríðir allar, all this while; um h., for a while (hann dvaldist þar um h.); um hríðir sakir = um h.; í hríðinni, immediately, at once (hann fór í hríðinni upp til Hofs); hríðum, frequently (stundum í Hvammi, en hríðum at Stað); (4) space, distance (var þó h. löng í millum).

hríð-drepa, a. incled. killed by a snow-storm; -fastr, a. detained by a snow-storm.

hríðóttr, a. stormy (h. vetr).

hríð-viðri, n. storm, tempest.

hrífa (hríf; hreif, hrifum; hrifinn), v. (1) to catch, snatch (h. til e-s); h. við, to take hold, to grip (kasta akkerum, ok hrífa þau við, um síðir); impers., hríft við, it takes effect, it turns out well; (2) to scratch (hann lét h. sér með kömbum).

hrím, n. (1) rime, hoar frost; (2) the black soot on a kettle (ketil-hrím).

hrím-aldl, m. lazy lout.

hrím-drif, n. rime-drift; -frosinn, pp. rimy; -kaldr, a. rime-cold; -kalkr, m. foaming cup; -steinar, m. pl. rime-covered stones; -þursar, m. pl. frost-giants.

hrína (hrín; hrein, hrinum; hrinit), v. (1) to squeal (of swine); h. við, to neigh to a horse (of a mare in heat); (2) h. á (or á e-m), to take effect, esp. of imprecations.

hrís, n. (1) brushwood; (2) faggots.

hrís-byrðr, f. load of faggots; -fleki, m. hurdle of brushwood; -kjarr, n. brushwood.

hrísla, f. sprig of a branch, twig.

hrísóttr, a. grown with shrubs.

hrís-runnr, m. bush.

hrísungr, m. a kind of bastard.

hrjá (hrjái, hrjáða, hrjáðr), v. to vex, harass (a person).

hrjóða (hrýð; hrauð, hruðum; hroðinn), v. (1) to unload (h. skip sín); (2) to strip, disable, esp. a ship in a sea-fight (hann hrauð öll víkingaskipin); (3) impers., hrýðr e-u, it clears away; mun hroðit myrkvanum, the fog will have cleared away; hrauð upp ór honum miklu vatni, he brought up much water; (4) refl., hrauðsk ór skikkju, she threw off her mantle.

hrjósa (hrýss, hraus, hrosit), v., only in the phrase, hrýss mér hugr við, I shudder with horror (ávalt hrýss mér hugr við, er ek sé þik).

hrjóstr, n. barren, rocky place.

hrjóstugr, a. rough, barren.

hrjóta (hrýt; hraut, hrutum; hrotinn), v. (1) to fall, fly, be flung (øxin hraut ór hendi honum); hraut upp hurðin, the door was flung open; eldr hraut ór hlunnunum, fire sprang from the rollers; hrjóta spœnirnir upp í móti honum, the chips flew up into his face; h. í sundr, to be snapped asunder (í sundur hrutu baugar); (2) to snore (hann svaf ok hraut sterkliga).

hrjúfr, a. (1) rough to the touch (h. háls); (2) scurvy.

hroða-ligr, -vænligr, a. likely to cause disturbance.

hroð-gás, f. = hrot-gás.

hroði, m. (1) trash, rubbish; (2) disturbance, riot (h. ok stornir).

hrogn, n. roe, spawn.

hrogn-kelsi, n. lumpfish.

hroka (), v. to fill above the brim.

hroki, m. a heap above the brim.

hrokkin-hárr, -hæðr, a. curlyhaired (bleikhárr ok hrokkinhárr).

hrokkinn, pp. curly (hrokkit hár); wrinkled (hrokkit skinn).

hrokkin-skinna, f. ‘wrinkle-skin’, old woman.

hrolla (-di), v. to shiver, shudder (hr